Identification
NameDextrothyroxine
Accession NumberDB00509  (APRD00911)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
D-T4
D-thyroxine
Dextrothyroxine
DT4
O-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)-3,5-diiodo-D-tyrosine
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
Dextrothyroxine sodium0H00N2AHSP 7054-08-2ANMYAHDLKVNJJO-CURYUGHLSA-MDetails
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Choloxin - Tab 4mgTablet4 mgOralKnoll Pharma Inc.1996-12-311999-12-31Canada
Choloxin Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralKnoll Pharma Inc.1996-12-311999-12-31Canada
Choloxin Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralBoots Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1973-12-311996-09-09Canada
Choloxin Tablet 4mgTablet4 mgOralBoots Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1960-12-311996-09-09Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CholoxinKnoll (Canada) (discontinued), Baxter (United Kingdom) (discontinued), Boots-Flint (United States) (discontinued)
DynothelHenning (Germany) (discontinued)
EuliposBoehringer Mannheim (Germany) (discontinued)
LisolipinBracco (Italy) (discontinued)
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
UNII4W9K63FION
CAS number51-49-0
WeightAverage: 776.87
Monoisotopic: 776.686681525
Chemical FormulaC15H11I4NO4
InChI KeyXUIIKFGFIJCVMT-GFCCVEGCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23/h1-2,4-5,12,21H,3,20H2,(H,22,23)/t12-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid
SMILES
N[[email protected]](CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C(I)=C2)C(I)=C1)C(O)=O
Pharmacology
Indication

Used to lower high cholesterol levels in the blood.

Structured Indications Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Dextrothyroxine, the dextrorotary isomer of the synthetic thyroxine, is a antihyperlipidemic.

Mechanism of action

Dextrothyroxine is a antihyperlipidemic. The mechanism of action is not completely understood, but dextrothyroxine apparently acts in the liver to stimulate formation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and, to a much greater extent, to increase catabolism of LDL. This leads to increased excretion of cholesterol and bile acids via the biliary route into the feces, with a resulting reduction in serum cholesterol and LDL. Dextrothyroxine has no significant effect on high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Inherently, it will also bind to thyroid receptors and as it is a prohormone, it will bind as a substrate to iodide peroxidase.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Thyroid hormone receptor alphaProteinyes
agonist
HumanP10827 details
Thyroid hormone receptor betaProteinyes
agonist
HumanP10828 details
Thyroid peroxidaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP07202 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Dextrothyroxine
Not Available
Thyroxine sulfateDetails
Dextrothyroxine
Not Available
Thyroxine glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of dextrothyroxine overdose are unknown.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions Not Available
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. [PubMed:11901210 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC10AX01 — Dextrothyroxine
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (60.6 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral4 mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)235-236 °CNot Available
logP4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00898 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.15ALOGPS
logP3.73ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity126.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability49.31 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7212
Blood Brain Barrier-0.6886
Caco-2 permeable-0.653
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5321
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9175
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9709
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8891
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8309
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6847
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5924
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7037
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8459
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7591
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9148
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9693
Rat acute toxicity2.7082 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9697
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8508
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. These are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative ParentsDiphenylethers / Phenylpropanoic acids / Diarylethers / Amphetamines and derivatives / D-alpha-amino acids / Phenoxy compounds / Phenol ethers / O-iodophenols / Aralkylamines / Iodobenzenes
SubstituentsPhenylalanine or derivatives / Diphenylether / Diaryl ether / 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Alpha-amino acid / Amphetamine or derivatives / D-alpha-amino acid / Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / 2-halophenol
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptorsthyroxine, D-tyrosine derivative (CHEBI:30659 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Isoform Alpha-1: Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.Isoform Alpha-2: Does not bind thyroid hormone and functions as a weak dominant negative inhibitor of thyroid hormone action.
Gene Name:
THRA
Uniprot ID:
P10827
Uniprot Name:
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha
Molecular Weight:
54815.055 Da
References
  1. Jiang W, Miyamoto T, Kakizawa T, Sakuma T, Nishio S, Takeda T, Suzuki S, Hashizume K: Expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; triiodothyronine increases the expression of lipogenic enzyme and triglyceride accumulation. J Endocrinol. 2004 Aug;182(2):295-302. [PubMed:15283690 ]
  2. Kariv R, Enden A, Zvibel I, Rosner G, Brill S, Shafritz DA, Halpern Z, Oren R: Triiodothyronine and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induce expression of HGF in an immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line. Liver Int. 2003 Jun;23(3):187-93. [PubMed:12955882 ]
  3. Mai W, Janier MF, Allioli N, Quignodon L, Chuzel T, Flamant F, Samarut J: Thyroid hormone receptor alpha is a molecular switch of cardiac function between fetal and postnatal life. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13;101(28):10332-7. Epub 2004 Jul 6. [PubMed:15240882 ]
  4. Sciaudone MP, Yao L, Schaller M, Zinn SA, Freake HC: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid enhances thyroid hormone action by a transcriptional mechanism. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Summer;99(1-3):219-31. [PubMed:15235154 ]
  5. Timmer DC, Bakker O, Wiersinga WM: Triiodothyronine affects the alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor alpha mRNA. J Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;179(2):217-25. [PubMed:14596673 ]
  6. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [PubMed:17315033 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
Gene Name:
THRB
Uniprot ID:
P10828
Uniprot Name:
Thyroid hormone receptor beta
Molecular Weight:
52787.16 Da
References
  1. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [PubMed:17315033 ]
  2. Gonzalez-Sancho JM, Garcia V, Bonilla F, Munoz A: Thyroid hormone receptors/THR genes in human cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Mar 31;192(2):121-32. [PubMed:12668276 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  4. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  5. Yen PM, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker RL, Weiss RE, Chassande O, Samarut J, Refetoff S, Meltzer PS: Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003 Jun;4(6):581-7. [PubMed:12776178 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  7. Wu SY, Sadow PM, Refetoff S, Weiss RE: Tissue responses to thyroid hormone in a kindred with resistance to thyroid hormone harboring a commonly occurring mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453T). J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):85-94. [PubMed:16099238 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Iodination and coupling of the hormonogenic tyrosines in thyroglobulin to yield the thyroid hormones T(3) and T(4).
Gene Name:
TPO
Uniprot ID:
P07202
Uniprot Name:
Thyroid peroxidase
Molecular Weight:
102961.63 Da
References
  1. Visser TJ: The elemental importance of sufficient iodine intake: a trace is not enough. Endocrinology. 2006 May;147(5):2095-7. [PubMed:16617153 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) are transported with much lower efficiency. May play a signifiant role in regulating T4 flux into and out of the brain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYB5
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1
Molecular Weight:
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [PubMed:12351693 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate.
Gene Name:
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96BD0
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1
Molecular Weight:
77192.505 Da
References
  1. Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, Unno M, Tokui T, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Kondo Y, Nunoki K, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Ito S, Matsuno S, Abe T: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters in humans: different molecules are involved in a tissue-specific manner. Endocrinology. 2001 May;142(5):2005-12. [PubMed:11316767 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Organic anion transporter, capable of transporting pharmacological substances such as digoxin, ouabain, thyroxine, methotrexate and cAMP. May participate in the regulation of membrane transport of ouabain. Involved in the uptake of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and hence may play a role in its transport into and out of renal proximal tubule cells. May be involved in the first...
Gene Name:
SLCO4C1
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZQN7
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1
Molecular Weight:
78947.525 Da
References
  1. Mikkaichi T, Suzuki T, Onogawa T, Tanemoto M, Mizutamari H, Okada M, Chaki T, Masuda S, Tokui T, Eto N, Abe M, Satoh F, Unno M, Hishinuma T, Inui K, Ito S, Goto J, Abe T: Isolation and characterization of a digoxin transporter and its rat homologue expressed in the kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3569-74. Epub 2004 Mar 1. [PubMed:14993604 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the ...
Gene Name:
SLC7A5
Uniprot ID:
Q01650
Uniprot Name:
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1
Molecular Weight:
55009.62 Da
References
  1. Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. [PubMed:11901210 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 01, 2017 10:28