|Description||4-Hydroxytestosterone is testosterone substituted with a hydroxy group on the fourth carbon atom. It is an anabolic steroid with no therapeutic indications, which is prohibited from use in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency. 
Formestane (Lentaron) acts as a prohormone of 4-Hydroxytestosterone, as 4-Hydroxytestosterone is one of the many byproducts of formestane metabolism. It is specifically the 17-hydroxylated analog to formestane.  Like formestane, 4-hydroxytesterone has been patented for use in decreasing estrogen production in the body, but no such indication currently exists. 4-Hydroxytestosterone was first patented in 1955 by G.D Searle & Company. |
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|Pharmacodynamics||Aanabolic steroids have a similar effect to testosterone in the body. Effects include an increase in protein production within cells, (ie. skeletal muscle cells) and well as the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. |
|Mechanism of action||4-hydroxytestosterone is a fat soluble compound which can cross the lipid bilayers of cell membranes to enter the cytoplasm of cells. In the cytoplasm, 4-hydroxytestosterone can bind to an androgen receptor, which then gets transported to the nucleus of the cell to alter protein transcription and translation.
Ananolic steroids are believed to increase muscle mass by increasing the production of proteins, as well as by reducing the effects of the stress hormone cortisol, which is known to promote muscle breakdown. It is postulated that other steroid hormones (glucocorticoids) may also be inhibited by anabolic steroids in order to prevent muscle catabolism. [wiki] |
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|Route of elimination||Renal elimination following hepatic metabolism. |
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Clearance is via the urine. Excretion studies were performed using 200mg of 4-hydroxytestosterone administered to healthy male volunteers. Urine samples were then analyzed for metabolic products using conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches.
One metabolite, 3-beta,4-alpha-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one was identified as a long term metabolite which can be detected for 90 hours. Longer detection times are possible with the use of alternative monitoring technique in sports drug testing.
|Toxicity||Excessive doses of anabolic steroids can induce harmful changes in cholesterol, acne, hypertension, liver damage, and damage to the heart. Hormonal imbalances caused by the use of anabolic steriods may result in gynecomastia and testicular atrophy.
Anabolic steroids are known to increase harmful LDL, while decreasing beneficial HDL cholesterol. Their ability to stimulate sebaceous glands may increase acne. Additionally, the elevation in blood pressure caused by anabolic steroids, is particularly pronounced and harmful in those with pre-existing hypertension. |
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Kohler, Maxie, et al. “Metabolism of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 4-hydroxytestosterone: Mass spectrometric identification of urinary metabolites.” Steroids 72.3 (2007): 278-286.
- Kohler M, Parr MK, Opfermann G, Thevis M, Schlorer N, Marner FJ, Schanzer W: Metabolism of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 4-hydroxytestosterone: Mass spectrometric identification of urinary metabolites. Steroids. 2007 Mar;72(3):278-86. Epub 2007 Jan 17. [PubMed:17207827 ]
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