Identification
NameL-Proline
Accession NumberDB00172  (NUTR00047)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

L-Proline is one of the twenty amino acids used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. Proline is sometimes called an imino acid, although the IUPAC definition of an imine requires a carbon-nitrogen double bond. Proline is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
(−)-(S)-proline
(−)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
(−)-proline
(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
(S)-2-Carboxypyrrolidine
(S)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
(S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
L-(−)-proline
L-alpha-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
L-Prolin
L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
L-α-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
P
Prolina
Proline
Prolinum
External IDs FEMA NO. 3319 / NSC-46703
Product Ingredients Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexLiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexLiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrlytes In 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Without Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25%trav. Amino Acid InJ.W.O.elect.5%dext.LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
4.25%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.5%dex.LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
AminosynInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2012-03-06Not applicableUs
Aminosyn 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn 10% W ElectrolytesLiquidIntravenousAbbott1984-12-311999-08-09Canada
Aminosyn 3.5% MLiquidIntravenousAbbott1980-12-311999-08-09Canada
Aminosyn 5%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1977-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn 7%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1979-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn 8.5%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1984-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn 8.5% Injection With ElectrolytesSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1984-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn IIInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-04-032017-05-18Us
Aminosyn II 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1991-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 15%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn II 5% InjLiquidIntravenousAbbott1988-12-311999-08-09Canada
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 7% M In 10% Dextrose(dual Chamber)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 7% With 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 7% With 50% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% M In 20% Dextrose (dual Chamber)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% With 50% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II In Dextrose InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II with ElectrolytesInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-04-03Not applicableUs
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2011-10-27Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PFInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1985-09-06Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PF 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn-PF 7%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
ClinimixInjectionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-09-29Not applicableUs
Clinimix 2.5% Travasol Aa Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose InjecSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
Clinimix EInjectionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-03-26Not applicableUs
ClinisolInjection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-08-30Not applicableUs
FreAmine HBCInjection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1971-09-24Not applicableUs
FreAmine IIIInjection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1971-09-24Not applicableUs
HepatAmineInjection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1982-08-03Not applicableUs
NovamineInjection, solution, concentrateIntravenousHospira, Inc.2011-11-22Not applicableUs
Olimel 3.3% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Olimel 4.4%EmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-09-29Not applicableCanada
Olimel 4.4% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-02-26Not applicableCanada
Olimel 5.7%EmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-03-01Not applicableCanada
Olimel 5.7% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-01-19Not applicableCanada
Periolimel 2.5% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-02-28Not applicableCanada
PlenamineSolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2015-01-30Not applicableUs
Premasol - sulfite-free (Amino Acid)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2003-06-19Not applicableUs
Primene 10%LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Primene 10%-liq IVLiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1995-12-311998-08-13Canada
ProSolInjection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1998-08-26Not applicableUs
Quick Mix 2.5% Travasol Aa With Electrolytes With 25% Dextrose InjecLiquidIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312000-07-20Canada
Renamin (amino Acids) InjectionSolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-02-022011-05-10Canada
TravasolInjectionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1984-08-23Not applicableUs
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 5.5%SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1981-12-312007-08-02Canada
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 8.5%SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1980-12-312008-03-26Canada
Travasol ESolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1974-12-31Not applicableCanada
Travasol Inj Without Electrolytes 5.5%SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1978-12-312007-08-02Canada
TrophAmineSolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1984-07-20Not applicableUs
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeSolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi Ab1996-12-302006-07-17Canada
Vamin NSolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi Ab1995-12-312006-07-17Canada
Categories
UNII9DLQ4CIU6V
CAS number147-85-3
WeightAverage: 115.1305
Monoisotopic: 115.063328537
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO2
InChI KeyONIBWKKTOPOVIA-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO2/c7-5(8)4-2-1-3-6-4/h4,6H,1-3H2,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)[[email protected]@H]1CCCN1
Pharmacology
Indication

L-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons and also helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.

Structured Indications Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

L-Proline is a major amino acid found in cartilage and is important for maintaining youthful skin as well as repair of muscle, connective tissue and skin damage. It is also essential for the immune system, and for necessary balance of this formula. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. L-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons. Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.

Mechanism of action

Glycogenic, by L-Proline oxidase in the kidney, it is ring-opened and is oxidized to form L-Glutamic acid. L-Ornithine and L-Glutamic acid are converted to L-Proline via L-Glutamic acid-gamma-semialdehyde. It is contained abundantly in collagen, and is intimately involved in the function of arthrosis and chordae.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP32322 details
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP07814 details
Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+)ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9UN76 details
Sodium-dependent proline transporterProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ99884 details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ96C36 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO15460 details
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43272 details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase HProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43447 details
Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog proteinProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO94903 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP13674 details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase BProteinunknown
binder
HumanP23284 details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP30405 details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase CProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP45877 details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase AProteinunknown
binder
HumanP62937 details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase GProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ13427 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ32P28 details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ4W8W1 details
Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ7L3T8 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8IVL5 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8IVL6 details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ53H96 details
Trans-L-3-hydroxyproline dehydrataseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ96EM0 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)DiseaseSMP00207
Amikacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00253
Spectinomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00258
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00363
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00711
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00713
Methacycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00727
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00248
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00250
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00251
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00255
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00256
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00262
Paromomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00714
Rolitetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00726
Chloramphenicol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00729
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00247
Telithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00252
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00259
Demeclocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00290
Oxytetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00293
Tetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00294
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
Lincomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00728
Troleandomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00730
Josamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00731
The oncogenic action of SuccinateDiseaseSMP02292
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions Not Available
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Richard I. Leavitt, "L-Proline production from algae." U.S. Patent US4383039, issued October, 1968.

US4383039
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.5 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1RecruitingTreatmentDyslipidemias / Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
2CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness1
2CompletedTreatmentUrinary Schistosomiasis1
2RecruitingTreatmentHodgkins Disease (HD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentNasopharyngeal Carcinoma1
3CompletedPreventionLatent Tuberculosis Infection (LTI)1
3CompletedPreventionTuberculosis1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Arrest / Hypothermia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnScreeningPatients Undergoing Screening or Surveillance Colonoscopy1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
  • Professional Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-proline crystal3.6USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)221 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.62E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-2.54HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility365.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity28.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.5 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9755
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9245
Caco-2 permeable-0.6216
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5641
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9938
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9819
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8047
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8458
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7439
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7563
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9627
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9595
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9656
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.992
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9918
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8927
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9574
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9077
Rat acute toxicity2.0201 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9555
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9506
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.03 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0006-0910000000-a9127c0e370afb80259bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-000f-0910000000-3195f21e625520d51316View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0006-0900000000-119af746c347969e8ae7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-006x-8900000000-b31beabb1ed6235e7145View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00di-9100000000-c1c67bc521741ee891cbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0006-1900000000-84e6fb318323fd0261b1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00xs-8910000000-74b0c34ca5fd7c85f1d9View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-00fu-9000000000-716c3d01b301162863b6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0006-0900000000-0d7354201ed866c87b13View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0006-0910000000-a9127c0e370afb80259bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-000f-0910000000-3195f21e625520d51316View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0006-0900000000-119af746c347969e8ae7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQsplash10-001i-1920000000-09006ee4e7a137d8a45aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-006x-8900000000-b31beabb1ed6235e7145View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0006-1900000000-84e6fb318323fd0261b1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-00xs-8910000000-74b0c34ca5fd7c85f1d9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-c1c67bc521741ee891cbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00xr-9600000000-ba51a901e786b1a4663eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-f72e2f3812225708fc56View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-59887da6580f63bcc1c5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-00fu-9000000000-c69dcaf7cb2d1e9d285eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0930000000-984f9a23ebfe28f95017View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-f75575cac28a54aa923dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-221cfb8c82f3df76eb51View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-e5741fd9870218d57cafView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-6bc9b4e775be37fa18d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-a8eb419b26655a6a1dabView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-873ee03b61d1ffcae70fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-61d583960651669fb9e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-2c23774af5f6a0c217d5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-d89c1e626ef24a79c89fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-03di-1900000000-fc27094f2eb75e65b438View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-3221c23504b8847abf8dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9100000000-8169367f5127c57fae12View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-f704eb8402fcacfccd18View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-ccd74eea36efab2cbab8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-9f214692cd39a6581813View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-ef038c77922e4c89eeb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-9400000000-4073ea1df57a60b36d69View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-495fdbd2f565bd794632View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-e1d0a4b20419dc7bae92View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as proline and derivatives. These are compounds containing proline or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of proline at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentProline and derivatives
Alternative ParentsL-alpha-amino acids / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acids / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Dialkylamines / Carboxylic acids / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
SubstituentsProline or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / L-alpha-amino acid / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives / Pyrrolidine / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Secondary aliphatic amine / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptorsproteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, proline, glutamine family amino acid (CHEBI:17203 ) / Common amino acids (C00148 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. Can utilize both NAD and NADP, but has higher affinity for NAD. Involved in the cellular response to oxidative stress.
Gene Name:
PYCR1
Uniprot ID:
P32322
Uniprot Name:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight:
33360.27 Da
References
  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17536821 ]
  2. Hu CA, Donald SP, Yu J, Lin WW, Liu Z, Steel G, Obie C, Valle D, Phang JM: Overexpression of proline oxidase induces proline-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jan;295(1-2):85-92. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [PubMed:16874462 ]
  3. Meng Z, Lou Z, Liu Z, Hui D, Bartlam M, Rao Z: Purification, characterization, and crystallization of human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Sep;49(1):83-7. Epub 2006 Mar 20. [PubMed:16600630 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rna stem-loop binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of the cognate amino acid to the corresponding tRNA in a two-step reaction: the amino acid is first activated by ATP to form a covalent intermediate with AMP and is then transferred to the acceptor end of the cognate tRNA. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective tran...
Gene Name:
EPRS
Uniprot ID:
P07814
Uniprot Name:
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase
Molecular Weight:
170589.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the uptake of a broad range of neutral and cationic amino acids (with the exception of proline) in a Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A14
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN76
Uniprot Name:
Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+)
Molecular Weight:
72152.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of proline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A7
Uniprot ID:
Q99884
Uniprot Name:
Sodium-dependent proline transporter
Molecular Weight:
70909.935 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. In some cell types, such as erythrocytes, its primary function may be the generation of NADP(+). Can utilize both NAD and NADP. Has higher affinity for NADP, but higher catalytic efficiency with NADH (PubMed:2722838, PubMed:6894153). Involved in cellular response to oxidative stress (PubMed:25865492).
Gene Name:
PYCR2
Uniprot ID:
Q96C36
Uniprot Name:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2
Molecular Weight:
33636.815 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Murahama M, Yoshida T, Hayashi F, Ichino T, Sanada Y, Wada K: Purification and characterization of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;42(7):742-50. [PubMed:11479381 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Uniprot Name:
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight:
60901.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Gene Name:
PRODH
Uniprot ID:
O43272
Uniprot Name:
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight:
68001.405 Da
References
  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17536821 ]
  2. White TA, Krishnan N, Becker DF, Tanner JJ: Structure and kinetics of monofunctional proline dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 11;282(19):14316-27. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17344208 ]
  3. White TA, Tanner JJ: Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005 Aug 1;61(Pt 8):737-9. Epub 2005 Jul 8. [PubMed:16511143 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ribonucleoprotein complex binding
Specific Function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. Participates in pre-mRNA splicing. May play a role in the assembly of the U4/U5/U6 tri-snRNP complex, one of the building blocks of the spliceosome. May act as a chaperone.
Gene Name:
PPIH
Uniprot ID:
O43447
Uniprot Name:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase H
Molecular Weight:
19208.04 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PROSC
Uniprot ID:
O94903
Uniprot Name:
Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein
Molecular Weight:
30343.7 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Uniprot Name:
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight:
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name:
PPIB
Uniprot ID:
P23284
Uniprot Name:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B
Molecular Weight:
23742.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity
Specific Function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. Involved in regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). It is proposed that its association with the mPTP is masking a binding site for inhibiting inorganic phosphate (Pi) and promotes the open probability of the mPTP leading to apoptosi...
Gene Name:
PPIF
Uniprot ID:
P30405
Uniprot Name:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight:
22040.09 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity
Specific Function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name:
PPIC
Uniprot ID:
P45877
Uniprot Name:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase C
Molecular Weight:
22763.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Virion binding
Specific Function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name:
PPIA
Uniprot ID:
P62937
Uniprot Name:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A
Molecular Weight:
18012.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. May be implicated in the folding, transport, and assembly of proteins. May play an important role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing.
Gene Name:
PPIG
Uniprot ID:
Q13427
Uniprot Name:
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase G
Molecular Weight:
88616.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Basement membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V. May be involved in the secretory pathway of cells. Has growth suppressive activity in fibroblasts.
Gene Name:
P3H1
Uniprot ID:
Q32P28
Uniprot Name:
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1
Molecular Weight:
83393.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
P5CR2
Uniprot ID:
Q4W8W1
Uniprot Name:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Molecular Weight:
33726.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Proline-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q7L3T8
Uniprot Name:
Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight:
53262.18 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Shows prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types II, IV and V.
Gene Name:
P3H2
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVL5
Uniprot Name:
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2
Molecular Weight:
80983.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V.
Gene Name:
P3H3
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVL6
Uniprot Name:
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3
Molecular Weight:
81835.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PYCRL
Uniprot ID:
Q53H96
Uniprot Name:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3
Molecular Weight:
28663.025 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trans-l-3-hydroxyproline dehydratase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the dehydration of trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline to Delta(1)-pyrroline-2-carboxylate (Pyr2C). May be required to degrade trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline from the diet and originating from the degradation of proteins such as collagen-IV that contain it.
Gene Name:
L3HYPDH
Uniprot ID:
Q96EM0
Uniprot Name:
Trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline dehydratase
Molecular Weight:
38137.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Gene Name:
PRODH
Uniprot ID:
O43272
Uniprot Name:
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight:
68001.405 Da
References
  1. Phang JM, Donald SP, Pandhare J, Liu Y: The metabolism of proline, a stress substrate, modulates carcinogenic pathways. Amino Acids. 2008 Nov;35(4):681-90. doi: 10.1007/s00726-008-0063-4. Epub 2008 Apr 10. [PubMed:18401543 ]
  2. Phang JM, Liu W, Zabirnyk O: Proline metabolism and microenvironmental stress. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010 Aug 21;30:441-63. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104638. [PubMed:20415579 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name:
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 01, 2017 10:24