Identification

Name
Caffeine
Accession Number
DB00201  (APRD00673)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes smooth muscle, stimulates cardiac muscle, stimulates diuresis, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, antagonism of adenosine receptors, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-methyltheobromine
  • 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
  • 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
  • 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
  • 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purin-2,6-dion
  • 7-methyltheophylline
  • Anhydrous caffeine
  • Cafeína
  • Caféine
  • Caffeinum
  • Coffein
  • Coffeinum
  • Guaranine
  • Koffein
  • Mateína
  • Methyltheobromine
  • teína
  • Thein
  • Theine
External IDs
Fema no. 2224 / NSC-5036
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Caffeine citrateU26EO4675Q69-22-7RCQXSQPPHJPGOF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CafcitInjection20 mg/mLIntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2008-11-042016-04-30Us
CafcitSolution20 mg/mLOralBedford Pharmaceuticals2008-11-042016-05-29Us
CafcitInjection20 mg/mLIntravenousWest Ward Pharmaceutical2008-11-04Not applicableUs
Diurette Water PillsTablet200 mgOralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
PeyonaInjection, solution; Solution20 mg/mlIntravenous; OralChiesi Farmaceutici Sp A2009-07-02Not applicableEu
PeyonaInjection, solution; Solution20 mg/mlIntravenous; OralChiesi Farmaceutici Sp A2009-07-02Not applicableEu
Spirit (chewable Squares)Wafer60 mgOralWarner Lambert Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Caffeine CitrateSolution20 mg/mLIntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2012-09-15Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateSolution20 mg/mLOralRemedy Repack2013-10-042016-12-28Us
Caffeine CitrateInjection, solution60 mg/3mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMicro Labs Limited2017-12-30Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateSolution20 mg/mLOralExela Pharma Sciences, Llc.2006-09-21Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateInjection20 mg/mLIntravenousSun Pharma Global FZE2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateInjection, solution20 mg/mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-11-19Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateSolution20 mg/mLOralExela Pharma Sciences, Llc.2006-09-21Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateInjection, solution20 mg/mLIntravenousAmerican Regent2007-09-10Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateInjection20 mg/mLIntravenousExela Pharma Sciences, Llc.2006-09-21Not applicableUs
Caffeine CitrateSolution20 mg/mLOralSagent Pharmaceuticals2012-09-15Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
357 Super MagnumTablet, multilayer200 1/1OralKing Richard Promotions Dba Dbi2016-05-19Not applicableUs
AlertTablet200 mg/1OralDolgencorp1992-11-21Not applicableUs
AlertTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralTime Cap Laboratories2011-11-30Not applicableUs
Alert AidTablet200 mg/1OralAmerisource Bergen1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Alert Aid Caffeine Capsules 175mgCapsule175 mgOralSun Products Corporation1991-12-312004-03-11Canada
Alert Aid Caffeine Tablets 175mgTablet175 mgOralSun Products Corporation1991-12-312004-03-11Canada
Alert Alertness AidTablet200 mg/1OralLnk International, Inc.1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Alert Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralNutribon (1986) Inc.1995-12-311996-09-30Canada
Alertness AidTablet200 mg/1OralChain Drug Consortium1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Alertness AidTablet200 mg/1OralCardinal Health1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
(extra Strength) Acetaminophen, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine Phosphate CapletsCaffeine (15 mg) + Acetaminophen (500 mg) + Codeine phosphate (8 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1998-07-222002-07-31Canada
217Caffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1910-12-311998-04-21Canada
217 Strong TabCaffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1973-12-311998-04-21Canada
222 TabletsCaffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Codeine phosphate (8 mg)TabletOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson Inc1951-12-312015-08-17Canada
282 Mep TabCaffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (350 mg) + Codeine phosphate (15 mg) + Meprobamate (200 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1959-12-311998-08-14Canada
282 TabCaffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Codeine phosphate (15 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1951-12-311998-04-21Canada
282 TabletsCaffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Codeine phosphate (15 mg)TabletOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1998-11-01Not applicableCanada
292 TabCaffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Codeine phosphate (30 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1951-12-311998-08-14Canada
292 TabletsCaffeine citrate (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Codeine phosphate (30 mg)TabletOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1998-10-01Not applicableCanada
692 TabCaffeine (30 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride (65 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1986-02-131998-04-21Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Caffeine and Sodium BenzoateCaffeine (125 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousAmerican Regent1993-02-01Not applicableUs
Diurex UltimateCaffeine (100 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.2015-10-31Not applicableUs
Diurex Water Pills XPLCaffeine (100 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.2016-08-17Not applicableUs
Isometheptene Mucate, Caffeine, and AcetaminophenCaffeine (20 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Isometheptene mucate (65 mg/1)TabletOralXspire Pharma2010-06-012018-01-15Us
Isometheptene Mucate, Caffeine, and AcetaminophenCaffeine (20 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Isometheptene mucate (65 mg/1)TabletOralBurel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2016-04-172017-11-01Us
Isometheptene Mucate, Caffeine, and AcetaminophenCaffeine (20 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (500 mg/1) + Isometheptene mucate (130 mg/1)TabletOralWomens Choice Pharmaceuticals, Llc2011-10-122017-08-09Us
Powerbooster MildCaffeine (.05 g/100mL) + Menthol (.1 g/100mL) + Witch hazel (.098 g/100mL)CreamTopicalPeterpanlab2018-07-26Not applicableUs
Powerbooster OriginalCaffeine (.01 g/100mL) + Witch hazel (.098 g/100mL)CreamTopicalPeterpanlab2018-07-26Not applicableUs
Powerbooster originalCaffeine (.05 g/100mL) + Hydrogenated soybean lecithin (.1 g/100mL)CreamTopicalPeterpanlab2016-07-19Not applicableUs
ProdrinCaffeine (20 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Isometheptene mucate (65 mg/1)TabletOralGentex Pharma2010-06-012018-01-15Us
International/Other Brands
Caffedrine / Dexitac / Durvitan / Enerjets / No-Doz / Pep-Back / Quick Pep / Wake-Up
Categories
UNII
3G6A5W338E
CAS number
58-08-2
Weight
Average: 194.1906
Monoisotopic: 194.080375584
Chemical Formula
C8H10N4O2
InChI Key
RYYVLZVUVIJVGH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H10N4O2/c1-10-4-9-6-5(10)7(13)12(3)8(14)11(6)2/h4H,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
1,3,7-trimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(C)C(=O)N2C

Pharmacology

Indication

For management of fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, and for the short term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Caffeine, a naturally occurring xanthine derivative like theobromine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity). Often combined with analgesics or with ergot alkaloids, caffeine is used to treat migraine and other headache types. Over the counter, caffeine is available to treat drowsiness or mild water-weight gain.

Mechanism of action

Caffeine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP. It is now thought that xanthines such as caffeine act as antagonists at adenosine-receptors within the plasma membrane of virtually every cell. As adenosine acts as an autocoid, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic sites but augmenting the actions of norepinephrine or angiotensin, antagonism of adenosine receptors promotes neurotransmitter release. This explains the stimulatory effects of caffeine. Blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor in the heart leads to the accelerated, pronounced "pounding" of the heart upon caffeine intake.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAdenosine receptor A1
antagonist
multitarget
Human
AAdenosine receptor A2a
antagonist
multitarget
Human
UcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
inhibitor
Human
URyanodine receptor 1Not AvailableHuman
UCyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
inhibitor
Human
UDNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit
inhibitor
Human
UPhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform
inhibitor
Human
UPhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform
inhibitor
Human
UPhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform
inhibitor
Human
UInositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor
inhibitor
Human
USerine-protein kinase ATM
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Readily absorbed after oral or parenteral administration. The peak plasma level for caffeine range from 6-10mg/L and the mean time to reach peak concentration ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours.

Volume of distribution
  • 0.8 to 0.9 L/kg [infants]
  • 0.6 L/kg [adults]
Protein binding

Low (25 to 36%).

Metabolism

Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) is involved in caffeine biotransformation. About 80% of a dose of caffeine is metabolized to paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), 10% to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and 4% to theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine).

Route of elimination

In young infants, the elimination of caffeine is much slower than that in adults due to immature hepatic and/or renal function.

Half life

3 to 7 hours in adults, 65 to 130 hours in neonates

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50=127 mg/kg (orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Caffeine MetabolismMetabolic
Caffeine MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 1A2---(C;C) / (A;C)C alleleADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have increased risk of a non-fatal myocardial infarction with caffeineDetails

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Experimental
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental, Illicit
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe metabolism of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Experimental
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental, Illicit
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental, Illicit
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.Experimental
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Investigational
7-Nitroindazole7-Nitroindazole may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
AbemaciclibThe serum concentration of Abemaciclib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Vet Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
AdalimumabThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Adalimumab.Approved
AdenosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Adenosine can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AdinazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Adinazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
AgomelatineThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
Albinterferon Alfa-2BThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Albinterferon Alfa-2B.Investigational
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental, Investigational
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AllopurinolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Allopurinol.Approved
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Alprazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AlprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprenolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Withdrawn
AminophyllineThe metabolism of Aminophylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Amphotericin BThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Amphotericin B.Approved, Investigational
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Amprenavir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AnagrelideThe metabolism of Anagrelide can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
AnisodamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anisodamine is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ApalutamideThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Apalutamide.Approved, Investigational
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Ascorbic acidThe serum concentration of Ascorbic acid can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Nutraceutical
AsenapineThe metabolism of Asenapine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
AsunaprevirThe serum concentration of Asunaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
AvatrombopagThe serum concentration of Avatrombopag can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AVE9633The metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with AVE9633.Investigational
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
AzathioprineThe metabolism of Azathioprine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
BarbexacloneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Barbexaclone.Experimental
BarbitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BaricitinibThe serum concentration of Baricitinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
BeclamideBeclamide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
BefunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Befunolol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
BelinostatThe serum concentration of Belinostat can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
BenzydamineThe metabolism of Benzydamine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
BenzylthiouracilThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Benzylthiouracil.Experimental
BesifloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Besifloxacin.Approved
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
BevantololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bevantolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BopindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bopindolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
Brefeldin AThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Brefeldin A.Experimental
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
BrivaracetamBrivaracetam may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
BromazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Bromazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
BromperidolThe serum concentration of Bromperidol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
BrotizolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Brotizolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Bryostatin 1The metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Bryostatin 1.Investigational
BucindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bucindolol is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
BufuralolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bufuralol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental, Investigational
BupivacaineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
BupranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupranolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CamazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Camazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CandicidinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Candicidin.Withdrawn
CannabidivarinCannabidivarin may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbimazoleThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Carbimazole.Approved, Investigational
CarbomycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Carbomycin.Vet Approved
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
CarisbamateCarisbamate may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Celiprolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Cepeginterferon alfa-2BThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Cepeginterferon alfa-2B.Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Withdrawn
Cerliponase alfaThe serum concentration of Cerliponase alfa can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
CethromycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Cethromycin.Investigational
ChlorambucilThe serum concentration of Chlorambucil can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlordiazepoxide can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Chlorotrianisene.Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorphentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Caffeine.Illicit, Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Chlorpromazine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe metabolism of Chlorzoxazone can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CilostazolThe metabolism of Cilostazol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
CimetidineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved, Investigational
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Cinacalcet can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
CinolazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Cinolazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
CinoxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Cinoxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClenbuterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clenbuterol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClobazamThe therapeutic efficacy of Clobazam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleclomethiazole may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Clonazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CloranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cloranolol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
ClorazepateThe therapeutic efficacy of Clorazepate can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
ClotiazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Clotiazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CloxazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloxazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ClozapineThe serum concentration of Clozapine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
Coltuximab ravtansineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Coltuximab ravtansine.Investigational
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Conjugated estrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CopanlisibThe serum concentration of Copanlisib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CurcuminThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Curcumin.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
CytarabineThe serum concentration of Cytarabine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved, Investigational
DacarbazineThe metabolism of Dacarbazine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DanazolThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Danazol.Approved
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DarunavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasabuvirThe serum concentration of Dasabuvir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DelorazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Delorazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
DeramciclaneDeramciclane may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DexfenfluramineThe metabolism of Dexfenfluramine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DextroamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextroamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
DiazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Diazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
DibromotyrosineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Dibromotyrosine.Experimental
DiclofenacThe metabolism of Diclofenac can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolThe metabolism of Dicoumarol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
DienestrolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Dienestrol.Approved, Investigational
DiethylpropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diethylpropion is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DifloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Difloxacin.Vet Approved
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DihydralazineThe metabolism of Dihydralazine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DinoprostoneThe metabolism of Dinoprostone can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
DirithromycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Dirithromycin.Approved, Investigational
DisulfiramThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Disulfiram.Approved
DobutamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dobutamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DocetaxelThe serum concentration of Docetaxel can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DolutegravirThe serum concentration of Dolutegravir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DopamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
DoramectinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxefazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Doxefazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Experimental
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Doxepin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Doxofylline.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Duloxetine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
ElagolixThe serum concentration of Elagolix can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Elbasvir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
EltrombopagThe metabolism of Eltrombopag can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
EnoxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Enoxacin.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpanololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epanolol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
EphedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ephedrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EpimestrolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Epimestrol.Experimental
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
EpofolateThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Epofolate.Investigational
Epothilone DThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Epothilone D.Experimental, Investigational
EprinomectinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Eprinomectin.Vet Approved
EquolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Equol.Investigational
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ErtugliflozinThe serum concentration of Ertugliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EsatenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esatenolol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
Eslicarbazepine acetateEslicarbazepine acetate may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EstazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Estazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol acetateThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol benzoateThe serum concentration of Estradiol benzoate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol cypionateThe serum concentration of Estradiol cypionate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol dienanthateThe serum concentration of Estradiol dienanthate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol valerateThe serum concentration of Estradiol valerate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Estrogens, esterified.Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Estrone sulfate.Approved
EthadioneEthadione may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
EthanolThe metabolism of Ethanol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EthosuximideEthosuximide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
EthotoinEthotoin may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
Ethyl loflazepateThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethyl loflazepate can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
EtilefrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etilefrine is combined with Caffeine.Withdrawn
EtiracetamEtiracetam may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
EtizolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Etizolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
EzogabineEzogabine may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
FebuxostatThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Caffeine can be increased when Caffeine is used in combination with Febuxostat.Approved
FelbamateFelbamate may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
FenoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoterol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
FenozoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenozolone is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of Fesoterodine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
FleroxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Fleroxacin.Approved
Fluciclovine (18F)The serum concentration of Fluciclovine (18F) can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved, Investigational
FludiazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Fludiazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
FlumequineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Flumequine.Withdrawn
FlunarizineFlunarizine may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunitrazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Fluorouracil can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Flupentixol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FlurazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Flurazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FlurithromycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Flurithromycin.Experimental
FlutamideThe metabolism of Flutamide can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
FluticasoneThe serum concentration of Fluticasone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone propionate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolThe risk or severity of hypokalemia can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Formoterol.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
FrovatriptanThe metabolism of Frovatriptan can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
FurafyllineThe metabolism of Furafylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Experimental
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved, Investigational
GabapentinGabapentin may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
GaboxadolGaboxadol may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
GanciclovirThe metabolism of Ganciclovir can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
GarenoxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Garenoxacin.Investigational
GatifloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Gatifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
GemifloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GenisteinThe metabolism of Genistein can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Investigational
GepefrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gepefrine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
GlecaprevirThe serum concentration of Glecaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
GPI-1485The metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with GPI-1485.Investigational
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Gramicidin D can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Grepafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
GuanabenzThe metabolism of Guanabenz can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
GuanineThe metabolism of Guanine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Experimental
HalazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Halazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HexestrolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Hexestrol.Withdrawn
HexobarbitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroxyamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
HydroxyureaThe serum concentration of Hydroxyurea can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
HypoxanthineThe metabolism of Hypoxanthine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Experimental
IbrutinibThe metabolism of Ibrutinib can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
IdelalisibThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IfenprodilIfenprodil may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IloperidoneThe metabolism of Iloperidone can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
ImiquimodThe metabolism of Imiquimod can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
IndacaterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Indacaterol.Approved
IndenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indenolol is combined with Caffeine.Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
Inotuzumab ozogamicinThe serum concentration of Inotuzumab ozogamicin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Interferon Alfa-2a, RecombinantThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon Alfa-2a, Recombinant.Approved, Investigational
Interferon Alfa-2b, RecombinantThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon Alfa-2b, Recombinant.Approved
Interferon alfa-n1The metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n1.Approved, Investigational
Interferon alfa-n3The metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.Approved, Investigational
Interferon alfacon-1The metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfacon-1.Approved, Investigational
Interferon beta-1aThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon beta-1a.Approved, Investigational
Interferon beta-1bThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon beta-1b.Approved
Interferon gamma-1bThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Interferon gamma-1b.Approved, Investigational
Iofetamine I-123The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iofetamine I-123 is combined with Caffeine.Approved
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoleThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazole.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Isoniazid.Approved, Investigational
IsoprenalineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Isoprenaline.Approved, Investigational
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxsuprine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Withdrawn
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IvermectinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ivermectin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
IvosidenibThe serum concentration of Ivosidenib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
IxabepiloneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ixabepilone.Approved, Investigational
JosamycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Josamycin.Approved, Investigational
KetazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
KitasamycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Kitasamycin.Experimental
KOS-1584The metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with KOS-1584.Investigational
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
LacosamideLacosamide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineLamotrigine may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
LandiololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Landiolol is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
LenvatinibThe serum concentration of Lenvatinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LetermovirThe serum concentration of Letermovir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamLevetiracetam may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
LevobetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobetaxolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Levothyroxine.Approved
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
LiothyronineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Liotrix.Approved
LisdexamfetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisdexamfetamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineThe metabolism of Lisofylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Investigational
Lithium cationThe serum concentration of Lithium cation can be decreased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineThe metabolism of Lofexidine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LomefloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Lomefloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Loprazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Experimental
LorazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Lorazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Lorcaserin can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
LormetazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Lormetazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Lorpiprazole.Approved
Lorvotuzumab mertansineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Lorvotuzumab mertansine.Investigational
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LusutrombopagThe serum concentration of Lusutrombopag can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium sulfateMagnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe metabolism of Maprotiline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MedazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Medazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Experimental
MefenorexThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mefenorex is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Mefloquine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MelatoninThe metabolism of Melatonin can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelphalanThe serum concentration of Melphalan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
MepartricinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Mepartricin.Experimental
MephedroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mephedrone is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
MephentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mephentermine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
MephenytoinMephenytoin may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational, Withdrawn
MepindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepindolol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
MestranolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Mestranol.Approved
MetaraminolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaraminol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MethallenestrilThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Methallenestril.Experimental
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
MetharbitalMetharbital may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Withdrawn
MethimazoleThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Methimazole.Approved
MethohexitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Methohexital.Approved
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Methotrexate.Approved
MethoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MethoxyphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyphenamine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
MethsuximideMethsuximide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
MethylthiouracilThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Methylthiouracil.Experimental
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MexiletineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved, Investigational
MianserinThe metabolism of Mianserin can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MibefradilThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Midazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
MidecamycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Midecamycin.Approved
MidodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midodrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
MidomafetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midomafetamine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental, Illicit, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved, Investigational
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MiocamycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Miocamycin.Experimental
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
MirtazapineThe metabolism of Mirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
Mirvetuximab SoravtansineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Mirvetuximab Soravtansine.Investigational
MitemcinalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Mitemcinal.Investigational
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Mitomycin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MMDAThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when MMDA is combined with Caffeine.Experimental, Illicit
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
MoxestrolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Moxestrol.Experimental
MoxidectinThe serum concentration of Moxidectin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MoxifloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
NabumetoneThe metabolism of Nabumetone can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved, Investigational
Nalidixic AcidThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Nalidixic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
NaloxoneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Naloxone.Approved, Vet Approved
NaproxenThe metabolism of Naproxen can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
NatamycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Natamycin.Approved
Natural alpha interferonThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Natural alpha interferon.Approved, Investigational
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nebivolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NemonoxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Nemonoxacin.Investigational
NeocitrullamonNeocitrullamon may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Neostigmine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Nicardipine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Nifedipine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
NitrazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitrazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
NordazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Nordazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
NorepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norepinephrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
NorfloxacinThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Norfloxacin.Approved
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
NylidrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nylidrin is combined with Caffeine.Approved
NystatinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Nystatin.Approved, Vet Approved
OctreotideThe serum concentration of Octreotide can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
OdanacatibThe serum concentration of Odanacatib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
OfloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ofloxacin.Approved
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OleandomycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Oleandomycin.Vet Approved
OlodaterolCaffeine may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Olodaterol.Approved
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Omeprazole can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe serum concentration of Ondansetron can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
OrbifloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Orbifloxacin.Vet Approved
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orciprenaline is combined with Caffeine.Approved
OxazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
OxcarbazepineOxcarbazepine may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
Oxolinic acidThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Oxolinic acid.Experimental
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
OxtriphyllineThe metabolism of Oxtriphylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Paclitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved, Investigational
PaliperidoneThe serum concentration of Paliperidone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PancuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pancuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Pantoprazole can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
ParaldehydeParaldehyde may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
ParamethadioneParamethadione may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
ParitaprevirThe serum concentration of Paritaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
PatupiloneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Patupilone.Experimental, Investigational
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PazufloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Pazufloxacin.Investigational
PefloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Pefloxacin.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2aThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Peginterferon alfa-2a.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
Peginterferon beta-1aThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Peginterferon beta-1a.Approved
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
PentazocineThe serum concentration of Pentazocine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PentoxifyllineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
PhenacemidePhenacemide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Withdrawn
PheneturidePheneturide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
PhenibutPhenibut may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
PhenmetrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenmetrazine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenothiazineThe serum concentration of Phenothiazine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Vet Approved
PhensuximidePhensuximide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
PhentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
PhenylephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PhenylpropanolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylpropanolamine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PibrentasvirThe serum concentration of Pibrentasvir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
PimecrolimusThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Pimecrolimus.Approved, Investigational
PimobendanThe metabolism of Pimobendan can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Vet Approved
PimozideThe metabolism of Pimozide can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
PinazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Pinazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Experimental
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Pipemidic acidThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Pipemidic acid.Experimental
PirfenidoneThe serum concentration of Pirfenidone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Piromidic acidThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Piromidic acid.Experimental
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PitolisantThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
Polyestradiol phosphateThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Polyestradiol phosphate.Approved
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Potassium IodideThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Potassium Iodide.Approved
Potassium perchlorateThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Potassium perchlorate.Approved, Investigational
PractololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Practolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PrazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Prazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
PregabalinPregabalin may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrenalterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prenalterol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved, Investigational
ProcaterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaterol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ProgabideProgabide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
ProguanilThe metabolism of Proguanil can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Promazine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromestrieneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Promestriene.Investigational
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropofolThe metabolism of Propofol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
PropylthiouracilThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Propylthiouracil.Approved, Investigational
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
PrulifloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Prulifloxacin.Investigational
PseudoephedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pseudoephedrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
QuazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Quazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
QuinestrolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
QuinineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.Approved
RacepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved
RamelteonThe metabolism of Ramelteon can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RamosetronThe metabolism of Ramosetron can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ranitidine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe metabolism of Rasagiline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
RegadenosonCaffeine may decrease the vasodilatory activities of Regadenoson.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Regorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
RemacemideRemacemide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Reserpine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ResveratrolThe metabolism of Resveratrol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Rhodamine 6GThe serum concentration of Rhodamine 6G can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
RidaforolimusThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ridaforolimus.Investigational
RifampicinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifamycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Rifamycin.Investigational
RifapentineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved, Investigational
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RiluzoleRiluzole may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
RimexoloneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Rimexolone.Approved
RiociguatCaffeine may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitobegronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritobegron is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
RitodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritodrine is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
RokitamycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Rokitamycin.Experimental
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Ropinirole can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
RosoxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Rosoxacin.Approved, Investigational
RucaparibThe serum concentration of Rucaparib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
RufinamideRufinamide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
RufloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Rufloxacin.Experimental
SagopiloneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Sagopilone.Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SarafloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Sarafloxacin.Vet Approved, Withdrawn
SarilumabThe therapeutic efficacy of Caffeine can be decreased when used in combination with Sarilumab.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelamectinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Selamectin.Vet Approved
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
SirolimusThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SitafloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Sitafloxacin.Experimental, Investigational
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Sodium iodideThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Sodium iodide.Approved
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
SolithromycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Solithromycin.Investigational
SomatostatinThe serum concentration of Somatostatin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
SparfloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Sparfloxacin.Approved, Investigational
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StanoloneThe serum concentration of Stanolone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Illicit, Investigational
Stanolone acetateThe serum concentration of Stanolone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulthiameSulthiame may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Sumatriptan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Sunitinib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
SynephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Synephrine is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B.Approved
TacrineThe serum concentration of Tacrine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Investigational, Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TalinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Talinolol is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Tamoxifen can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TasimelteonThe metabolism of Tasimelteon can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
Technetium Tc-99m ciprofloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Technetium Tc-99m ciprofloxacin.Investigational
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TegafurThe metabolism of Tegafur can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemafloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Temafloxacin.Withdrawn
TemazepamThe therapeutic efficacy of Temazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
TeniposideThe serum concentration of Teniposide can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Terbinafine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerbutalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbutaline is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Terfenadine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Withdrawn
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TertatololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tertatolol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
Testosterone propionateThe serum concentration of Testosterone propionate can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
TetracyclineThe serum concentration of Tetracycline can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetryzolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetryzoline is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TheobromineThe metabolism of Theobromine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
ThiabendazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Thiabendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiamylalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Thioridazine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe metabolism of Thiothixene can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
Thyroid, porcineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Thyroid, porcine.Approved
TiagabineTiagabine may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
TiboloneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Tibolone.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TildipirosinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Tildipirosin.Vet Approved
TiletamineTiletamine may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Vet Approved
TilmicosinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Tilmicosin.Investigational, Vet Approved
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TofisopamThe therapeutic efficacy of Tofisopam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TopiramateTopiramate may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ToremifeneThe metabolism of Toremifene can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TramazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramazoline is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
TramiprosateTramiprosate may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
Trastuzumab emtansineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Trastuzumab emtansine.Approved, Investigational
TretoquinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretoquinol is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
TriamtereneThe metabolism of Triamterene can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
TriazolamThe therapeutic efficacy of Triazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Trifluoperazine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
TrimethadioneTrimethadione may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Trimipramine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
TroleandomycinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
TrovafloxacinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Trovafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TylosinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Tylosin.Vet Approved
TylvalosinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Tylvalosin.Vet Approved
TyramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tyramine is combined with Caffeine.Investigational, Nutraceutical
UbidecarenoneThe serum concentration of Ubidecarenone can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
VadimezanThe metabolism of Vadimezan can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Investigational
ValinomycinThe serum concentration of Valinomycin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Experimental
Valproic AcidValproic Acid may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
ValpromideValpromide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Experimental
ValspodarThe serum concentration of Valspodar can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Investigational
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
VelpatasvirThe serum concentration of Velpatasvir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenetoclaxThe serum concentration of Venetoclax can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Venlafaxine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
VigabatrinVigabatrin may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
VincristineThe excretion of Vincristine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
VinflunineThe serum concentration of Vinflunine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Vinorelbine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
VinpocetineVinpocetine may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VoxilaprevirThe serum concentration of Voxilaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
XanthineThe metabolism of Xanthine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Experimental
ZafirlukastThe serum concentration of Zafirlukast can be decreased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ZaleplonZaleplon may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZeranolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Zeranol.Vet Approved
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
ZileutonThe metabolism of Zileuton can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolmitriptanThe metabolism of Zolmitriptan can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational
ZolpidemThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
ZonisamideZonisamide may increase the excretion rate of Caffeine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
ZotepineThe metabolism of Zotepine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Kaspar Bott, "Preparation of caffeine." U.S. Patent US4380631, issued December, 1976.

US4380631
General References
  1. Nathanson JA: Caffeine and related methylxanthines: possible naturally occurring pesticides. Science. 1984 Oct 12;226(4671):184-7. [PubMed:6207592]
  2. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Milne AL, Scholey AB: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guarana in humans. J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jan;21(1):65-70. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16533867]
  3. Smit HJ, Gaffan EA, Rogers PJ: Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Nov;176(3-4):412-9. Epub 2004 May 5. [PubMed:15549276]
  4. Benjamin LT Jr, Rogers AM, Rosenbaum A: Coca-Cola, caffeine, and mental deficiency: Harry Hollingworth and the Chattanooga trial of 1911. J Hist Behav Sci. 1991 Jan;27(1):42-55. [PubMed:2010614]
  5. Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G: Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1992 May-Aug;17(2):139-70. [PubMed:1356551]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001847
KEGG Drug
D00528
KEGG Compound
C07481
PubChem Compound
2519
PubChem Substance
46506408
ChemSpider
2424
BindingDB
10849
ChEBI
27732
ChEMBL
CHEMBL113
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000099
PharmGKB
PA448710
IUPHAR
407
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
CFF
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Caffeine
ATC Codes
V04CG30 — Caffeine and sodium benzoateR03DA20 — Combinations of xanthinesN06BC01 — Caffeine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:20.00 — Anorexigenic Agents & Respiratory and CNS Stimulants
  • 28:20.32 — Respiratory and CNS Stimulants
PDB Entries
1c8l / 1gfz / 1l5q / 1l7x / 2a3b / 3dd1 / 3dds / 3ddw / 3g6m / 3rfm
show 13 more
FDA label
Download (37.7 KB)
MSDS
Download (76.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
0CompletedBasic ScienceVoice Disorders1
0CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
0RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
0Unknown StatusBasic SciencePsychotropic Drugs Effects1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceNash1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceNeoplasms Metastasis1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherNeoplasms1
1CompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Failure / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Metabolism1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Biotransformation / Membrane Transport1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Interactions1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine / Pharmacokinetics of Repaglinide1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics of Caffeine / Pharmacokinetics of Dextromethorphan / Prostate Cancer1
1CompletedBasic ScienceRheumatoid Arthritis1
1CompletedDiagnosticCytochrome / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticDrug Interactions1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedDiagnosticMolecular Imaging / Molecular Imaging [E01.370.350.557]1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchCognitively Healthy Subjects Influenced by Psychoactive Drugs1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
1CompletedOtherTumors, Solid1
1CompletedPreventionEndotoxaemia1
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Solid Tumors, Excluding Breast Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentAnemias / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentCompulsive Behavior / Substance Dependence1
1CompletedTreatmentDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedTreatmentDrug Interactions1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedTreatmentInfectious Diseases1
1CompletedTreatmentPsoriasis2
1CompletedTreatmentCMET-dysregulated Advanced Solid Tumors1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
1RecruitingOtherCrohn's Disease (CD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1RecruitingTreatmentTumors, Solid1
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceLiver Diseases1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceDependence, Cocaine1
1, 2RecruitingSupportive CareNarcolepsy1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentAmblyopia1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
2CompletedPreventionAdenoidectomy / Postoperative Complications / Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / Tonsillectomy1
2CompletedSupportive CareCancers / Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentApnea1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntermittent Hypoxia1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative paralytic ileus1
2TerminatedTreatmentDyspnea1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCocaine Related Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentExcessive Daytime Somnolence / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCaffeine / Cellulitis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCaffeine Withdrawal / Migraines1
3CompletedNot AvailableMyocardial Infarction1
3CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedPreventionApnea / Preterm Infants1
3CompletedPreventionCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
3CompletedPreventionPrimary apnea of premature newborns1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Cervical Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
3CompletedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentPain2
3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Tooth Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary apnea of premature newborns2
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial hypoxia1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMechanical Low Back Pain / Postural Low Back Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPrimary apnea of premature newborns1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHeadaches1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain1
4CompletedBasic ScienceFeeling Anxious1
4CompletedBasic ScienceRejection, Transplant1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedPreventionBrain Injury / Intraventricular Hemorrhage / Primary apnea of premature newborns1
4CompletedPreventionCaffeine1
4CompletedPreventionEnergy Expenditure1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentElderly / Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Stroma Tumors / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Renal-cell Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Elderly Citizens1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAdult Population1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingPreventionBPD - Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / Hemodynamics Instability / Intubations / Primary apnea of premature newborns1
4RecruitingTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
4SuspendedNot AvailableLabor, First Stage1
4TerminatedOtherPain1
4TerminatedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
4Unknown StatusScreeningHealthy Volunteers1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAutonomic Nervous System / Cardiorespiratory Parameters1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingScreeningAlcoholism1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAffect / Caffeine / Cognitive Ability, General / Other Stimulant Use, Unspecified1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Nervous System1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCaffeine / Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury / Ischemic Preconditioning1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCaffeine / Premature Newborns / Primary apnea of premature newborns1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDrug Half Life / Pharmacokinetics / Placebo Effect1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency, Dwarfism1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Eating Behavior1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug-Drug Interaction (DDI) / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceArterial hypoxia / Hyperemia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticSleep Apnea Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCaffeine1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProphylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentApnea / Bronchiolitis / Caffeine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPlacebo Effect / Placebo Mechanisms of Action1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Dural Puncture Headache1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDepression1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCaffeine / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Primary apnea of premature newborns1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDiverticulitis / Laparoscopic Colectomy Without Stoma Formation / Neoplasms, Colorectal / Postoperative paralytic ileus1
Not AvailableSuspendedNot AvailableIschemia-Reperfusion Injury1
Not AvailableTerminatedScreeningCytochrome P450 Phenotype and Genotype Metrics1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentApnea / Premature Babies / Respiratory Failure1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentEnlargement of Tonsil or Adenoid / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPerceived Alcohol Intoxication1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Mead johnson and co
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Paddock laboratories inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Aidarex Pharmacuticals LLC
  • Alphagen Laboratories Inc.
  • American Regent
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Athlon Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Atley Pharmaceuticals
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Blansett Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Brighton Pharmaceuticals
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Concord Labs
  • Corepharma LLC
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • D.M. Graham Laboratories Inc.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • Forest Pharmaceuticals
  • G & W Labs
  • Gilbert Laboratories
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • Goldline Laboratories Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hope Pharmaceuticals
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • J T Baker
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Keene Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lunsco Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Marlex Pharmaceuticals
  • Marnel Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • MCR American Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Mikart Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Novartis AG
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patient First Corp.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Poly Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Prometic Pharma Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • Rite Aid Corp.
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Seatrace Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Talbert Medical Management Corp.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • US Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Victory Pharma
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
  • Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, multilayerOral200 1/1
CapsuleOral175 mg
TabletOral175 mg
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
SyrupOral
TabletOral
Tablet, multilayerOral200 mg/200mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous125 mg/mL
InjectionIntravenous20 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous60 mg/3mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/mL
SolutionIntravenous20 mg/mL
SolutionOral20 mg/mL
TabletOral200 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet, coatedOral
Kit
Tablet, film coatedOral
SolutionOral
LiquidOral
GranuleOral
Capsule, coatedOral
TabletTopical
PowderOral
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral200 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral
SuppositoryRectal
CreamTopical
CreamTopical5 mg/1000mL
Tablet, multilayerOral
Injection, solution; solutionIntravenous; Oral20 mg/ml
CapsuleOral100 mg
WaferOral60 mg
TabletOral200 mg/1
LiquidOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Migergot 12 2-100 mg Suppository Box105.43USD box
Cafcit 20 mg/ml oral soln16.4USD ml
Cafcit 20 mg/ml vial16.4USD ml
Caffeine cit 20 mg/ml oral sol15.21USD ml
Caffeine citrate 20 mg/ml vial12.8USD ml
Migergot suppository7.39USD suppository
Esgic tablet2.5USD tablet
Esgic 50-325-40 mg tablet2.27USD tablet
Darvon-n 100 mg tablet1.95USD tablet
Esgic-plus 50-500-40 mg tablet1.95USD tablet
Cafergot 1-100 mg tablet1.9USD tablet
Darvon 65 mg pulvule1.49USD each
Fioricet 50-325-40 mg tablet1.24USD tablet
Butalb-apap-caff 50-500-40 tablet1.2USD tablet
Butalb-apap-caff 50-325-40 tablet0.44USD tablet
Caffeine citrate powder0.36USD g
Propoxyphene hcl 65 mg capsule0.33USD capsule
Vivarin 200 mg caplet0.17USD caplet
Vivarin 200 mg tablet0.17USD tablet
No doz 200 mg caplet0.16USD caplet
Caffeine citrated powder purif0.13USD g
Stay awake 200 mg tablet0.1USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy caffeine 200 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Ra stay awake 100 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Caffeine powder0.07USD g
Caffeine 200 mg tablet0.01USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5972916No1997-07-142017-07-14Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)238 °CPhysProp
water solubility2.16E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-0.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-0.97ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.41ADME Research, USCD
pKa10.4 (at 40 °C)DEAN,JA (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.24ALOGPS
logP-0.55ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.44 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity49.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.95 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9935
Caco-2 permeable+0.633
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7572
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8086
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8471
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8872
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7484
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5869
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5305
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9906
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9836
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9927
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9618
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9924
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9359
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6696
Rat acute toxicity2.9741 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8925
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8702
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.61 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (0 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0536-3900000000-a9e112713ffae6dabdaa
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (0 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0536-2900000000-8cdcd005b2e7622a02a3
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-052f-0900000000-f1084acfddb240696073
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-05nf-6900000000-8670a644cee5d9de78d4
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0536-3900000000-4430852b279a72e34822
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-51898e93480e848d7da1
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-2aed5d425b6a95add5db
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4l-4900000000-3ff72dace6687d242f1f
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-1900000000-2ba1fae6e27c7b836984
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-fd859aeb416e320d6379
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0536-3900000000-a9e112713ffae6dabdaa
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0536-2900000000-8cdcd005b2e7622a02a3
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-052f-0900000000-f1084acfddb240696073
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-05nf-6900000000-8670a644cee5d9de78d4
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0536-3900000000-4430852b279a72e34822
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-052f-8900000000-68b5e9aa3404fb3d8d3a
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-447fc72b2c709e2e18a9
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-5e3b29de16ad91c79fe0
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-d6f6c52ac36c8f25a500
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-cddd24399d942b1ac97c
MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (Unknown) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-2aed5d425b6a95add5db
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-60) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-4900000000-3ff72dace6687d242f1f
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-68) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-1900000000-2ba1fae6e27c7b836984
MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (HITACHI M-60) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-63b9ef42a3e8d59e9997
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-185b3d97d8857a0f269d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-f8a0c0dd9f5c4a272eaf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-dd8e35226d0704aa657d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01x9-9800000000-70e3b0eb52481c39d191
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-9100000000-6d428a5571beb0e3fed4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-98bec16f898808c3de68
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-b112e4e059e1ecf98c5f
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-761710441aa2c1c3ac68
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000b-0900000000-c10af6eda9a9a4094715
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-01p9-3900000000-141118b1a93b4d48b2d4
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-c8bd8cccb7dd6c66bb42
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-2c8c1760161edd358026
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4r-5900000000-260de4a79007e853e4bb
MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-695d910d49fc0beb1d54
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-094879886a2e72bf0c56
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-fa38c865089a3a05f287
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000b-0900000000-0e82732a924c974dd0c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-bfc94c8091471847482b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-c8fcf16986c494898203
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-3900000000-9569e0552abb7ebd145a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-3a924abd44877050c1c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-c6803f746febffe7ab6b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-66e04d2c507b4751e506
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-9af60e39c843cb715435
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-f858247f1e9a9dc03988
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-3900000000-73043667076aaf483c6e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-2175b91e18c95954cc54
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-013ba6bf69c2800dafeb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000b-0900000000-1ad354a17e0fd85a18db
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-f751c01e71d548d07cfa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01w0-0900000000-88cd919e5f37c53adf12
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-807dd2315cef11dedba7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-2900000000-87822a5f5a6be99a2eaa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-5900000000-6f909aa0d652aca47648
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9500000000-e06eca9e3e2ab56477d0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-1c1dcfab5dc129669de4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-fe8fd0aa7989e70bba69
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-dd8e35226d0704aa657d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01x9-9800000000-9e04f1fb471150acc039
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-9100000000-6d428a5571beb0e3fed4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-c32a8e70a7c0e7c6b19b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-98bec16f898808c3de68
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-b112e4e059e1ecf98c5f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000j-0900000000-fb4fdea2278a980eebd9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-d625aea76a3256436c31
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-6cd84afa1441c734413d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-bc9f9a43b0fd465d435c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-413259091ba7edc46b87
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-b8ca373712477994b200
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-5e7721bcb84a3ae2c1eb
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-64da1f31ba17e532a3c6
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-6f74190396d61622726f
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-238b01405bce15c86f0d
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-4900000000-a60a480f1340558740a2
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-3b056c4352ea9d7dcd81
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000j-0900000000-409abf86df5de9a03860
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-f236794b68cee8f6798c
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-3d4e16572c9b12ac6836
MS/MS Spectrum - APCI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-ac06ecf59a06be305ff0
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazopyrimidines
Sub Class
Purines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent
Xanthines
Alternative Parents
6-oxopurines / Alkaloids and derivatives / Pyrimidones / N-substituted imidazoles / Vinylogous amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Ureas / Lactams / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Xanthine / 6-oxopurine / Purinone / Alkaloid or derivatives / Pyrimidone / N-substituted imidazole / Pyrimidine / Azole / Imidazole / Heteroaromatic compound
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
purine alkaloid, trimethylxanthine (CHEBI:27732) / Purine alkaloids (C07481) / a small molecule (1-3-7-TRIMETHYLXANTHINE)

Targets

Details
1. Adenosine receptor A1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
Multitarget
General Function
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA1
Uniprot ID
P30542
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A1
Molecular Weight
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Gaytan SP, Saadani-Makki F, Bodineau L, Frugiere A, Larnicol N, Pasaro R: Effect of postnatal exposure to caffeine on the pattern of adenosine A1 receptor distribution in respiration-related nuclei of the rat brainstem. Auton Neurosci. 2006 Jun 30;126-127:339-46. Epub 2006 May 15. [PubMed:16702031]
  2. Wang SJ: Caffeine facilitation of glutamate release from rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals (synaptosomes) through activation protein kinase C pathway: an interaction with presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Synapse. 2007 Jun;61(6):401-11. [PubMed:17372967]
  3. Rieg T, Schnermann J, Vallon V: Adenosine A1 receptors determine effects of caffeine on total fluid intake but not caffeine appetite. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan 26;555(2-3):174-7. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17126319]
  4. Mustafa S, Venkatesh P, Pasha K, Mullangi R, Srinivas NR: Altered intravenous pharmacokinetics of topotecan in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) induced by uranyl nitrate: do adenosine A1 antagonists (selective/non-selective) normalize the altered topotecan kinetics in ARF? Xenobiotica. 2006 Dec;36(12):1239-58. [PubMed:17162470]
  5. Listos J, Malec D, Fidecka S: Adenosine receptor antagonists intensify the benzodiazepine withdrawal signs in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006 Sep-Oct;58(5):643-51. [PubMed:17085856]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. Adenosine receptor A2a
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
Multitarget
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID
P29274
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A2a
Molecular Weight
44706.925 Da
References
  1. Riksen NP, Franke B, van den Broek P, Smits P, Rongen GA: The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene does not affect the vasodilator response to adenosine in humans in vivo. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):551-4. [PubMed:17558310]
  2. Zhao G, Messina E, Xu X, Ochoa M, Sun HL, Leung K, Shryock J, Belardinelli L, Hintze TH: Caffeine attenuates the duration of coronary vasodilation and changes in hemodynamics induced by regadenoson (CVT-3146), a novel adenosine A2A receptor agonist. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;49(6):369-75. [PubMed:17577101]
  3. Cornelis MC, El-Sohemy A, Campos H: Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):240-4. [PubMed:17616786]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging f...
Gene Name
PDE4B
Uniprot ID
Q07343
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
Molecular Weight
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Daly JW: Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2153-69. [PubMed:17514358]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Calcium channel that mediates the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm and thereby plays a key role in triggering muscle contraction following depolarization of T-tu...
Gene Name
RYR1
Uniprot ID
P21817
Uniprot Name
Ryanodine receptor 1
Molecular Weight
565170.715 Da
References
  1. Daly JW: Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2153-69. [PubMed:17514358]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. Has a higher affinity for cG...

Components:
References
  1. Ribeiro JA, Sebastiao AM: Caffeine and adenosine. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S3-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-1379. [PubMed:20164566]
  2. Essayan DM: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Nov;108(5):671-80. [PubMed:11692087]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombinati...
Gene Name
PRKDC
Uniprot ID
P78527
Uniprot Name
DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
469084.155 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity
Specific Function
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that phosphorylates PftdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 plays a key role by rec...
Gene Name
PIK3CD
Uniprot ID
O00329
Uniprot Name
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform
Molecular Weight
119478.065 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that phosphorylates PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol), PtdIns4P (Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate...
Gene Name
PIK3CA
Uniprot ID
P42336
Uniprot Name
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform
Molecular Weight
124283.025 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity
Specific Function
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that phosphorylates PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol), PtdIns4P (Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate...
Gene Name
PIK3CB
Uniprot ID
P42338
Uniprot Name
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform
Molecular Weight
122761.225 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol binding
Specific Function
Intracellular channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum following stimulation by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Involved in the regulation of epithelial secretion of elect...

Components:
References
  1. Parker I, Ivorra I: Caffeine inhibits inositol trisphosphate-mediated liberation of intracellular calcium in Xenopus oocytes. J Physiol. 1991 Feb;433:229-40. [PubMed:1844813]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis and genotoxic stresses such as ionizing ultraviolet A light (UVA), thereby acting as...
Gene Name
ATM
Uniprot ID
Q13315
Uniprot Name
Serine-protein kinase ATM
Molecular Weight
350684.105 Da
References
  1. Sarkaria JN, Busby EC, Tibbetts RS, Roos P, Taya Y, Karnitz LM, Abraham RT: Inhibition of ATM and ATR kinase activities by the radiosensitizing agent, caffeine. Cancer Res. 1999 Sep 1;59(17):4375-82. [PubMed:10485486]
  2. Blasina A, Price BD, Turenne GA, McGowan CH: Caffeine inhibits the checkpoint kinase ATM. Curr Biol. 1999 Oct 7;9(19):1135-8. [PubMed:10531013]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Brosen K: Drug interactions and the cytochrome P450 system. The role of cytochrome P450 1A2. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29 Suppl 1:20-5. [PubMed:8846619]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  4. Hickman D, Wang JP, Wang Y, Unadkat JD: Evaluation of the selectivity of In vitro probes and suitability of organic solvents for the measurement of human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Mar;26(3):207-15. [PubMed:9492382]
  5. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. [PubMed:10213372]
  2. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 15, 2018 09:37