Polymyxin B sulfate

Identification

Name
Polymyxin B sulfate
Accession Number
DB00781  (APRD01190)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Polymyxin B sulfate is a mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic. All gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and the gram-negative cocci, N. gonorrhea and N. menigitidis, are resistant. It is appropriate for treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and blood stream, caused by susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Polimixina B
  • Polymixin B sulfate
  • Polymyxin B sulfate
  • Polymyxin B sulphate
  • Polymyxine B
  • Polymyxinum B
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aerosporin Sterile PowderPowder, for solution500000 unitIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalGlaxo Wellcome1952-12-311998-07-30Canada
Polymyxin B for Injection USPPowder, for solution50 mgIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicSterimax Inc2012-05-03Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500000 [iU]/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicAlvogen, Inc.2017-09-23Not applicableUs
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500000 [USP'U]/1Intramuscular; IntravenousX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-25Not applicableUs
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500000 [USP'U]/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2015-09-09Not applicableUs
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, for solution500000 [iU]/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicBedford Pharmaceuticals1998-06-012014-03-31Us
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500000 [USP'U]/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1994-09-30Not applicableUs
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500000 [USP'U]/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-01-15Not applicableUs
Polymyxin BInjection, solution500000 1/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2016-06-012019-03-31Us
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500000 [USP'U]/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicAuro Medics Pharma Llc2016-04-04Not applicableUs
Polymyxin BInjection500000 1/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; IntravenousXellia Pharmaceuticals ApS2014-01-24Not applicableUs
Polymyxin BInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500000 [iU]/1Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; OphthalmicAthenex Pharmaceutical Division, Llc.2017-01-01Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
10 Person ANSIPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Lidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
25 Person ANSIPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
4042 First Aid KitPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
4050 First Aid KitPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
4064 First Aid KitPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
4065 First Aid KitPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
4066 First Aid KitPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
4067 First Aid KitPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
50 Person ANSIPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Water (98.16 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-06-02Not applicableUs
7 Select First Aid Triple AntibioticPolymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g)OintmentTopical7-ELEVEN, INC.2016-12-08Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Aerosporin (GlaxoSmithKline) / Metamyxin (Pola Pharma) / Polomyxin B (Fuji Yakuhin) / Poly-Rx (X-Gen) / Polyfax (Intra) / Polyxx (Celon)
Categories
UNII
19371312D4
CAS number
1405-20-5
Weight
Average: 1189.36
Monoisotopic: 1188.592106483
Chemical Formula
C48H84N16O17S
InChI Key
HNDFYNOVSOOGDU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C48H82N16O13.H2O4S/c1-27(2)24-37-47(76)59-32(11-19-52)41(70)56-31(10-18-51)43(72)61-35(14-22-65)39(68)54-21-13-34(45(74)57-33(12-20-53)44(73)64-38(48(77)63-37)25-28-6-4-3-5-7-28)60-42(71)30(9-17-50)58-46(75)36(15-23-66)62-40(69)29(8-16-49)55-26-67;1-5(2,3)4/h3-7,26-27,29-38,65-66H,8-25,49-53H2,1-2H3,(H,54,68)(H,55,67)(H,56,70)(H,57,74)(H,58,75)(H,59,76)(H,60,71)(H,61,72)(H,62,69)(H,63,77)(H,64,73);(H2,1,2,3,4)
IUPAC Name
4-amino-N-{1-[(3-amino-1-{[6,9,18-tris(2-aminoethyl)-15-benzyl-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-12-(2-methylpropyl)-2,5,8,11,14,17,20-heptaoxo-1,4,7,10,13,16,19-heptaazacyclotricosan-21-yl]carbamoyl}propyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxypropyl}-2-formamidobutanamide; sulfuric acid
SMILES
OS(O)(=O)=O.[H]N([H])CCC(N([H])C=O)C(=O)N([H])C(CCO)C(=O)N([H])C(CCN([H])[H])C(=O)N([H])C1CCN([H])C(=O)C(CCO)N([H])C(=O)C(CCN([H])[H])N([H])C(=O)C(CCN([H])[H])N([H])C(=O)C(CC(C)C)N([H])C(=O)C(CC2=CC=CC=C2)N([H])C(=O)C(CCN([H])[H])N([H])C1=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and blood stream, caused by susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Polymyxin B sulfate is a mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic. All gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and the gram-negative cocci, N. gonorrhea and N. menigitidis, are resistant.

Mechanism of action

Polymyxin B sulfate has a bactericidal action against almost all gram-negative bacilli except the Proteus group. Polymyxin B sulfate interacts with the lipopolysaccharide of the cytoplasmic outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, altering membrane permeability and causing cell death. It does not need to enter the cell.

TargetActionsOrganism
ABacterial outer membrane
incorporation into and destabilization
Absorption

Not absorbed from the normal alimentary tract.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

The drug is excreted slowly by the kidneys.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Overdose can cause stomach pains, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Polymyxin B sulfate is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Polymyxin B sulfate is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Polymyxin B sulfate is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
AbacavirPolymyxin B sulfate may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarbosePolymyxin B sulfate may decrease the excretion rate of Acarbose which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Polymyxin B sulfate is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Polymyxin B sulfate is combined with Acemetacin.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Polymyxin B sulfate is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenPolymyxin B sulfate may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Polymyxin B sulfate is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Yuan Z, Tam VH: Polymyxin B: a new strategy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 May;17(5):661-8. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.5.661 . [PubMed:18447592]
  2. Zavascki AP, Goldani LZ, Li J, Nation RL: Polymyxin B for the treatment of multidrug-resistant pathogens: a critical review. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Dec;60(6):1206-15. Epub 2007 Sep 17. [PubMed:17878146]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014919
KEGG Drug
D01066
KEGG Compound
C11613
PubChem Compound
4868
PubChem Substance
46507302
ChemSpider
2340870
ChEMBL
CHEMBL241797
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001323
PharmGKB
PA451027
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Polymyxin_B
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.28.28 — Polymyxins
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
1CompletedTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma1
1RecruitingTreatmentRetinoblastoma1
1, 2WithdrawnSupportive CareDysbiosis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Inflammatory Reaction1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionEdema Face1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSepsis1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentBacteremia / Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia / Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentMinor burns1
3CompletedPreventionFlu caused by Influenza1
3CompletedTreatmentCommunity Acquired Infections / Infections, Gram-Positive Bacterial / Pneumonia, Pneumococcal1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentClostridium Difficile Infection (CDI)1
3RecruitingPreventionCritical Illness / Sepsis / Shock, Septic / Ventilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia1
3RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Resistant Infection / Traumas1
3RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Open1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute / Conjunctivitis, Bacterial1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHordeolum1
4CompletedBasic ScienceFlu caused by Influenza1
4CompletedPreventionFlu caused by Influenza1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis1
4CompletedTreatmentFunctional Dyspepsia / Helicobacter Pylori / Peptic Ulcers1
4CompletedTreatmentHelicobacter Pylori Treatment Failure1
4CompletedTreatmentIndigestion / Peptic Ulcers1
4CompletedTreatmentPyelonephritis1
4CompletedTreatmentVertebral Osteomyelitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentHospital Infection1
4WithdrawnPreventionComplications; Breast Prosthesis, Infection or Inflammation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiverticulitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePenicillin Allergy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionInfection NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCorneal Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiverticulitis, Colonic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNasal Carriers of Staphylococcus Aureus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentScleral Buckling1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAppendicitis Acute1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableCystic Fibrosis (CF)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • X gen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Paddock laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Abraxis BioScience Inc.
  • Accutome Inc.
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • AG Marin Pharmaceuticals
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Alba Pharmacal
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Clipper Distributing Co. LLC
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • DSM Corp.
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Eye Care and Cure Corp.
  • Eye Supply Usa Inc.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Gonberetica
  • H and H Laboratories
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Hurst Pharmaceutical
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • King Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Marlop Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Monarch Pharmacy
  • MWI Veterinary Supply Co.
  • Nycomed Inc.
  • Ocusoft
  • OMJ Pharmaceuticals
  • Paddock Labs
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmaforce Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Rx Veterinary Products
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Stat Scripts LLC
  • Teral Laboratories
  • Toku E Company
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vedco Inc.
  • Wa Butler Co.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wilson Ophthalmic Corp.
  • X-Gen Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOral; Topical
Kit
KitTopical
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical500000 unit
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Ointment; swabTopical
SolutionAuricular (otic)
SuspensionTopical
SwabTopical
LozengeBuccal
StickTopical
LiquidAuricular (otic)
SuspensionOphthalmic
SolutionIrrigation
Suspension / dropsAuricular (otic)
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionAuricular (otic); Ophthalmic
IrrigantIrrigation
SolutionUrethral
OintmentOphthalmic
SuspensionAuricular (otic)
GelTopical
LiquidOphthalmic
LiquidAuricular (otic); Ophthalmic
InjectionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous500000 1/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Ophthalmic500000 [iU]/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Ophthalmic500000 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Ophthalmic500000 1/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Ophthalmic500000 [iU]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Ophthalmic500000 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500000 [USP'U]/1
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Ophthalmic500000 1/1
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Ophthalmic50 mg
PowderTopical
CreamTopical
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic); Ophthalmic
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
OintmentOphthalmic; Topical
OintmentTopical
SolutionOphthalmic
LozengeOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Polymyxin b 100 million unit4039.2USD each
Polymyxin b sulfate vial13.65USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility25 mg/mLNot Available
logP-4.861Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.42 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-11ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count18ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count18ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area490.66 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count25ChemAxon
Refractivity277.44 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability114.18 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.884
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9879
Caco-2 permeable-0.7581
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8438
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8392
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8657
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9411
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8693
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7766
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5151
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9159
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9365
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9187
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9012
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6778
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9869
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8798
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8926
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9829
Rat acute toxicity3.0984 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9788
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7856
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

1. Bacterial outer membrane
Kind
Group
Organism
Not Available
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Incorporation into and destabilization
References
  1. Yuan Z, Tam VH: Polymyxin B: a new strategy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 May;17(5):661-8. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.5.661 . [PubMed:18447592]
  2. Zavascki AP, Goldani LZ, Li J, Nation RL: Polymyxin B for the treatment of multidrug-resistant pathogens: a critical review. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Dec;60(6):1206-15. Epub 2007 Sep 17. [PubMed:17878146]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 22, 2019 22:55