Identification

Name
Etidronic acid
Accession Number
DB01077  (APRD00964)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Etidronic acid is a first generation bisphosphonate similar to clodronic acid and tiludronic acid.1 These drugs were developed to mimic the action of pyrophosphate, a regulator of calcification and decalcification.4 Etidronate’s use has decreased over the years in favor of the third generation, nitrogen containing bisphosphonate zoledronic acid, ibandronic acid, minodronic acid, and risedronic acid.1

Etidronic acid was granted FDA approval on 1 September 1977.7

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (1-hydroxy-ethylidene)diphosphonic acid
  • (1-Hydroxyethylene)diphosphonic acid
  • (1-Hydroxyethylidene)bis(phosphonic acid)
  • (1-Hydroxyethylidene)bisphosphonic acid
  • (1-Hydroxyethylidene)diphosphonic acid
  • (Hydroxyethylidene)diphosphonic acid
  • 1-Hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonoethane
  • 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid
  • 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-bisphosphonic acid
  • 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate
  • 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid
  • 1-Hydroxyethanediphosphonic acid
  • 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate
  • 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid
  • 1,1,1-Ethanetriol diphosphonate
  • Acetodiphosphonic acid
  • acide étidronique
  • ácido etidrónico
  • acidum etidronicum
  • EHDP
  • Ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonic acid
  • Ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate
  • Ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid
  • Etidronate
  • Etidronic acid
  • Etidronsäure
  • HEDP
  • Hydroxyethanediphosphonic acid
  • Oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid
External IDs
M05BA01 / NSC-227995
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Etidronate disodiumM16PXG993G7414-83-7GWBBVOVXJZATQQ-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act EtidronateTabletOralTEVA Canada Limited2004-11-10Not applicableCanada
Act EtidronateTabletOralTEVA Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
DidronelTablet400 mg/1OralWarner Chilcott1983-08-122013-03-01Us
DidronelTablet200 mg/1OralWarner Chilcott1977-01-092010-04-30Us
DidronelTablet400 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1983-08-122010-06-30Us
DidronelTablet400 mg/1OralWarner Chilcott2009-11-012013-03-01Us
Didronel Inj 50mg/mlSolutionIntravenousMgi Pharma Inc.1991-12-312004-09-30Canada
Didronel Tab 200mgTabletOralProcter And Gamble1993-12-312010-07-07Canada
EtidronateTabletOralCobalt LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada
EtidronateTabletOralCobalt LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-etidronateTabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-etidronateTabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Etidronate DisodiumTablet200 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management2008-01-022019-12-31Us
Etidronate DisodiumTablet400 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-01-022019-12-31Us
Etidronate DisodiumTablet200 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-01-022019-11-30Us
Etidronate DisodiumTablet400 mg/1OralGenpharm Ulc2015-11-012015-11-24Us
Etidronate DisodiumTablet200 mg/1OralGenpharm Ulc2015-11-012015-11-24Us
Mylan-etidronateTabletOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2003-06-042017-01-09Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act EtidrocalEtidronate disodium (400 mg) + Calcium (500 mg)TabletOralTEVA Canada Limited2008-04-10Not applicableCanada
DidrocalEtidronate disodium (400 mg) + Calcium (500 mg)Kit; TabletOralWarner Chilcott1995-12-312015-11-19Canada
EtidrocalEtidronate disodium (400 mg) + Calcium (500 mg)TabletOralCobalt LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada
EtidrocalEtidronate disodium (400 mg) + Calcium (500 mg)TabletOralSanis Health Inc2010-07-262017-07-31Canada
Mylan-eti-cal CarepacEtidronate disodium (400 mg) + Calcium (500 mg)Kit; TabletOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2008-04-102017-01-09Canada
Novo-etidronatecalEtidronate disodium (400 mg) + Calcium (500 mg)Kit; TabletOralTEVA Canada Limited2009-06-152019-07-09Canada
Ntp-etidronate CalciumEtidronate disodium (400 mg) + Calcium (500 mg)Kit; TabletOralTEVA Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Etidron (Gentili)
Categories
UNII
M2F465ROXU
CAS number
2809-21-4
Weight
Average: 206.0282
Monoisotopic: 205.974525634
Chemical Formula
C2H8O7P2
InChI Key
DBVJJBKOTRCVKF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H8O7P2/c1-2(3,10(4,5)6)11(7,8)9/h3H,1H3,(H2,4,5,6)(H2,7,8,9)
IUPAC Name
(1-hydroxy-1-phosphonoethyl)phosphonic acid
SMILES
CC(O)(P(O)(O)=O)P(O)(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Etidronate is indicated to treat Paget's disease of bone, as well as the treatment and prevention of heterotropic ossification after total hip replacement of spinal cord injury.7

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Etidronic acid is a first generation bisphosphonate that inhibits the action of osteoclasts, preventing bone resporption.7 It has a wide therapeutic index as overdoses are not associated with severe toxicity and a long duration of action as it slowly releases from the bone.7 Patients should be counselled regarding the risk of upper gastrointestinal adverse reactions.7

Mechanism of action

Bisphosphonates are taken into the bone where they bind to hydroxyapatite. Bone resorption by osteoclasts causes local acidification, releasing the bisphosphonate, which is taken into the osteoclast by fluid-phase endocytosis.2 Endocytic vesicles become acidified, releasing bisphosphonates into the cytosol of osteoclasts where they act.2

Osteoclasts mediate resorption of bone.3 When osteoclasts bind to bone they form podosomes, ring structures of F-actin.3 Disruption of the podosomes causes osteoclasts to detach from bones, preventing bone resorption.3

First generation bisphosphonates closely mimic the structure of pyrophosphate, which can be incorporated into ATP anologues that cannot be hydrolyzed, disrupting all ATP mediated actions of osteoclasts.6

TargetActionsOrganism
AHydroxylapatite
antagonist
Humans
UReceptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase S
inhibitor
Humans
UV-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A
inhibitor
Humans
UADP/ATP translocase 1
inhibitor
Humans
UADP/ATP translocase 2
inhibitor
Humans
UADP/ATP translocase 3
inhibitor
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Etidronic acid has an oral bioavailability of 1-10%.5 Further data regarding pharmacokinetics of etidronic acid are not readily available.5,7

Volume of distribution

Etidronic acid has a volume of distribution of 0.3-1.3L/kg.5

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Etidronic acid is not metabolized in vivo

Route of elimination

Absorbed etidronic acid is eliminated in the urine, while the unabsorbed drug is eliminated in the feces.7

Half life

The half life of etidronate is approximately 1-6 hours.5,7

Clearance

Etidronic acid has a renal clearance of 0.09L/kg/h.5

Toxicity

Patients experiencing an overdose may present with hypocalcemia, vomiting, parasthesia, and diarrhea.7 Overdose can be treated with symptomatic and supportive treatment that may include management of electrolyte imbalances and intravenous calcium gluconate.7

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Etidronic acid.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Etidronic acid.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Etidronic acid.
AcyclovirThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Acyclovir is combined with Etidronic acid.
AdefovirThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Adefovir is combined with Etidronic acid.
Adefovir dipivoxilThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Adefovir dipivoxil is combined with Etidronic acid.
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Alclofenac is combined with Etidronic acid.
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alendronic acid is combined with Etidronic acid.
AlmasilateThe serum concentration of Etidronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Almasilate.
AlminoprofenThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Alminoprofen is combined with Etidronic acid.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid multivalent ions. Separate administration from multivalent ions by at least two hours.
  • Take on an empty stomach.
  • Take with a full glass of water.

References

Synthesis Reference

Rogovin, L.,Brawn, D.P. and Kalberg, AN.; US. Patent 3,400,147; September 3,1968; assigned to The Procter & Gamble Co.

General References
  1. Cremers S, Drake MT, Ebetino FH, Bilezikian JP, Russell RGG: Pharmacology of bisphosphonates. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Jun;85(6):1052-1062. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13867. Epub 2019 Feb 28. [PubMed:30650219]
  2. Russell RG, Watts NB, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ: Mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: similarities and differences and their potential influence on clinical efficacy. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Jun;19(6):733-59. doi: 10.1007/s00198-007-0540-8. [PubMed:18214569]
  3. Murakami H, Takahashi N, Tanaka S, Nakamura I, Udagawa N, Nakajo S, Nakaya K, Abe M, Yuda Y, Konno F, Barbier A, Suda T: Tiludronate inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in osteoclasts. Bone. 1997 May;20(5):399-404. [PubMed:9145236]
  4. Sansom LN, Necciari J, Thiercelin JF: Human pharmacokinetics of tiludronate. Bone. 1995 Nov;17(5 Suppl):479S-483S. [PubMed:8573422]
  5. Dunn CJ, Fitton A, Sorkin EM: Etidronic acid. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in resorptive bone disease. Drugs Aging. 1994 Dec;5(6):446-74. doi: 10.2165/00002512-199405060-00006. [PubMed:7858370]
  6. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.022. Epub 2011 May 1. [PubMed:21555003]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: Didronel Etidronate Oral Tablet (Discontinued) [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015210
KEGG Drug
D02373
KEGG Compound
C07736
PubChem Compound
3305
PubChem Substance
46507694
ChemSpider
3189
BindingDB
50115102
RxNav
1356715
ChEBI
4907
ChEMBL
CHEMBL871
ZINC
ZINC000003830813
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000629
PharmGKB
PA449548
PDBe Ligand
911
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Etidronic_acid
ATC Codes
M05BB01 — Etidronic acid and calcium, sequentialM05BA01 — Etidronic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 92:24.00 — Bone Resorption Inhibitors
  • 92:00.00 — Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents
PDB Entries
3sdv
FDA label
Download (42 KB)
MSDS
Download (44.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentArterial Calcification / CD73 Deficiency1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer Metastatic to Bone1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdenocarcinomas / Esophageal Cancers / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableAtypical Femoral Fractures / Bisphosphonate Therapy / Osteoporosis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNecrotic Pulp1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Genpharm LP
  • MGI Pharma
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Norwich Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Procter & Gamble
  • Warner Chilcott Co. Inc.
  • WC Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
TabletOral
TabletOral200 mg/1
TabletOral400 mg/1
SolutionIntravenous
Kit; tabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Didronel 400 mg tablet8.31USD tablet
Didronel 200 mg tablet4.16USD tablet
Co Etidronate 200 mg Tablet0.86USD tablet
Mylan-Etidronate 200 mg Tablet0.86USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)198-199ChemSpider
boiling point (°C)578.8ChemSpider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.5 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.77ALOGPS
logP-2.3ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area135.29 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity34.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8918
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8901
Caco-2 permeable-0.8581
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7483
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9639
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9951
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9726
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7545
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8473
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6987
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9061
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9047
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9222
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9186
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9595
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9873
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8875
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5282
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7701
Rat acute toxicity1.9653 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9519
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9495
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-a9f75f8364e22febc69e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-7e7c121eec680994473e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0390000000-f6ab7574deae5f44d8b4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-08j0-9620000000-0618a9cfbf1724258f3b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9100000000-cfaba7073e26e33fa329

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as bisphosphonates. These are organic compounds containing two phosphonate groups linked together through a carbon atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic phosphonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Bisphosphonates
Direct Parent
Bisphosphonates
Alternative Parents
Organic phosphonic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organophosphorus compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Bisphosphonate / Organophosphonic acid / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organophosphorus compound / Organooxygen compound / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
1,1-bis(phosphonic acid) (CHEBI:4907)

Targets

Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
References
  1. Grases F, Sanchis P, Perello J, Isern B, Prieto RM, Fernandez-Palomeque C, Torres JJ: Effect of crystallization inhibitors on vascular calcifications induced by vitamin D: a pilot study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Circ J. 2007 Jul;71(7):1152-6. [PubMed:17587727]
  2. Nancollas GH, Tang R, Phipps RJ, Henneman Z, Gulde S, Wu W, Mangood A, Russell RG, Ebetino FH: Novel insights into actions of bisphosphonates on bone: differences in interactions with hydroxyapatite. Bone. 2006 May;38(5):617-27. Epub 2005 Jul 20. [PubMed:16046206]
  3. Ono K, Wada S: [Regulation of calcification by bisphosphonates]. Clin Calcium. 2004 Jun;14(6):60-3. [PubMed:15577056]
  4. Takaishi Y: [Treatment of periodontal disease, prevention and bisphosphonate]. Clin Calcium. 2003 Feb;13(2):173-6. [PubMed:15775080]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function
Interacts with LAR-interacting protein LIP.1.
Gene Name
PTPRS
Uniprot ID
Q13332
Uniprot Name
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase S
Molecular Weight
217039.825 Da
References
  1. Schmidt A, Rutledge SJ, Endo N, Opas EE, Tanaka H, Wesolowski G, Leu CT, Huang Z, Ramachandaran C, Rodan SB, Rodan GA: Protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity regulates osteoclast formation and function: inhibition by alendronate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 2;93(7):3068-73. [PubMed:8610169]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.022. Epub 2011 May 1. [PubMed:21555003]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proton-transporting atpase activity, rotational mechanism
Specific Function
Catalytic subunit of the peripheral V1 complex of vacuolar ATPase. V-ATPase vacuolar ATPase is responsible for acidifying a variety of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name
ATP6V1A
Uniprot ID
P38606
Uniprot Name
V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A
Molecular Weight
68303.5 Da
References
  1. David P, Nguyen H, Barbier A, Baron R: The bisphosphonate tiludronate is a potent inhibitor of the osteoclast vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. J Bone Miner Res. 1996 Oct;11(10):1498-507. [PubMed:8889850]
  2. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.022. Epub 2011 May 1. [PubMed:21555003]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Adenine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the exchange of cytoplasmic ADP with mitochondrial ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Gene Name
SLC25A4
Uniprot ID
P12235
Uniprot Name
ADP/ATP translocase 1
Molecular Weight
33064.265 Da
References
  1. Lehenkari PP, Kellinsalmi M, Napankangas JP, Ylitalo KV, Monkkonen J, Rogers MJ, Azhayev A, Vaananen HK, Hassinen IE: Further insight into mechanism of action of clodronate: inhibition of mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase by a nonhydrolyzable, adenine-containing metabolite. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):1255-62. [PubMed:11961144]
  2. Rogers MJ, Crockett JC, Coxon FP, Monkkonen J: Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 26. [PubMed:21111853]
  3. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.022. Epub 2011 May 1. [PubMed:21555003]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the exchange of cytoplasmic ADP with mitochondrial ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane. As part of the mitotic spindle-associated MMXD complex it may play a role in chromosome seg...
Gene Name
SLC25A5
Uniprot ID
P05141
Uniprot Name
ADP/ATP translocase 2
Molecular Weight
32851.965 Da
References
  1. Lehenkari PP, Kellinsalmi M, Napankangas JP, Ylitalo KV, Monkkonen J, Rogers MJ, Azhayev A, Vaananen HK, Hassinen IE: Further insight into mechanism of action of clodronate: inhibition of mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase by a nonhydrolyzable, adenine-containing metabolite. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):1255-62. [PubMed:11961144]
  2. Rogers MJ, Crockett JC, Coxon FP, Monkkonen J: Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 26. [PubMed:21111853]
  3. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.022. Epub 2011 May 1. [PubMed:21555003]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atp:adp antiporter activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the exchange of cytoplasmic ADP with mitochondrial ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane. May participate in the formation of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC) respons...
Gene Name
SLC25A6
Uniprot ID
P12236
Uniprot Name
ADP/ATP translocase 3
Molecular Weight
32866.025 Da
References
  1. Lehenkari PP, Kellinsalmi M, Napankangas JP, Ylitalo KV, Monkkonen J, Rogers MJ, Azhayev A, Vaananen HK, Hassinen IE: Further insight into mechanism of action of clodronate: inhibition of mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase by a nonhydrolyzable, adenine-containing metabolite. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):1255-62. [PubMed:11961144]
  2. Rogers MJ, Crockett JC, Coxon FP, Monkkonen J: Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 26. [PubMed:21111853]
  3. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.022. Epub 2011 May 1. [PubMed:21555003]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 03, 2020 22:12

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