Inulin

Identification

Name
Inulin
Accession Number
DB00638  (APRD01034)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to fructose, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
Not Available
Product Ingredients
Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Generic Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
Not Available
Unapproved/Other Products
Not Available
International/Other Brands
Inulin from Jerusalem artichokes / Inulin USP 27
Brand mixtures
Not Available
Categories
UNII
JOS53KRJ01
CAS number
9005-80-5
Weight
Average: 6179.3581
Monoisotopic: 6176.017855026
Chemical Formula
C228H382O191
InChI Key
JYJIGFIDKWBXDU-MNNPPOADSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C228H382O191/c229-1-76-114(268)152(306)153(307)191(381-76)419-228(190(344)151(305)113(38-266)418-228)75-380-227(189(343)150(304)112(37-265)417-227)74-379-226(188(342)149(303)111(36-264)416-226)73-378-225(187(341)148(302)110(35-263)415-225)72-377-224(186(340)147(301)109(34-262)414-224)71-376-223(185(339)146(300)108(33-261)413-223)70-375-222(184(338)145(299)107(32-260)412-222)69-374-221(183(337)144(298)106(31-259)411-221)68-373-220(182(336)143(297)105(30-258)410-220)67-372-219(181(335)142(296)104(29-257)409-219)66-371-218(180(334)141(295)103(28-256)408-218)65-370-217(179(333)140(294)102(27-255)407-217)64-369-216(178(332)139(293)101(26-254)406-216)63-368-215(177(331)138(292)100(25-253)405-215)62-367-214(176(330)137(291)99(24-252)404-214)61-366-213(175(329)136(290)98(23-251)403-213)60-365-212(174(328)135(289)97(22-250)402-212)59-364-211(173(327)134(288)96(21-249)401-211)58-363-210(172(326)133(287)95(20-248)400-210)57-362-209(171(325)132(286)94(19-247)399-209)56-361-208(170(324)131(285)93(18-246)398-208)55-360-207(169(323)130(284)92(17-245)397-207)54-359-206(168(322)129(283)91(16-244)396-206)53-358-205(167(321)128(282)90(15-243)395-205)52-357-204(166(320)127(281)89(14-242)394-204)51-356-203(165(319)126(280)88(13-241)393-203)50-355-202(164(318)125(279)87(12-240)392-202)49-354-201(163(317)124(278)86(11-239)391-201)48-353-200(162(316)123(277)85(10-238)390-200)47-352-199(161(315)122(276)84(9-237)389-199)46-351-198(160(314)121(275)83(8-236)388-198)45-350-197(159(313)120(274)82(7-235)387-197)44-349-196(158(312)119(273)81(6-234)386-196)43-348-195(157(311)118(272)80(5-233)385-195)42-347-194(156(310)117(271)79(4-232)384-194)41-346-193(155(309)116(270)78(3-231)383-193)40-345-192(39-267)154(308)115(269)77(2-230)382-192/h76-191,229-344H,1-75H2/t76-,77-,78-,79-,80-,81-,82-,83-,84-,85-,86-,87-,88-,89-,90-,91-,92-,93-,94-,95-,96-,97-,98-,99-,100-,101-,102-,103-,104-,105-,106-,107-,108-,109-,110-,111-,112-,113-,114-,115-,116-,117-,118-,119-,120-,121-,122-,123-,124-,125-,126-,127-,128-,129-,130-,131-,132-,133-,134-,135-,136-,137-,138-,139-,140-,141-,142-,143-,144-,145-,146-,147-,148-,149-,150-,151-,152+,153-,154+,155+,156+,157+,158+,159+,160+,161+,162+,163+,164+,165+,166+,167+,168+,169+,170+,171+,172+,173+,174+,175+,176+,177+,178+,179+,180+,181+,182+,183+,184+,185+,186+,187+,188+,189+,190+,191-,192-,193-,194-,195-,196-,197-,198-,199-,200-,201-,202-,203-,204-,205-,206-,207-,208-,209-,210-,211-,212-,213-,214-,215-,216-,217-,218-,219-,220-,221-,222-,223-,224-,225-,226-,227-,228+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
SMILES
OC[[email protected]]1O[[email protected]@](CO)(OC[[email protected]@]2(OC[[email protected]@]3(OC[[email protected]@]4(OC[[email protected]@]5(OC[[email protected]@]6(OC[[email protected]@]7(OC[[email protected]@]8(OC[[email protected]@]9(OC[[email protected]@]%10(OC[[email protected]@]%11(OC[[email protected]@]%12(OC[[email protected]@]%13(OC[[email protected]@]%14(OC[[email protected]@]%15(OC[[email protected]@]%16(OC[[email protected]@]%17(OC[[email protected]@]%18(OC[[email protected]@]%19(OC[[email protected]@]%20(OC[[email protected]@]%21(OC[[email protected]@]%22(OC[[email protected]@]%23(OC[[email protected]@]%24(OC[[email protected]@]%25(OC[[email protected]@]%26(OC[[email protected]@]%27(OC[[email protected]@]%28(OC[[email protected]@]%29(OC[[email protected]@]%30(OC[[email protected]@]%31(OC[[email protected]@]%32(OC[[email protected]@]%33(OC[[email protected]@]%34(OC[[email protected]@]%35(OC[[email protected]@]%36(OC[[email protected]@]%37(O[[email protected]]%38O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]]%38O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%37O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%36O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%35O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%34O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%33O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%32O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%31O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%30O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%29O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%28O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%27O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%26O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%25O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%24O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%23O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%22O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%21O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%20O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%19O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%18O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%17O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%16O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%15O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%14O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%13O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%12O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%11O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]%10O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]9O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]8O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]7O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]6O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]5O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]4O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]3O)O[[email protected]](CO)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]2O)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H]1O

Pharmacology

Indication

Historically used in an important medical test of renal function, specifically a measure of glomerular filtration rate. Sometimes used to help relieve symptoms of diabetes mellitus - a condition characterised by hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

The inulin test is a procedure by which the filtering capacity of the glomeruli (the main filtering structures of the kidney) is determined by measuring the rate at which inulin, the test substance, is cleared from blood plasma. Inulin is one of the more suitable and accurate substance to measure because it is a small, inert polysaccharide molecule that readily passes through the glomeruli. The inulin clearance test is performed by injecting inulin, waiting for it to be distributed, and then measuring plasma and urine inulin concentrations by various assays. As nutraceutical agents inulins may have antitumor, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic actions. They may also help to improve mineral absorption and balance and may have antiosteoporotic activity.

Mechanism of action

As a diagnostic agent, inulin is readily soluble and essentially indigestible. It readily passes through the blood and into the urine. It is neither secreted nor resorbed by the kidney making it an excellent indicator for renal clearance rates. The inulin clearance test has largely been succeeded by the creatinine clearance test as a measure of glomerular filtration rate. As a hypoglycemic agent, inulin is not digestible by human enzymes ptyalin and amylase, which are designed to digest starch. As a result, inulin passes through much of the digestive system intact. It is only in the colon that bacteria metabolise inulin, with the release of significant quantities of carbon dioxide and/or methane. Because inulin is not broken down into simple sugars (monosaccharides) by normal digestion, it does not elevate blood sugar levels, hence, helping diabetics regulate blood sugar levels.

TargetActionsOrganism
NCycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase
binder
Paenibacillus macerans
Absorption

Poorly absorbed, passes through to urine unmetabolized

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

None

Metabolism

Metabolized into carbon dioxide and methane by colonic bacteria

Reactions:
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

2-4 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Ernst Hoehn, Curtis J. McKay, E. Donald Murray, "Production of high fructose syrup from inulin involving ultrafiltration." U.S. Patent US4421852, issued July, 1981.

US4421852
General References
  1. Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM, Liang L, Gunn SK, Darlington G, Ellis KJ: A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):471-6. [PubMed:16087995 ]
  2. Coudray C, Demigne C, Rayssiguier Y: Effects of dietary fibers on magnesium absorption in animals and humans. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):1-4. [PubMed:12514257 ]
  3. Coussement PA: Inulin and oligofructose: safe intakes and legal status. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1412S-7S. [PubMed:10395609 ]
  4. Roberfroid MB: Introducing inulin-type fructans. Br J Nutr. 2005 Apr;93 Suppl 1:S13-25. [PubMed:15877886 ]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00171
KEGG Compound
C03323
PubChem Compound
24763
PubChem Substance
46508287
ChemSpider
23149
ChEBI
15443
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201646
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001304
PharmGKB
PA450043
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Inulin
ATC Codes
V04CH01 — Inulin and other polyfructosans
AHFS Codes
Not Available
PDB Entries
Not Available
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (71.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCritically Ill / Premature Birth of Newborn1
2CompletedTreatmentBreath odour / Tongue Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentPremature Neonates1
2Unknown StatusPreventionAdenomatous Polyposis Coli1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFatty Acids, Nonesterified / Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) / Renal Circulation / Renal Plasma Flow1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Iso tex diagnostics inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)178 °CNot Available
water solubility280 mg/mL (at 80 °C), insoluble at room temperatureNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count191ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count116ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area3038.93 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count149ChemAxon
Refractivity1251.4 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Number of Rings38ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as polysaccharides. These are compounds containing more than ten saccharide units.
Kingdom
Chemical entities
Super Class
Organic compounds
Class
Organic Polymers
Sub Class
Polysaccharides
Direct Parent
Polysaccharides
Alternative Parents
O-glycosyl compounds / C-glycosyl compounds / Ketals / Oxanes / Oxolanes / Secondary alcohols / Polyols / Oxacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Polysaccharide / C-glycosyl compound / Glycosyl compound / O-glycosyl compound / Ketal / Oxane / Oxolane / Secondary alcohol / Acetal / Oxacycle
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Paenibacillus macerans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transferase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
cft
Uniprot ID
Q9F0I5
Uniprot Name
Cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase
Molecular Weight
149562.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kawamura M, Uchiyama T, Kuramoto T, Tamura Y, Mizutani K: Formation of a cycloinulo-oligosaccharide from inulin by an extracellular enzyme of Bacillus circulans OKUMZ 31B. Carbohydr Res. 1989 Oct 23;192:83-90. [PubMed:2611778 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 01, 2017 10:30