Iohexol is an effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality. [PubChem]
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|Weight||Average: 821.1379 |
Iohexol ia used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures.
|Structured Indications||Not Available|
Iohexol is an effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
|Mechanism of action|
Organic iodine compounds block x-rays as they pass through the body, thereby allowing body structures containing iodine to be delineated in contrast to those structures that do not contain iodine. The degree of opacity produced by these compounds is directly proportional to the total amount (concentration and volume) of the iodinated contrast agent in the path of the x-rays. After intrathecal administration into the subarachnoid space, diffusion of iohexol in the CSF allows the visualization of the subarachnoid spaces of the head and spinal canal. After intravascular administration, iohexol makes opaque those vessels in its path of flow, allowing visualization of the internal structures until significant hemodilution occurs.
Small amounts are absorbed through the bladder via intravesical instillation. Following intrauterine instillation, the majority of the medium within the uterine cavity is discharged into the vagina immediately upon termination of procedure. However, any medium retained in the uterine or peritoneal cavity is absorbed systemically within 60 minutes. May not be absorbed for up to 24 hours if tubes are obstructed and dilated.
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|Route of elimination|
Iohexol is absorbed from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the bloodstream and is eliminated by renal excretion. No significant metabolism, deiodination, or biotransformation occurs.
Intrathecal half-life is 3.4 hours (mean). Intravascular is approximately 2 hours (with normal renal function).
Non-ionic radiocontrast agents like iohexol are cytotoxic to renal cells. The toxic effects include apoptosis, cellular energy failure, disruption of calcium homeostasis, and disturbance of tubular cell polarity, and are thought to be linked to oxidative stress.
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Xiu C. Wang, Steve A. Chamberlin, Ashok V. Bhatia, Gregg E. Robinson, John Hufnagel, "Process for the preparation of iohexol." U.S. Patent US5705692, issued December, 1985.US5705692
|ATC Codes||V08AB02 — Iohexol|
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|Predicted ADMET features|
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|Description||This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as o-haloacetanilides. These are organic compounds containing an acetamide group conjugated to a phenyl group, which is in turn ortho-substituted with a halogen atom.|
|Super Class||Organic compounds|
|Sub Class||Benzene and substituted derivatives|
|Alternative Parents||P-haloacetanilides / Iodobenzenes / Aryl iodides / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Acetamides / Secondary alcohols / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organoiodides / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds|
|Substituents||O-haloacetanilide / P-haloacetanilide / Halobenzene / Iodobenzene / Aryl halide / Aryl iodide / Acetamide / Tertiary carboxylic acid amide / Carboxamide group / Secondary alcohol/ Carboximidic acid / Carboximidic acid derivative / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboxylic acid derivative / Alcohol / Organoiodide / Organohalogen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Primary alcohol / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide / Organopnictogen compound / Carbonyl group / Organic oxygen compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound|
|Molecular Framework||Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds|
|External Descriptors||organoiodine compound, benzenedicarboxamide (CHEBI:31709 )|