Aluminium monostearate

Identification

Name
Aluminium monostearate
Accession Number
DB01375
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description

Aluminium monostearate is an organic compound which is a salt of stearic acid and aluminium. It has the molecular formula Al(OH)2C18H35O2. It is also referred to as dihydroxyaluminium or dihydroxy(stearato)aluminium.

It is used to form gels in the packaging of pharmaceuticals, and in the preparation of colors for cosmetics. It is usually safe in commercial products, but aluminium may accumulate in the body.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aluminium, dihydroxide stearate
  • Aluminum monostearate
  • Aluminum stearate 300
  • Dibasic aluminium stearate
  • Dibasic aluminum stearate
  • Dihydroxy(stearato)aluminium
  • Dihydroxy(stearato)aluminum
  • Dihydroxyaluminum stearate
External IDs
AL-ST 103
Categories
UNII
P9BC99461E
CAS number
7047-84-9
Weight
Average: 344.472
Monoisotopic: 344.2507232
Chemical Formula
C18H37AlO4
InChI Key
UGMCXQCYOVCMTB-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H36O2.Al.2H2O/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20;;;/h2-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20);;2*1H2/q;+3;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
dihydroxyalumanyl octadecanoate
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[Al](O)O

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Antacids perform a neutralization reaction, ie. they buffer gastric acid, raising the pH to reduce acidity in the stomach. When gastric hydrochloric acid reaches the nerves in the gasitrointestinal mucosa, they signal pain to the central nervous system. This happens when these nerves are exposed, as in peptic ulcers. The gastric acid may also reach ulcers in the esophagus or the duodenum. Other mechanisms may contribute, such as the effect of aluminum ions inhibiting smooth muscle cell contraction and delaying gastric emptying. Aluminum is known to bind troponin C (a muscle protein) and to interfere with voltage-dependent calcium transport. Aluminum also binds to and inhibits the activity of mitochondrial voltage gated channels (VDAC).

TargetActionsOrganism
UTroponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
stimulator
Human
UVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1
inhibitor
Human
UVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2
inhibitor
Human
UVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 3
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Jeffrey L. Kaufman, "Preparation of dihydroxyaluminium sodium carbonate." U.S. Patent US4438085, issued October, 1977.

US4438085
General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D01867
PubChem Compound
16682987
PubChem Substance
46505934
ChemSpider
8422411
ChEBI
31197
ChEMBL
CHEMBL3185220
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000798
PharmGKB
PA164746763
Wikipedia
Aluminium_monostearate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.85YOKEL,RA & MCNAMARA,PJ (1988)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000685 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.24ALOGPS
logP5.69ChemAxon
logS-5.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity90.49 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability43.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8162
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7629
Caco-2 permeable-0.7103
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8037
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9634
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9599
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.924
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.888
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8633
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7888
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.899
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9264
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9464
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9264
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8674
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.966
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.803
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5511
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8889
Rat acute toxicity1.5826 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9622
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9488
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Fatty Acyls
Sub Class
Fatty acids and conjugates
Direct Parent
Long-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Carboxylic acid salts / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxoanionic compounds / Organic oxides / Organic aluminium salts / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Long-chain fatty acid / Carboxylic acid salt / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic aluminium salt / Organic salt
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aluminium coordination entity (CHEBI:31197)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Stimulator
General Function
Troponin t binding
Specific Function
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site fo...
Gene Name
TNNC1
Uniprot ID
P63316
Uniprot Name
Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
Molecular Weight
18402.36 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated anion channel activity
Specific Function
Forms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane and also the plasma membrane. The channel at the outer mitochondrial membrane allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules; in the plasma...
Gene Name
VDAC1
Uniprot ID
P21796
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1
Molecular Weight
30772.39 Da
References
  1. Zhang DW, Colombini M: Inhibition by aluminum hydroxide of the voltage-dependent closure of the mitochondrial channel, VDAC. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Apr 25;991(1):68-78. [PubMed:2469483]
  2. Zhang DW, Colombini M: Group IIIA-metal hydroxides indirectly neutralize the voltage sensor of the voltage-dependent mitochondrial channel, VDAC, by interacting with a dynamic binding site. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Jun 27;1025(2):127-34. [PubMed:1694685]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated anion channel activity
Specific Function
Forms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane that allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules. The channel adopts an open conformation at low or zero membrane potential and a closed...
Gene Name
VDAC2
Uniprot ID
P45880
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2
Molecular Weight
31566.265 Da
References
  1. Zhang DW, Colombini M: Inhibition by aluminum hydroxide of the voltage-dependent closure of the mitochondrial channel, VDAC. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Apr 25;991(1):68-78. [PubMed:2469483]
  2. Zhang DW, Colombini M: Group IIIA-metal hydroxides indirectly neutralize the voltage sensor of the voltage-dependent mitochondrial channel, VDAC, by interacting with a dynamic binding site. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Jun 27;1025(2):127-34. [PubMed:1694685]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated anion channel activity
Specific Function
Forms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane that allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules.
Gene Name
VDAC3
Uniprot ID
Q9Y277
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 3
Molecular Weight
30658.45 Da
References
  1. Zhang DW, Colombini M: Inhibition by aluminum hydroxide of the voltage-dependent closure of the mitochondrial channel, VDAC. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Apr 25;991(1):68-78. [PubMed:2469483]
  2. Zhang DW, Colombini M: Group IIIA-metal hydroxides indirectly neutralize the voltage sensor of the voltage-dependent mitochondrial channel, VDAC, by interacting with a dynamic binding site. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Jun 27;1025(2):127-34. [PubMed:1694685]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:29 / Updated on October 01, 2018 13:03