Porfimer sodium

Identification

Name
Porfimer sodium
Accession Number
DB00707  (APRD00078)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

The purified component of hematoporphyrin derivative, it consists of a mixture of oligomeric porphyrins. It is used in photodynamic therapy (hematoporphyrin photoradiation); to treat malignant lesions with visible light and experimentally as an antiviral agent. It is the first drug to be approved in the use of photodynamic therapy in the United States.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Porfimer natrium
  • Porfimer sodico
  • Porfimère sodique
  • Porfimerum natricum
External IDs
Not Available
Product Ingredients
Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PhotofrinInjection, powder, for solution75 mg/31.8mLIntravenousPinnacle Biologics, Inc.1995-12-27Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
Not Available
Unapproved/Other Products
Not Available
International/Other Brands
PhotoBarr (Axcan) / Photofrin II
Brand mixtures
Not Available
Categories
UNII
M15H03K69B
CAS number
87806-31-3
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Porfimer is a photosensitizing agent used in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors. Porfimer is indicated for the palliation of patients with completely obstructing esophageal cancer, or of patients with partially obstructing esophageal cancer who cannot be satisfactorily treated with Nd:YAG laser therapy, reduction of obstruction and palliation of symptoms in patients with completely or partially obstructing endobronchial nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the treatment of microinvasive endobronchial NSCLC in patients for whom surgery and radiotherapy are not indicated. The cytotoxic and antitumor actions of porfimer are light and oxygen dependent. Tumor selectivity in treatment occurs through a combination of selective retention of porfimer and selective delivery of light.

Mechanism of action

Cellular damage caused by porfimer is a consequence of the propagation of radical reactions. Radical initiation may occur after porfimer absorbs light to form a porphyrin excited state. Spin transfer from porfimer to molecular oxygen may then generate singlet oxygen. Subsequent radical reactions can form superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Tumor death also occurs through ischemic necrosis secondary to vascular occlusion that appears to be partly mediated by thromboxane A2 release.

TargetActionsOrganism
ULow-density lipoprotein receptor
other/unknown
Human
UHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I
antagonist
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
  • 0.49 ± 0.28 L/kg [2 mg/kg dose of porfimer sodium to 4 male cancer patients]
Protein binding

~90%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

10-452 hours

Clearance
  • Renal cl=199.7 +/-  56.9 mL/min [Healthy subjects receiving a single 300-mg oral dose]
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
ACETOPHENONEACETOPHENONE may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Experimental
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved
Aminolevulinic acidAminolevulinic acid may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
BenzophenoneBenzophenone may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
Bergapten5 Methoxypsoralen may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Investigational
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Porfimer.Approved
CarprofenCarprofen may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CyamemazineCyamemazine may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved, Investigational
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Porfimer.Approved, Investigational
HexaminolevulinateHexaminolevulinate may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
MethoxsalenMethoxsalen may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
motexafin gadoliniummotexafin gadolinium may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Investigational
Motexafin lutetiumMotexafin lutetium may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Investigational
OleandrinAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Experimental
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Porfimer.Approved, Vet Approved
ProtoporphyrinProtoporphyrin Ix may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Experimental
RiboflavinRiboflavin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
rostaporfinrostaporfin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Investigational
TalaporfinTalaporfin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Investigational
TemoporfinTemoporfin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
Titanium dioxideTitanium dioxide may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Porfimer.Approved, Investigational
TrioxsalenTrioxsalen may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved
VerteporfinVerteporfin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
Not Available
General References
Not Available
External Links
PubChem Substance
46508600
ChemSpider
10482043
ChEBI
60652
PharmGKB
PA164752658
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Porfimer
ATC Codes
L01XD01 — Porfimer sodium
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB Entries
FDA label
Download (321 KB)
MSDS
Not Available

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSuperficial Bladder Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers / Metastatic Cancers1
2CompletedDiagnosticHead and Neck Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentExtrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Gallbladder Cancer / Liver Cancer / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition1
2CompletedTreatmentMesothelioma, Malignant1
2RecruitingTreatmentEpitheliod Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma1
2TerminatedTreatmentRecurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma / Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary / Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma / Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Tongue Carcinoma1
3CompletedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
3CompletedTreatmentExtrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Gallbladder Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentStage I Esophageal Adenocarcinoma / Stage I Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage II Esophageal Adenocarcinoma / Stage II Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage III Esophageal Adenocarcinoma / Stage III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
3WithdrawnTreatmentCholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct / Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder / Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer / Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer1
4RecruitingTreatmentLung Metastasis / Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma / Jaundice, Obstructive1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLung Cancers1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentStage III Malignant Mesothelioma / Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IV Malignant Mesothelioma / Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Axcan pharma us inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous75 mg/31.8mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Photofrin 75 mg vial3317.04USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5145863 No1992-12-152009-12-15Us
CA2094974 No1996-10-222013-04-27Canada

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Binds LDL, the major cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein of plasma, and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clat...
Gene Name
LDLR
Uniprot ID
P01130
Uniprot Name
Low-density lipoprotein receptor
Molecular Weight
95375.105 Da
References
  1. Korbelik M: Low density lipoprotein receptor pathway in the delivery of Photofrin: how much is it relevant for selective accumulation of the photosensitizer in tumors? J Photochem Photobiol B. 1992 Jan;12(1):107-9. [PubMed:1531856 ]
  2. Tsukagoshi S: [Porfimer sodium (Photofrin-II)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1995 Aug;22(9):1271-8. [PubMed:7661580 ]
  3. Maziere JC, Mora L, Biade S, Maziere C, Santus R: [Potentiation of the photocytotoxic effect of photofrin II: synergistic action of verapamil and lovastatin]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1994 Jun;178(6):1177-88; discussion 1188-9. [PubMed:7994588 ]
  4. Candide C, Morliere P, Maziere JC, Goldstein S, Santus R, Dubertret L, Reyftmann JP, Polonovski J: In vitro interaction of the photoactive anticancer porphyrin derivative photofrin II with low density lipoprotein, and its delivery to cultured human fibroblasts. FEBS Lett. 1986 Oct 20;207(1):133-8. [PubMed:2945739 ]
  5. Maziere JC, Morliere P, Biade S, Santus R: [Antitumor photochemotherapy: biochemical bases, therapeutic uses and perspectives]. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1992;186(1-2):88-106. [PubMed:1450993 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
High affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulins gamma. Functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Gene Name
FCGR1A
Uniprot ID
P12314
Uniprot Name
High affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I
Molecular Weight
42631.525 Da
References
  1. Krutmann J, Athar M, Mendel DB, Khan IU, Guyre PM, Mukhtar H, Elmets CA: Inhibition of the high affinity Fc receptor (Fc gamma RI) on human monocytes by porphyrin photosensitization is highly specific and mediated by the generation of superoxide radicals. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jul 5;264(19):11407-13. [PubMed:2544592 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 22, 2017 10:21