Potassium cation

Identification

Name
Potassium cation
Accession Number
DB01345
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells. The concentration differences of these charged particles causes a difference in electric potential between the inside and outside of cells, known as the membrane potential. The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion pumps in the cell membrane. The cell membrane potential created by potassium and sodium ions allows the cell generate an action potential—a "spike" of electrical discharge. The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and heart function. Potassium is also an essential mineral needed to regulate water balance, blood pressure and levels of acidity.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Potassium (ion)
  • Potassium ion
  • potassium(1+)
  • potassium(1+) ion
  • potassium(I) cation
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RurinaPotassium cation (0.25 g/1L) + Chloride ion (0.11 g/1L) + Sulfate ion (3.6 g/1L)LiquidTopicalNano Bio Tech Co.,Ltd2017-07-01Not applicableUs
RurinaPotassium cation (0.25 g/1L) + Chloride ion (0.11 g/1L) + Sulfate ion (3.6 g/1L)LiquidTopicalTELOM-X GENE Co., Ltd.2017-07-01Not applicableUs
Telom-X-genePotassium cation (0.25 g/1L) + Chloride ion (0.11 g/1L) + Sulfate ion (3.6 g/1L)LiquidTopicalTELOM-X GENE Co., Ltd.2017-07-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
295O53K152
CAS number
24203-36-9
Weight
Average: 39.0983
Monoisotopic: 38.963706861
Chemical Formula
K
InChI Key
NPYPAHLBTDXSSS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/K/q+1
IUPAC Name
potassium(1+) ion
SMILES
[K+]

Pharmacology

Indication

Potassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions.

Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells. The concentration differences of these charged particles causes a difference in electric potential between the inside and outside of cells, known as the membrane potential. The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion pumps in the cell membrane. The cell membrane potential created by potassium and sodium ions allows the cell generate an action potential—a "spike" of electrical discharge. The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and heart function. Potassium is also an essential mineral needed to regulate water balance, blood pressure and levels of acidity.

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1Not AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Mostly urine but also skin and feces.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
PathwayCategory
GlycolysisMetabolic
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AICA-RibosiduriaDisease
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Remifentanil Action PathwayDrug action
Sufentanil Action PathwayDrug action
Imipramine Action PathwayDrug action
Desipramine Action PathwayDrug action
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug action
Nicotine Action PathwayDrug action
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Repaglinide Action PathwayDrug action
Kidney FunctionPhysiological
Blue Diaper SyndromeDisease
Bopindolol Action PathwayDrug action
Amiodarone Action PathwayDrug action
Levobunolol Action PathwayDrug action
Tramadol Action Action PathwayDrug action
Diphenoxylate Action PathwayDrug action
Dimethylthiambutene Action PathwayDrug action
Thiamin Diphosphate BiosynthesisMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

John B. Sardisco, "Production of potassium sulfate and hydrogen chloride." U.S. Patent US4045543, issued 1865.

US4045543
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000586
KEGG Drug
D08403
KEGG Compound
C00238
PubChem Compound
5462222
PubChem Substance
46506517
ChemSpider
791
ChEBI
29103
PharmGKB
PA451047
HET
K
Wikipedia
Potassium
AHFS Codes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
  • 40:12.00 — Replacement Preparations
PDB Entries
1a3w / 1a3x / 1a49 / 1a5a / 1a5b / 1a9x / 1ad1 / 1ad4 / 1akd / 1aop
show 2555 more
FDA label
Download (632 KB)
MSDS
Download (139 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pre-Hypertension1
2CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentBorderline Hypokalemia1
2CompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias / Strokes1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrythmias1
3CompletedTreatmentLeukemias1
3RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4Enrolling by InvitationDiagnosticColonoscopy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Hypokalemia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBlood Pressures / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Renal Function / Vascular Function1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningOther Diseases or Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCorneal Opacity1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • American Regent
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6946149No2005-09-202023-03-07Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)1067 °C (potassium sulfate)MSDS
boiling point (°C)1689 °C (potassium sulfate)MSDS
water solubility110 g/l (20°C) (potassium sulfate)MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-560fc6f738e9570ec8a2
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-560fc6f738e9570ec8a2
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-560fc6f738e9570ec8a2
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-bcbe5ea7d5d32f6a9598
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-bcbe5ea7d5d32f6a9598
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-bcbe5ea7d5d32f6a9598

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates th...
Gene Name
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID
P05023
Uniprot Name
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Silva E, Gomes P, Soares-da-Silva P: Overexpression of Na(+)/K (+)-ATPase parallels the increase in sodium transport and potassium recycling in an in vitro model of proximal tubule cellular ageing. J Membr Biol. 2006;212(3):163-75. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17334838]
  2. Li C, Geering K, Horisberger JD: The third sodium binding site of Na,K-ATPase is functionally linked to acidic pH-activated inward current. J Membr Biol. 2006;213(1):1-9. Epub 2007 Mar 8. [PubMed:17347782]
  3. Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Karthick M: Preventive effect of rutin on lipids, lipoproteins, and ATPases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2007;21(1):1-6. [PubMed:17366541]
  4. Simon WA, Herrmann M, Klein T, Shin JM, Huber R, Senn-Bilfinger J, Postius S: Soraprazan: setting new standards in inhibition of gastric acid secretion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):866-74. Epub 2007 Mar 16. [PubMed:17369284]
  5. Iannello S, Milazzo P, Belfiore F: Animal and human tissue Na,K-ATPase in normal and insulin-resistant states: regulation, behaviour and interpretative hypothesis on NEFA effects. Obes Rev. 2007 May;8(3):231-51. [PubMed:17444965]

Drug created on June 30, 2007 12:13 / Updated on November 16, 2018 08:03