Identification

Name
Riluzole
Accession Number
DB00740  (APRD00145)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A glutamate antagonist (receptors, glutamate) used as an anticonvulsant (anticonvulsants) and to prolong the survival of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Riluzole is marketed as Rilutek by Sanofi.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Riluzol
  • Riluzole
  • Riluzolum
External IDs
PK 26124 / RP 54274 / RPR 202
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Riluzole HydrochlorideNot AvailableNot AvailableQEAOELIJQRYJJS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Mylan-riluzoleTablet50 mgOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2012-10-23Not applicableCanada
RilutekTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralSanofi Aventis1995-12-12Not applicableUs00075 7700 60 nlmimage10 e51c72e3
RilutekTablet50 mg/1OralCovis Pharma2016-08-01Not applicableUs
RilutekTablet50 mg/1OralKaiser Foundations Hospitals2014-01-20Not applicableUs
RilutekTablet50 mg/1OralCovis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-07-15Not applicableUs
RilutekTablet50 mgOralSanofi Aventis2000-10-26Not applicableCanada
RilutekTablet, film coated50 mgOralAventis Pharma Ltd.1996-06-10Not applicableEu
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2014-01-082016-10-13Us
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Riluzole ZentivaTablet, film coated50 mgOralAventis Pharma Ltd.2012-05-07Not applicableEu
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-riluzoleTablet50 mgOralApotex Corporation2012-09-25Not applicableCanada
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals2013-07-22Not applicableUs
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralGlobal Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories, Inc.2003-01-292016-11-29Us
RiluzoleTablet50 mg/1OralAscend Laboratories, LLC2016-03-31Not applicableUs
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2013-06-18Not applicableUs
RiluzoleTablet50 mg/1OralKaiser Foundations Hospitals2016-09-29Not applicableUs
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2015-03-31Not applicableUs
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralApotex Corporation2013-06-18Not applicableUs
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralKaiser Foundations Hospitals2014-05-14Not applicableUs
RiluzoleTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc.,Usa2013-06-18Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Fanizan (Actavis) / Laidec (Sun Pro) / Lizolorol (Actavis) / Lizorolol (ratiopharm) / Rilustad (STADA) / Sclefic (Actavis) / Xie Yi Li (Lunan Pharm) / Zolerilis (Actavis)
Categories
UNII
7LJ087RS6F
CAS number
1744-22-5
Weight
Average: 234.198
Monoisotopic: 234.007468097
Chemical Formula
C8H5F3N2OS
InChI Key
FTALBRSUTCGOEG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H5F3N2OS/c9-8(10,11)14-4-1-2-5-6(3-4)15-7(12)13-5/h1-3H,(H2,12,13)
IUPAC Name
6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine
SMILES
NC1=NC2=C(S1)C=C(OC(F)(F)F)C=C2

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's Disease)

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Riluzole, a member of the benzothiazole class, is indicated for the treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Riluzole extends survival and/or time to tracheostomy. It is also neuroprotective in various in vivo experimental models of neuronal injury involving excitotoxic mechanisms. The etiology and pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are not known, although a number of hypotheses have been advanced. One hypothesis is that motor neurons, made vulnerable through either genetic predisposition or environmental factors, are injured by glutamate. In some cases of familial ALS the enzyme superoxide dismutase has been found to be defective.

Mechanism of action

The mode of action of riluzole is unknown. Its pharmacological properties include the following, some of which may be related to its effect: 1) an inhibitory effect on glutamate release (activation of glutamate reuptake), 2) inactivation of voltage-dependent sodium channels, and 3) ability to interfere with intracellular events that follow transmitter binding at excitatory amino acid receptors.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ACystine/glutamate transporter
inducer
Human
Absorption

Riluzole is well-absorbed (approximately 90%), with average absolute oral bioavailability of about 60% (CV=30%). A high fat meal decreases absorption, reducing AUC by about 20% and peak blood levels by about 45%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

96% bound to plasma proteins, mainly to albumin and lipoprotein over the clinical concentration range.

Metabolism

Riluzole is extensively metabolized to six major and a number of minor metabolites, which have not all been identified to date. Metabolism is mostly hepatic, consisting of cytochrome P450–dependent hydroxylation and glucuronidation. CYP1A2 is the primary isozyme involved in N-hydroxylation; CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2E1 are considered unlikely to contribute significantly to riluzole metabolism in humans.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

The mean elimination half-life of riluzole is 12 hours (CV=35%) after repeated doses.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
CaffeineThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DosulepinThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be increased when it is combined with Eltrombopag.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Riluzole can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Riluzole can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be decreased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Riluzole can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Take on an empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Pratap Padi, Madhusudhan Ganta, Satyanarayana Bollikonda, Sridhar Chaganti, Ramulu Akula, Loka Maheshwari Dommati, "PROCESS FOR PREPARING RILUZOLE." U.S. Patent US20080108827, issued May 08, 2008.

US20080108827
General References
  1. Song JH, Huang CS, Nagata K, Yeh JZ, Narahashi T: Differential action of riluzole on tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Aug;282(2):707-14. [PubMed:9262334]
  2. Coric V, Taskiran S, Pittenger C, Wasylink S, Mathalon DH, Valentine G, Saksa J, Wu YT, Gueorguieva R, Sanacora G, Malison RT, Krystal JH: Riluzole augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open-label trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Sep 1;58(5):424-8. [PubMed:15993857]
  3. van Kan HJ, Groeneveld GJ, Kalmijn S, Spieksma M, van den Berg LH, Guchelaar HJ: Association between CYP1A2 activity and riluzole clearance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;59(3):310-3. [PubMed:15752377]
  4. Zarate CA Jr, Payne JL, Quiroz J, Sporn J, Denicoff KK, Luckenbaugh D, Charney DS, Manji HK: An open-label trial of riluzole in patients with treatment-resistant major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;161(1):171-4. [PubMed:14702270]
  5. Mathew SJ, Manji HK, Charney DS: Novel drugs and therapeutic targets for severe mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Aug;33(9):2080-92. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301652. Epub 2008 Jan 2. [PubMed:18172433]
  6. Lamanauskas N, Nistri A: Riluzole blocks persistent Na+ and Ca2+ currents and modulates release of glutamate via presynaptic NMDA receptors on neonatal rat hypoglossal motoneurons in vitro. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 May;27(10):2501-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06211.x. Epub 2008 Apr 26. [PubMed:18445055]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14878
KEGG Drug
D00775
KEGG Compound
C07937
PubChem Compound
5070
PubChem Substance
46508094
ChemSpider
4892
BindingDB
30705
ChEBI
8863
ChEMBL
CHEMBL744
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000527
PharmGKB
PA451251
IUPHAR
2326
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Riluzole
ATC Codes
N07XX02 — Riluzole
AHFS Codes
  • 28:92.00 — Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents
FDA label
Download (125 KB)
MSDS
Download (29.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Solid Neoplasm / Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm / Recurrent Melanoma / Refractory Malignant Solid Neoplasm / Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma / Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma / Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma / Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IV Skin Melanoma / Stages III Skin Melanoma1
1RecruitingDiagnosticDependence, Cocaine1
1RecruitingTreatmentPTSD1
1TerminatedTreatmentMelanoma (Skin)1
1TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Cancers / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1WithdrawnTreatmentCancer, Breast1
1, 2CompletedOtherDepression / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depresssion / Moods Disorders1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Diseases1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentPTSD1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSecondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS)1
2CompletedPreventionDisseminated Sclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2CompletedTreatmentAsperger's Disorder / Autism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Autism, Early Infantile / Developmental Disorder / Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCerebellar Ataxia / Disseminated Sclerosis / Hereditary Ataxia1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) / Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Bipolar Affective Disorders / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar1
2TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
2, 3CompletedSupportive CareAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCerebellar Ataxia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSMA1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCervical Spondylotic Myelopathy1
3CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentMultiple System Atrophy (MSA) / Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)1
4CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
4CompletedTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
4CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Tiredness1
4TerminatedTreatmentMemory Disturbances / Mood1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentSchizoaffective / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceChronic Spinal Cord Injury1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Impax laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral50 mg
TabletOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rilutek 50 mg tablet18.77USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5527814No1993-06-182013-06-18Us
CA2151604No2005-09-202013-12-10Canada
CA2117466No2000-01-252012-10-22Canada

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)119 °CNot Available
logP2.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0395 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.83ALOGPS
logP3.4ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area48.14 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity44.37 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.995
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9799
Caco-2 permeable-0.5377
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8045
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8245
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6998
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.859
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8679
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7032
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9072
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8332
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6647
Ames testAMES toxic0.6799
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9001
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity3.6843 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9775
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-2590000000-5a9d0f7cdad7e4f2ec6b
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0390000000-4bd44ae3d25f047943e8
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-3940000000-1da38288b84e863a64e5

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzothiazoles. These are organic compounds containing a benzene fused to a thiazole ring (a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom and one sulfur atom).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzothiazoles
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Benzothiazoles
Alternative Parents
Benzenoids / 2-amino-1,3-thiazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Trihalomethanes / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organofluorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
1,3-benzothiazole / Benzenoid / 1,3-thiazol-2-amine / Azole / Thiazole / Heteroaromatic compound / Trihalomethane / Azacycle / Amine / Organopnictogen compound
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
benzothiazoles (CHEBI:8863)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schwartz G, Fehlings MG: Secondary injury mechanisms of spinal cord trauma: a novel therapeutic approach for the management of secondary pathophysiology with the sodium channel blocker riluzole. Prog Brain Res. 2002;137:177-90. [PubMed:12440368]
  4. Song JH, Huang CS, Nagata K, Yeh JZ, Narahashi T: Differential action of riluzole on tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Aug;282(2):707-14. [PubMed:9262334]
  5. Weiss S, Benoist D, White E, Teng W, Saint DA: Riluzole protects against cardiac ischaemia and reperfusion damage via block of the persistent sodium current. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;160(5):1072-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00766.x. [PubMed:20590601]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.
Gene Name
SLC7A11
Uniprot ID
Q9UPY5
Uniprot Name
Cystine/glutamate transporter
Molecular Weight
55422.44 Da
References
  1. Wokke J: Riluzole. Lancet. 1996 Sep 21;348(9030):795-9. [PubMed:8813989]
  2. Azbill RD, Mu X, Springer JE: Riluzole increases high-affinity glutamate uptake in rat spinal cord synaptosomes. Brain Res. 2000 Jul 21;871(2):175-80. [PubMed:10899284]
  3. Dunlop J, Beal McIlvain H, She Y, Howland DS: Impaired spinal cord glutamate transport capacity and reduced sensitivity to riluzole in a transgenic superoxide dismutase mutant rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2003 Mar 1;23(5):1688-96. [PubMed:12629173]
  4. Gosselin RD, O'Connor RM, Tramullas M, Julio-Pieper M, Dinan TG, Cryan JF: Riluzole normalizes early-life stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in rats: role of spinal glutamate reuptake mechanisms. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun;138(7):2418-25. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.03.003. Epub 2010 Mar 10. [PubMed:20226190]
  5. Hayashida K, Parker RA, Eisenach JC: Activation of glutamate transporters in the locus coeruleus paradoxically activates descending inhibition in rats. Brain Res. 2010 Mar 4;1317:80-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.12.086. Epub 2010 Jan 6. [PubMed:20059984]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [PubMed:19754423]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Milane A, Vautier S, Chacun H, Meininger V, Bensimon G, Farinotti R, Fernandez C: Interactions between riluzole and ABCG2/BCRP transporter. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Mar 6;452(1):12-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.12.061. Epub 2009 Jan 6. [PubMed:19146924]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34