Identification
NameCefadroxil
Accession NumberDB01140  (APRD00196)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
Description

Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, cephalexin derivative.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
CDX
Cefadroxil anhydrous
Cefadroxilo
Cefadroxilum
Cephadroxil
D-Cefadroxil
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
Cefadroxil hemihydrateJ9CMF6461M 119922-85-9AJAMDISMDZXITN-QXBGZBSVSA-NDetails
Cefadroxil monohydrate280111G160 66592-87-8NBFNMSULHIODTC-CYJZLJNKSA-NDetails
Cefadroxil sodiumSSZ6380I0I 42284-83-3GQOVFIUWRATNJC-CYJZLJNKSA-MDetails
Product Images
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DuricefCapsule500 mgOralBristol Myers Squibb1981-12-312009-02-05Canada
Nu-cefadroxil, 500 mgCapsule500 mgOralNu Pharm IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pro-cefadroxil - 500Capsule500 mgOralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-04Not applicableCanada
Teva-cefadroxilCapsule500 mgOralTeva1999-06-02Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-cefadroxilCapsule500 mgOralApotex Corporation1999-08-31Not applicableCanada
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2016-06-15Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralNorth Star Rx Llc2013-04-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2011-07-11Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralCitron Pharma LLC2013-04-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-01-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-10-19Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralAurobindo Pharma2013-04-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilTablet, film coated1 g/1OralJazeera Pharmaceutical2006-03-31Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralNorth Star Rx Llc2013-04-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralRanbaxy Inc.2005-08-30Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals2008-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralCitron Pharma LLC2007-01-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2017-01-052017-07-15Us
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2012-11-28Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralAurobindo Pharma2013-04-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralTeva2007-01-31Not applicableUs00093 3196 53 nlmimage10 c52de2ff
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2008-04-01Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2006-02-07Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2008-04-232017-06-20Us
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralLupin Pharmaceuticals2008-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralJazeera Pharmaceutical2012-11-28Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2014-10-20Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralAurobindo Pharma2007-01-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2006-02-07Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2007-01-252017-06-20Us
CefadroxilTablet1000 mg/1OralTeva2007-01-31Not applicableUs00093 4059 53 nlmimage10 fd2d7edb
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2006-02-07Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2007-01-25Not applicableUs65862 0085 50 nlmimage10 1d458eec
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralCitron Pharma LLC2013-04-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2006-02-072017-06-20Us
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-05-16Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2007-01-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralRanbaxy Inc.2005-08-30Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-02-162017-07-15Us
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-01-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension250 mg/5mLOralTeva2010-02-022016-12-10Us
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralOrchid Pharma Inc2015-12-01Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralSandoz1980-07-302016-06-30Us
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralLupin Pharmaceuticals2008-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralJazeera Pharmaceutical2006-02-07Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2008-04-232017-06-20Us
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-01-252016-12-24Us
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-01-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2012-11-28Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralJazeera Pharmaceutical2012-11-28Not applicableUs
CefadroxilTablet, film coated1 g/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2006-03-30Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2008-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralNorth Star Rx Llc2007-01-25Not applicableUs
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension125 mg/5mLOralRanbaxy Inc.2005-08-302017-02-28Us
CefadroxilPowder, for suspension500 mg/5mLOralTeva2010-02-022016-12-10Us
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralH.J. Harkins Company2008-04-01Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals2008-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-04-23Not applicableUs
CefadroxilCapsule500 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-01-31Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BaxanBristol-Myers Squibb
BidocefBristol-Myers Squibb
CefamoxBristol-Myers Squibb
DuracefBristol-Myers Squibb
OracefalBristol-Myers Squibb
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
UNIIQ525PA8JJB
CAS number50370-12-2
WeightAverage: 363.388
Monoisotopic: 363.088891359
Chemical FormulaC16H17N3O5S
InChI KeyBOEGTKLJZSQCCD-UEKVPHQBSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H17N3O5S/c1-7-6-25-15-11(14(22)19(15)12(7)16(23)24)18-13(21)10(17)8-2-4-9(20)5-3-8/h2-5,10-11,15,20H,6,17H2,1H3,(H,18,21)(H,23,24)/t10-,11-,15-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(6R,7R)-7-[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][[email protected]]12SCC(C)=C(N1C(=O)[[email protected]]2NC(=O)[[email protected]](N)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
Pharmacology
Indication

For the treatment of the following infections (skin, UTI, ENT) caused by; S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Streptococcus pyogenes

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Cefadroxil, a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, is used to treat urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, pharyngitis, and tonsillitis.

Mechanism of action

Like all beta-lactam antibiotics, cefadroxil binds to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, causing the inhibition of the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cefadroxil interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Penicillin-binding protein 3Proteinyes
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniaeQ75Y35 details
Penicillin-binding protein 1AProteinyes
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)Q8DR59 details
Penicillin-binding protein 1bProteinyes
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)Q7CRA4 details
Penicillin-binding protein 2BProteinyes
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)P0A3M6 details
Related Articles
Absorption

Cefadroxil is well absorbed on oral administration; food does not interfere with its absorption.

Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding

Binding rates of cefadroxil were 28.1% by U.F. method

MetabolismNot Available
Route of elimination

Over 90% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours. It crosses the placenta and appears in breast milk.

Half life

1.5 hours

ClearanceNot Available
Toxicity

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, allergic rashes may occur

Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcenocoumarolCefadroxil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
BCG vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Bcg can be decreased when used in combination with Cefadroxil.Investigational
DicoumarolCefadroxil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateCefadroxil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FluindioneCefadroxil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
PhenindioneCefadroxil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenprocoumonCefadroxil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Cefadroxil.Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Cefadroxil can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
WarfarinCefadroxil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Food may reduce the digestive problems that sometimes occur.
  • Take without regard to meals.
References
Synthesis Reference

Leonardo Marsili, "Substantially anhydrous crystalline cefadroxil and method for producing it." U.S. Patent US5329001, issued April, 1978.

US5329001
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ01DB05 — Cefadroxil
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.06.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (334 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Recurrent Prostate Cancer1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Stage I Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer / Stage III Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Recurrent Prostate Cancer / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Recurrent Prostate Cancer / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentAnti-Infective Agents / Breast Implantation / Infections, Bacterial1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMastitis1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral500 mg/1
Powder, for suspensionOral125 mg/5mL
Powder, for suspensionOral250 mg/5mL
Powder, for suspensionOral500 mg/5mL
TabletOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1 g/1
CapsuleOral500 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Duricef 1 gm tablet7.35USD tablet
Cefadroxil 1 gm tablet7.14USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)197 °Clshirnaru.T.and Kodarna.Y.: US. Patent 3864340; February 4,1975; assigned to Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd. (Japan) Crast, L.B. Jr. and Gottstein, W.J.; U S . Patent 3,985,741; October 12,1976; assigned to Bristol-Mvers Co.
water solubility1110 mg/LNot Available
logP-0.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.399 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.51ALOGPS
logP-2.4ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area132.96 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity90.95 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.692
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9966
Caco-2 permeable-0.8634
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7944
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9106
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.99
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9398
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8156
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8285
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8421
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.873
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6606
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.881
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9564
Rat acute toxicity1.5290 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9939
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8295
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as cephalosporins. These are compounds containing a 1,2-thiazine fused to a 2-azetidinone to for a oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid moiety or a derivative thereof.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassLactams
Direct ParentCephalosporins
Alternative ParentsN-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives / Alpha amino acid amides / Phenylacetamides / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Aralkylamines / 1,3-thiazines / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Amino acids / Azetidines
SubstituentsCephalosporin / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid amide / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Phenylacetamide / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Phenol / Aralkylamine / Meta-thiazine / Monocyclic benzene moiety
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptorscephalosporin (CHEBI:3479 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp3
Uniprot ID:
Q75Y35
Uniprot Name:
Penicillin-binding protein 3
Molecular Weight:
45209.84 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Penicillin binding
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation.
Gene Name:
pbpA
Uniprot ID:
Q8DR59
Uniprot Name:
Penicillin-binding protein 1A
Molecular Weight:
79700.9 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp1b
Uniprot ID:
Q7CRA4
Uniprot Name:
Penicillin-binding protein 1b
Molecular Weight:
89479.92 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Penicillin binding
Gene Name:
penA
Uniprot ID:
P0A3M6
Uniprot Name:
Penicillin-binding protein 2B
Molecular Weight:
73872.305 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
  2. Ocheltree SM, Shen H, Hu Y, Xiang J, Keep RF, Smith DE: Mechanisms of cefadroxil uptake in the choroid plexus: studies in wild-type and PEPT2 knockout mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):462-7. Epub 2003 Nov 4. [PubMed:14600253 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Huang W, Rajan DP, Carter AL, Sugawara M, Iseki K, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 21;275(3):1699-707. [PubMed:10636865 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight:
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Brandsch M, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH: Differential recognition of beta -lactam antibiotics by intestinal and renal peptide transporters, PEPT 1 and PEPT 2. J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 27;270(43):25672-7. [PubMed:7592745 ]
  2. Wenzel U, Gebert I, Weintraut H, Weber WM, Clauss W, Daniel H: Transport characteristics of differently charged cephalosporin antibiotics in oocytes expressing the cloned intestinal peptide transporter PepT1 and in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 May;277(2):831-9. [PubMed:8627565 ]
  3. Balimane PV, Tamai I, Guo A, Nakanishi T, Kitada H, Leibach FH, Tsuji A, Sinko PJ: Direct evidence for peptide transporter (PepT1)-mediated uptake of a nonpeptide prodrug, valacyclovir. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Sep 18;250(2):246-51. [PubMed:9753615 ]
  4. Guo A, Hu P, Balimane PV, Leibach FH, Sinko PJ: Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr;289(1):448-54. [PubMed:10087037 ]
  5. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297 ]
  6. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [PubMed:9374833 ]
  7. Tsuji A: Transporter-mediated Drug Interactions. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2002;17(4):253-74. [PubMed:15618677 ]
  8. Tamai I, Nakanishi T, Hayashi K, Terao T, Sai Y, Shiraga T, Miyamoto K, Takeda E, Higashida H, Tsuji A: The predominant contribution of oligopeptide transporter PepT1 to intestinal absorption of beta-lactam antibiotics in the rat small intestine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997 Aug;49(8):796-801. [PubMed:9379359 ]
  9. Sala-Rabanal M, Loo DD, Hirayama BA, Turk E, Wright EM: Molecular interactions between dipeptides, drugs and the human intestinal H+ -oligopeptide cotransporter hPEPT1. J Physiol. 2006 Jul 1;574(Pt 1):149-66. Epub 2006 Apr 20. [PubMed:16627568 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier family 15 member 2
Molecular Weight:
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Brandsch M, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH: Differential recognition of beta -lactam antibiotics by intestinal and renal peptide transporters, PEPT 1 and PEPT 2. J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 27;270(43):25672-7. [PubMed:7592745 ]
  2. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [PubMed:9374833 ]
  3. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297 ]
  4. Ocheltree SM, Shen H, Hu Y, Xiang J, Keep RF, Smith DE: Mechanisms of cefadroxil uptake in the choroid plexus: studies in wild-type and PEPT2 knockout mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):462-7. Epub 2003 Nov 4. [PubMed:14600253 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Takeda M, Babu E, Narikawa S, Endou H: Interaction of human organic anion transporters with various cephalosporin antibiotics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 8;438(3):137-42. [PubMed:11909604 ]
  2. Jung KY, Takeda M, Shimoda M, Narikawa S, Tojo A, Kim DK, Chairoungdua A, Choi BK, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y, Sekine T, Endou H: Involvement of rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) in cephaloridine-induced nephrotoxicity: in comparison with rOAT1. Life Sci. 2002 Mar 8;70(16):1861-74. [PubMed:12005172 ]
  3. Jariyawat S, Sekine T, Takeda M, Apiwattanakul N, Kanai Y, Sophasan S, Endou H: The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):672-7. [PubMed:10411577 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name:
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Takeda M, Babu E, Narikawa S, Endou H: Interaction of human organic anion transporters with various cephalosporin antibiotics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 8;438(3):137-42. [PubMed:11909604 ]
  2. Jung KY, Takeda M, Shimoda M, Narikawa S, Tojo A, Kim DK, Chairoungdua A, Choi BK, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y, Sekine T, Endou H: Involvement of rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) in cephaloridine-induced nephrotoxicity: in comparison with rOAT1. Life Sci. 2002 Mar 8;70(16):1861-74. [PubMed:12005172 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 22, 2017 14:09