Identification

Name
Desflurane
Accession Number
DB01189  (APRD00907)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Desflurane is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anaesthesia. Volatile agents such as desflurane may activate GABA channels and hyperpolarize cell membranes. In addition, they may inhibit certain calcium channels and therefore prevent release of neurotransmitters and inhibit glutamate channels. Volatile anesthetics easily partition into cellular membranes and could expand the volume of the cell membrane and subsequently distort channels necessary for sodium ion flux and the development of action potentials necessary for synaptic transmission. Desflurane preconditions human myocardium against ischemia through activation of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, adenosine A1 receptor, and alpha and beta adrenoceptors.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-2-Difluoromethyl 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl ether
  • 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoro-2-(difluoromethoxy)ethane
  • Desflurane
  • Desflurano
  • Desfluranum
  • Difluoromethyl 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl ether
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SupraneLiquid240 mL/240mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1992-09-18Not applicableUs
SupraneLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1996-12-23Not applicableCanada
SupraneLiquid240 mL/240mLRespiratory (inhalation)General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-04-25Not applicableUs
SupraneLiquid240 mL/240mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1992-09-18Not applicableUs
SupraneLiquid1.5 g/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Healthcare Corporation2006-08-142006-08-14Us
SupraneLiquid240 mL/240mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1992-09-18Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DesfluraneLiquid240 mL/240mLRespiratory (inhalation)Sandoz2018-02-26Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Suprane
Categories
UNII
CRS35BZ94Q
CAS number
57041-67-5
Weight
Average: 168.0378
Monoisotopic: 168.000983916
Chemical Formula
C3H2F6O
InChI Key
DPYMFVXJLLWWEU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2F6O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(F)C(F)(F)F

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as an inhalation agent for induction and/or maintenance of anesthesia for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Desflurane is a general inhalation anesthetic. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.

Mechanism of action

Desflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Desflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Desflurane also binds to and agonizes the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glycine receptors, and antagonizes the glutamate receptors.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlutamate receptor 1
antagonist
Human
APotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
inducer
Human
ACalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
inhibitor
Human
UATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
other/unknown
Human
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
unknown
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed into the circulation via the lungs following inhalation.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Minimally biotransformed in the liver in humans (approximately 0.02% of the quantity absorbed).

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S---Not Availablec.3257G>A / c.520C>TADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details
Ryanodine receptor 1---Not Availablec.103T>C / c.487C>T  … show all ADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AbexinostatThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Abexinostat.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Acebutolol.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Aceprometazine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Leonid A. Rozov, Chialang Huang, Gerald G. Vernice, "Synthesis of desflurane." U.S. Patent US5205914, issued June, 1991.

US5205914
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015320
KEGG Drug
D00546
KEGG Compound
C07519
PubChem Compound
42113
PubChem Substance
46505270
ChemSpider
38403
ChEBI
4445
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200733
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000693
PharmGKB
PA164749136
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Desflurane
ATC Codes
N01AB07 — Desflurane
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.16 — Inhalation Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (174 KB)
MSDS
Download (51.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
2CompletedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Desflurane / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Total Intravenous Anesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Orthopedic Procedures / Total Hip Prosthesis1
2CompletedTreatmentTransplant; Failure, Kidney1
2RecruitingSupportive CareDown Syndrome (DS)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchBaxter Anaesthesia Brand of Desflurane / Cystoscopes / Sevoflurane1
3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedPreventionOrthopedic Disorders1
3CompletedPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia With Use of LMA (Laryngeal Mask Airway)1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Cognitive Functions1
4CompletedPreventionPostreperfusion Syndrome / Transplantation, Liver1
4CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
4CompletedPreventionSleep Apnea Syndromes / Sleep Apnea, Obstructive1
4CompletedPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Strabismus1
4CompletedSupportive CareCalculi / Excessive Repair / Exposure Laser / Injury of Bladder / Ureteral Stent Occlusion / Ureterostomy; Functional Disturbance / Vaginal Diseases1
4CompletedSupportive CareCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedSupportive CareEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedSupportive CareNausea / Tiredness1
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Reflexes, Protective / Anesthetic Recovery / Recovery After Neuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Extubation1
4CompletedTreatmentDelayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Aspiration1
4CompletedTreatmentThoracic Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Function After Partial Liver Resection1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthesia; Bariatric Surgery1
4RecruitingDiagnosticAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Laryngeal Masks / Respiratory System Abnormalities1
4RecruitingDiagnosticOxygen Saturation1
4RecruitingDiagnosticPostoperative Delirium1
4RecruitingPreventionCholangiocarcinomas / Gallbladder Neoplasms / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma1
4RecruitingPreventionCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo / General Anesthetic Drug Adverse Reaction1
4RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCognition Disorders in Old Age1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Circulating Tumor Cells / Circulating Tumor Cells in Pancreatic Cancer Surgery / Neoplasms, Pancreatic1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetic Complication Spinal / Microcirculation1
4TerminatedDiagnosticVentricular Dysfunction / Young Healthy Adults1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CarePectus Excavatum1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAortic Valve Stenosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPatients Undergoing Elective Craniotomy1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherLung Cancers1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionIschemic Optic Neuropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAging / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnesthetics, Inhalation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDepth of Anesthesia (DOA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNephrectomy,Kidney Donation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics of Inhaled Anesthetics1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCancer of the Ovary / Cervical Cancers / Gallbladder Inflammation / Ovarian Cysts / Uterine Leiomyomas1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchDelayed Recovery From Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchUnconscious State1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Ophthalmic1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEntropion1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherObese1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAmbulation Difficulty / Children / Urologic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Catheter Site Discomfort / Complications / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDesflurane Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIdiopathic Scoliosis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIschemia, Cerebral1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVitrectomy Operation Under General Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAirway Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareIdiopathic Scoliosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareIntraocular Pressure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAmnesia / Cognition Disorders / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Delirium / Dementias / Morbidity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEar Deformities, Acquired1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneral Anesthetic Drug Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOptic Nerve Sheath Diameter / Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStatus;Splenectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionHip Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionRobotic-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePituitary Adenomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceTransient ischemia attacks1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPatients Undergoing Robotic Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherShort Stature1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Lung Injury (ALI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Thyroid1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHemifacial Spasm1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusScreeningAnesthesia Recovery Period / Delirium, Dementia, Cognitive Disorders / Mental Competency / Neurobehavioural Manifestation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableOptic Nerve Sheath1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1.5 g/1mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)240 mL/240mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Suprane inhalation liquid0.76USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5617906No1997-04-082014-10-08Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)23.5 °CNot Available
water solubilityNegligibleNot Available
logP1.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.54 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.19ALOGPS
logP2.4ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.87ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity18.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability7.89 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9941
Caco-2 permeable+0.626
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.883
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9415
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9027
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9311
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8676
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7556
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6194
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.836
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9466
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.707
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8921
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9042
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7045
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9566
Rat acute toxicity1.2690 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9724
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.909
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organofluorides. These are compounds containing a chemical bond between a carbon atom and a fluorine atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organohalogen compounds
Class
Organofluorides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Organofluorides
Alternative Parents
Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Alkyl fluorides
Substituents
Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Organofluoride / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound (CHEBI:4445)

Targets

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Positive allosteric modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

Components:
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIA1
Uniprot ID
P42261
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:1990381...
Gene Name
KCNA1
Uniprot ID
Q09470
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
Molecular Weight
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport comp...
Gene Name
ATP5D
Uniprot ID
P30049
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID
P03886
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
Molecular Weight
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 21, 2018 07:14