Lactulose

Identification

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Name
Lactulose
Accession Number
DB00581  (APRD01063)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide derivative of lactose that is most commonly used as a laxative agent despite also being formally indicated to serve as an adjunct therapy in treating portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE).Label,3,4 Despite being first synthesized in 19291, investigations regarding its possible use as a laxative for the treatment of chronic constipation did not occur until the 1960s and its first clinical use for treating PSE was not until 1966.4

Nevertheless, although lactulose received formal FDA approval in 1977 and has since become a readily available generic and brand-name non-prescription medication listed on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines as one of the most effective and safe medicines employed in a health system5, data regarding its optimal place in therapy is often ambiguous.4

Especially considering the use of lactulose as a laxative is typically only considered after lifestyle and dietary modifications fail and the fact that lactulose therapy cannot be ethically withheld from patients diagnosed with PSE in a placebo study, the substance may just be one of many options available for treating constipation and its efficacy in managing PSE may never be formally confirmed or refuted via clinical investigation.4

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-fructofuranose
  • 4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-fructose
  • Lactulosa
  • Lactulose
  • Lactulosum
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LactuloseSolution10 g/15mLOralANI Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-05-212009-05-21Us
LactuloseSolution10 g/15mLOral; RectalANI Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-12-162008-12-16Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ConstuloseSolution10 g/15mLOralActavis Mid Atlantic LLC,2007-01-032012-02-29Us
ConstuloseSolution10 g/15mLOralActavis Pharma, Inc.2011-02-28Not applicableUs
ConstuloseSolution10 g/15mLOralA-S Medication Solutions2011-02-28Not applicableUs
EnuloseSolution10 g/15mLOral; RectalActavis Pharma, Inc.2011-02-28Not applicableUs
EnuloseLiquid10 g/15mLOral; RectalActavis Pharma, LLC1990-10-312012-08-31Us
GenerlacSolution10 g/15mLOral; RectalMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1996-10-31Not applicableUs
KristalosePowder, for solution10 g/10gOralCumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-01-20Not applicableUs
KristalosePowder, for solution10 g/10gOralJones Contract Packaging Services2018-01-242018-08-20Us
KristalosePowder, for solution20 g/20gOralCumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-01-20Not applicableUs
KristalosePowder, for solution20 g/20gOralJones Contract Packaging Services2018-01-242018-08-20Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-lactuloseSolutionOralApotex Corporation2001-02-19Not applicableCanada
Cephulac Syr 667mg/mlSyrupOralHoechst Marion Roussel1995-12-311998-08-12Canada
Chronulac SyrSyrupOral; OtherMerrell Pharms Inc., Division Of Merrell Dow (Can)1977-12-311996-09-09Canada
Chronulac Syr 667mg/mlSyrupOralHoechst Marion Roussel1996-12-311998-08-12Canada
Comalose R Sirop 10gm/15mlSyrupOral; RectalRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc1987-12-311999-09-27Canada
DuphalacPowderOralSolvay Pharma Inc1997-11-272001-02-12Canada
Duphalac DryPowderOralSolvay Pharma Inc1996-07-231998-08-04Canada
Gen-lac - Liq 667mg/mlLiquidOralGenpharm Ulc1990-12-312009-08-05Canada
Jamp-lactuloseSyrupOralOrbus Pharma Inc2006-11-072010-03-31Canada
Jamp-lactuloseSolutionOralJamp Pharma Corporation2008-06-20Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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International/Other Brands
Bifiteral (Abbott) / Cephulac / Cholac (Alra) / Chronulac / Constilac (Alra) / Laevolac (Roche)
Categories
UNII
9XH2P2N8EP
CAS number
4618-18-2
Weight
Average: 342.2965
Monoisotopic: 342.116211546
Chemical Formula
C12H22O11
InChI Key
JCQLYHFGKNRPGE-FCVZTGTOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-4-6(16)7(17)8(18)11(21-4)22-9-5(2-14)23-12(20,3-15)10(9)19/h4-11,13-20H,1-3H2/t4-,5-,6+,7+,8-,9-,10+,11+,12-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@](O)(CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O

Pharmacology

Indication

Lactulose is indicated for use as a laxative in the treatment of chronic constipation in adults and geriatric patients.Label,3,4

Additionally, lactulose is also employed as an adjunct to protein restriction and supportive therapy for the prevention and treatment of portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE), including both the hepatic pre-coma and coma variations.Label,3,4 In particular, lactulose solution has been effective at managing PSE resulting from surgical portacaval shunts or from chronic hepatic diseases like cirrhosis.3

Moreover, there have also been studies demonstrating the capacity for lactulose to minimize the formation of gallstones and even some investigations regarding the experimental use of the agent in developing novel anticancer agents owing to its ability to bind galactin carbohydrates involved in various tumor progressions 4.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Lactulose formulations are most commonly administered via the oral route or the rectal route.4 Consequently, because the substance experiences minimal absorption by the gut it typically remains localized in the gastrointestinal tract environment and ultimately demonstrates almost all of its pharmacologic effects within the gut.Label,3,4 In particular, as lactulose elicits its laxative effects in enhancing stool amounts and softening stool, such biochemical and physiologic activities can cause increased bowel sounds (borborygmi), a feeling of bloatedness, belching, frequent flatus, and diarrhea.Label,3,4

Mechanism of action

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide derivative of lactose that consists of one molecule of galactose and one molecule of fructose.Label,3,4 Saccharolytic bacteria present in the large intestine subsequently break the substance down into organic acids like lactic acid and small amounts of formic and acetic acids.Label,3,4 Such resultant volatile fatty acid metabolites, in combination with hydrogen and methane that is also generated consequently enhance intraluminal gas formation, peristaltic gut motility, and elicit an osmotic effect that facilitates an increase in the water content of stool as well as associated stool softening.Label,3,4 All of these actions ultimately assist in facilitating and increasing the frequency of bowel movements in patients experiencing constipation, although it may take 24 to 48 hours after using the medication for this laxative effect to become evident.Label,3,4

At the same time, the formation of such acids via the metabolism of lactulose by colonic bacteria also acidifies the contents of the colon, thereby contributing to the treatment of portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE).Label,3,4 As one of the principal features of PSE involves the accumulation of nitrogenous waste products like ammonia in the systemic circulation, a state in which the colonic contents become more acidic than blood allows ammonia in the circulation to diffuse into the colon.Label,3,4. Furthermore, ammonia that diffuses into the acidic colon is ionized to ammonium ions that are incapable of being absorbed back into the blood.Label,3,4 These effects, combined with the laxative action of lactulose facilitates the excretion of excess ammonia.Label,3,4 And finally, it is also believed that an acidic colonic environment results in the elimination of urease-producing bacteria that contribute to the formation of ammonia while surviving colonic bacteria use up any trapped ammonia in the colon as a source of nitrogen for protein synthesis.4

TargetActionsOrganism
UEvolved beta-galactosidase subunit alpha
other
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Contraindications

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Absorption

After administration by the oral route, less than 3% of the given dose of lactulose solution is absorbed by the small intestine.3 The remaining unabsorbed lactulose reaches the large intestine where it is metabolized - but even then, negligible quantities of unchanged lactulose or its metabolites are absorbed across the colon.3,4

Volume of distribution

Negligible amounts of lactulose - metabolized or non-metabolized - are absorbed into the body.Label,3,4. Most lactulose that is administered subsequently remains predominantly around the gastrointestinal tract area.

Protein binding

Negligible amounts of lactulose - metabolized or non-metabolized - are absorbed into the body.Label,3,4. Regardless, data regarding the protein binding of lactulose is not readily available or accessible.

Metabolism

Lactulose is essentially only metabolized in the colon by saccharolytic bacteria that are present there.Label,3,4 In particular, the substance is broken down into lactic acid and small amounts of acetic and formic acid.Label,3,4 Specific examples of bacteria that normally inhabit the large intestine that are capable of lactulose metabolism include Lactobacilli, Bacteroides, Escherichia coli, and Clostridia.3

Route of elimination

The renal excretion of any lactulose that manages to be absorbed into the circulation has been determined to be 3% or less and is generally complete within 24 hours.Label Any unabsorbed lactulose is largely excreted with stool.Label,3,4

Half life

The data regarding the half-life of lactulose is not readily available or accessible.

Clearance

Negligible amounts of lactulose - metabolized or non-metabolized - are absorbed into the body.Label,3,4. Regardless, data regarding the clearance of lactulose is not readily available or accessible.

Toxicity

It has been documented that the oral LD50 of lactulose is 48.8 mL/kg in mice and more than 30 mL/ kg in rats.Label,3,4

It is expected that overdosage with lactulose would result in abdominal cramps and diarrhea, both of which should be treated with fluid and electrolyte replacement as required.Label,3,4

Considering the use of lactulose during pregnancy in humans has not been formally investigated, the agent should only be used during pregnancy only when clearly needed.Label,3,4 Similarly, it is unknown whether lactulose is distributed into human breastmilk.Label,3,4 Use of the medication in nursing women should subsequently be undertaken with caution.Label,3,4

Reproduction studies in rats, mice, and rabbits have not revealed any evidence of impaired fertility as a result of administering lactulose.Label,3,4

Data regarding the safety and efficacy of using lactulose in children for the treatment of chronic constipation or portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) is either very limited or yet to be established.Label,3,4

Information regarding the long-term mutagenic potential of lactulose solution in animals or humans and about the long-term carcinogenic potential in humans are not available.Label,3,4

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Lactulose is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Lactulose is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
25-desacetylrifapentineThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with 25-desacetylrifapentine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Lactulose is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Lactulose.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with Aclidinium.
AgmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with Agmatine.
AlcuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with Alcuronium.
Additional Data Available
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  • Severity
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  • Evidence Level
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Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals. Drink liberally.

References

Synthesis Reference

Renato Carobbi, Franco Innocenti, "Process for preparing high-purity lactulose syrup and the syrup obtained." U.S. Patent US4978397, issued April, 1961.

US4978397
General References
  1. Schumann C: Medical, nutritional and technological properties of lactulose. An update. Eur J Nutr. 2002 Nov;41 Suppl 1:I17-25. doi: 10.1007/s00394-002-1103-6. [PubMed:12420112]
  2. Canadian Pharmacists Association (2019). Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. Canadian Pharmacists Association.
  3. Lactulose Canadian Product Monograph [Link]
  4. NCBI StatPearls [Internet]: Lactulose [Link]
  5. WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 19th List (April 2015 - Amended November 2015) [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000740
KEGG Drug
D00352
KEGG Compound
C07064
PubChem Compound
11333
PubChem Substance
46506757
ChemSpider
10856
BindingDB
50377984
ChEBI
6359
ChEMBL
CHEMBL296306
PharmGKB
PA164748762
HET
W9T
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Lactulose
ATC Codes
A06AD61 — Lactulose, combinationsA06AD11 — Lactulose
AHFS Codes
  • 40:10.00 — Ammonia Detoxicants
  • 56:12.00 — Cathartics and Laxatives
PDB Entries
3w9t / 6b8k / 6b94 / 6nwm
FDA label
Download (151 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingDiagnosticCrohn's Disease (CD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance / Prediabetic State1
1CompletedTreatmentBowel Evacuant Prior to Colonoscopy1
1CompletedTreatmentOpiate Addiction1
1RecruitingScreeningInfants, Premature / Intestinal Permeability1
2CompletedPreventionNecrotizing Enterocolitis / Sepsis1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Constipation1
2CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy1
2CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy Preparation1
2CompletedTreatmentConstipation1
2CompletedTreatmentFeces, Impacted1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis / Portal Hypertension1
2RecruitingTreatmentOvert Hepatic Encephalopathy1
2TerminatedTreatmentMinimal Hepatic Encephalopathy1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Liver Diseases (CLD) / Hepatic Encephalopathy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Constipation1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentConstipation - Functional1
3TerminatedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
3Unknown StatusPreventionEncephalopathy, Hepatocerebral / Hepatic Encephalopathy / Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy1
3WithdrawnTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
4CompletedNot AvailableOsteopenia1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionHepatic Encephalopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentConstipation2
4CompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis / Liver Diseases / Pathological Processes / Portal Hypertension1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceMotility Disorder of Intestine / Ondansetron / Small Bowel Water1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute-On-Chronic Liver Failure / Hepatic Encephalopathy1
4RecruitingTreatmentConstipation1
4RecruitingTreatmentConstipation / Peritoneal dialysis complication1
4RecruitingTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnal Fissures / Hemorrhoids1
4TerminatedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis / Portal Hypertension1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableHepatic Encephalopathy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Renal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceChanges in Gut Microbiota Composition After Lactulose Exposure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHepatic Encephalopathy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute on Chronic Liver Failure With Hepatic Encephalopathy / Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCirrhosis Related Parkinsonism / Hepatic/Cirrhosis Related Parkinsonism1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis / Portosystemic Encephalopathy / PSE1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEndometriosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticHirschsprung's Disease1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionHospital Acquired Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAbdominal Pain / Constipation / Nausea / Vomiting1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentConstipation1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAltered Mental Status / AMS / HE / Hepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentRefractory Hepatic Encephalopathy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Inalco spa
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Alra laboratories inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Ani pharmaceuticals inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Morton grove pharmaceuticals inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Paco pharmaceutical services inc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Vistapharm inc
  • Nostrum laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Anip Acquisition Co.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bay Pharma Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Cumberland Pharmaceuticals
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • DPT Laboratories Ltd.
  • Goldline Laboratories Inc.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Infra SRL
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Ivers Lee Division Of Jones Packaging Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Merrell Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Moeller Pharma GmbH and Co. KG
  • Novex Pharma
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Association
  • Pharmaceutical Packaging Center
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Precision Dose Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Ratiopharm Inc.
  • Resolution Chemicals Ltd.
  • Roxane Labs
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vistapharm Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
  • Xactdose Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SyrupOral
SyrupOral; Other
SyrupOral; Rectal
PowderOral
LiquidOral; Rectal10 g/15mL
LiquidOral
SolutionOral
Powder, for solutionOral10 g/10g
Powder, for solutionOral20 g/20g
SolutionOral10 g/10g
SolutionOral10 g/15mL
SolutionOral20 g/30mL
SolutionOral667 mg
SolutionOral; Rectal10 g/15mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Kristalose 30 20 gm Packets Box83.93USD box
Kristalose 30 10 gm Packets Box57.57USD box
Enulose 10 gm/15ml Solution 473ml Bottle37.83USD bottle
Kristalose 20 gm packet2.04USD each
Kristalose 10 gm packet1.67USD each
Constulose 10 gm/15 ml soln0.09USD ml
Enulose 10 gm/15 ml solution0.08USD ml
Lactulose Encephalopathy 10 gm/15ml Solution0.08USD ml
Lactulose 10 gm/15ml Solution0.07USD ml
Generlac 10 gm/15 ml solution0.05USD ml
Apo-Lactulose 667 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD ml
Jamp-Lactulose 667 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD ml
Pms-Lactulose 667 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD ml
Ratio-Lactulose 667 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)169 °Chttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000740
water solubilitySoluble in cold water, hot water. Solubility in water: 76.4% @ 30 deg. CMSDS
logP-4.3http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000740
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility792.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-4.5ChemAxon
logS0.36ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.28ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity68.77 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8407
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6609
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5805
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8575
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9425
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.849
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8745
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.854
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6605
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9472
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9556
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9386
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9134
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9774
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9619
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9421
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9569
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6719
Rat acute toxicity1.2563 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9692
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8684
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0uxr-0951000000-d976341b4e779d2fcb68
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0udj-0941000000-e16e35441da7b81d64a1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
O-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Disaccharides / C-glycosyl compounds / Oxanes / Tetrahydrofurans / Secondary alcohols / Hemiacetals / Polyols / Oxacyclic compounds / Acetals / Primary alcohols
show 1 more
Substituents
O-glycosyl compound / Disaccharide / C-glycosyl compound / Oxane / Tetrahydrofuran / Secondary alcohol / Hemiacetal / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Polyol
show 5 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
glycosylfructose (CHEBI:6359)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other
General Function
Carbohydrate binding
Specific Function
The wild-type enzyme is an ineffective lactase. Two classes of point mutations dramatically improve activity of the enzyme.
Gene Name
ebgA
Uniprot ID
P06864
Uniprot Name
Evolved beta-galactosidase subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
117878.225 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Bjarnason I, Batt R, Catt S, Macpherson A, Maxton D, Menzies IS: Evaluation of differential disaccharide excretion in urine for non-invasive investigation of altered intestinal disaccharidase activity caused by alpha-glucosidase inhibition, primary hypolactasia, and coeliac disease. Gut. 1996 Sep;39(3):374-81. [PubMed:8949640]
  4. Cook GC: Breath hydrogen concentrations after oral lactose and lactulose in tropical malabsorption and adult hypolactasia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1978;72(3):277-81. [PubMed:97820]
  5. Noone C, Menzies IS, Banatvala JE, Scopes JW: Intestinal permeability and lactose hydrolysis in human rotaviral gastroenteritis assessed simultaneously by non-invasive differential sugar permeation. Eur J Clin Invest. 1986 Jun;16(3):217-25. [PubMed:3089818]
  6. Hall BG, Malik HS: Determining the evolutionary potential of a gene. Mol Biol Evol. 1998 Aug;15(8):1055-61. [PubMed:9718732]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 11, 2019 06:30