For use in keratoconjunctivitis and keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus.
In chemical structure idoxuridine closely approximates the configuration of thymidine, one of the four building blocks of DNA (the genetic material of the Herpes virus). As a result, idoxuridine is able to replace thymidine in the enzymatic step of viral replication or "growth". The consequent production of faulty DNA results in a pseudostructure which cannot infect or destroy tissue. In short, by pre-empting a vital building block in the genetic material of the Herpes simplex virus, Herplex-D topical solution destroys the infective and destructive capacity of the viral material. The virus infected cell may only be attacked during the period of active synthesis of DNA. This occurs early in the development of the Herpes simplex lesion, but at different times in different cells. Therefore, ideally, the affected area should remain saturated with the antiviral agent.
Mechanism of action
Idoxuridine acts as an antiviral agent by inhibiting viral replication by substituting itself for thymidine in viral DNA. This in turn inhibits thymidylate phosphorylase and viral DNA polymerases from properly functioning. The effect of Idoxuridine results in the inability of the virus to reproduce or to infect/destroy tissue.
Systemic absorption is unlikely following ocular administration even when nasolacrimal secretions are swallowed, since vidarabine is rapidly deaminated in the gastrointestinal tract.
Volume of distribution
Idoxuridine is rapidly inactivated by deaminases or nucleotidases.
Route of elimination
Hypersensitivity or increased sensitivity of eyes to light. LD50=3080 mg/kg (orally in mice).
Herpes simplex virus
British Patent 1,024,156.
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Fauth E, Zankl H: Comparison of spontaneous and idoxuridine-induced micronuclei by chromosome painting. Mutat Res. 1999 Apr 6;440(2):147-56. [PubMed:10209337 ]
This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. These are compounds consisting of a pyrimidine linked to a ribose which lacks a hydroxyl group at position 2.
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
2.15 x 1012 Da
Komissarova NV, Tiunova AA, Anokhin KV: Selective impairments to memory consolidation in chicks produced by 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2010 Feb;40(2):215-23. doi: 10.1007/s11055-009-9237-0. Epub 2009 Dec 22. [PubMed:20033312 ]
Komissarova NV, Tiunova AA, Anokhin KV: [Selective disruption of memory consolidation in chicks produced by 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2008 Nov-Dec;58(6):700-10. [PubMed:19178072 ]
In latent infection, may allow the virus to be reactivated and to grow in cells lacking a high concentration of phosphorylated nucleic acid precursors, such as nerve cells that do not replicate their genome.
Wild K, Bohner T, Folkers G, Schulz GE: The structures of thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus type 1 in complex with substrates and a substrate analogue. Protein Sci. 1997 Oct;6(10):2097-106. [PubMed:9336833 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 18, 2017 16:47