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Identification
NameCalusterone
Accession NumberDB01564
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsExperimental, Illicit
DescriptionA 17-alkylated orally active androgenic steroid. A Schedule IV drug in Canada.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
17-beta-Hydroxy-7-beta,17-alpha-dimethylandrost-4-ene-3-one
17beta-Hydroxy-7beta,17-dimethylandrost-4-en-3-one
17beta-Hydroxy-7beta,17alpha-dimethylandrost-4-ene-3-one
7-beta,17-alpha-Dimethyl testosterone
7-beta,17-Dimethyltestosterone
7beta,17-Dimethyltestosterone
7beta,17alpha-Dimethyltestosterone
Calusteron
Calusterona
Calusteronum
CLS
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
MethosarbNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII0678G6Q58A
CAS number17021-26-0
WeightAverage: 316.4776
Monoisotopic: 316.240230268
Chemical FormulaC21H32O2
InChI KeyIVFYLRMMHVYGJH-PVPPCFLZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H32O2/c1-13-11-14-12-15(22)5-8-19(14,2)16-6-9-20(3)17(18(13)16)7-10-21(20,4)23/h12-13,16-18,23H,5-11H2,1-4H3/t13-,16-,17-,18+,19-,20-,21-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2R,9S,10R,11S,14S,15S)-14-hydroxy-2,9,14,15-tetramethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-en-5-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@](C)(O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])[C@@H](C)CC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
Pharmacology
IndicationAn anabolic steroid which can theoretically aid in restauration and buildup of certain tissues, especially muscle. It is similar to synthetic testosterone and is still in early investigation. It was also investigated for use as a treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsCalusterone is a 17-alkylated orally active androgenic steroid. Calusterone may alter the metabolism of estradiol and reduce estrogen production. Calusterone has been investigated for possible antitumor properties.
Mechanism of actionThe effects of calusterone in humans most likely occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor, and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. Using testosterone as the prime example, free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5α-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 2.5 times that of T. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Androgen receptorProteinyesNot AvailableHumanP10275 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Meli RJ, Ros PR: MR appearance of intra-abdominal metastatic melanoma. Magn Reson Imaging. 1992;10(4):705-8. [PubMed:1501542 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9774
Caco-2 permeable+0.8737
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6431
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5981
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.732
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.757
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8075
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8604
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7916
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8619
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8844
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.951
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6629
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8713
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8711
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9429
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9361
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9494
Rat acute toxicity2.0516 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.886
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7219
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point128 °CPhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0112 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.55ALOGPS
logP3.93ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.53ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity93.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassAndrostane steroids
Direct ParentAndrogens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Androgen-skeleton
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  2. Brodkin RA, Cooper MR: Calusterone. Ann Intern Med. 1978 Dec;89(6):945-8. [PubMed:152592 ]
  3. Lapauw B, Goemaere S, Crabbe P, Kaufman JM, Ruige JB: Is the effect of testosterone on body composition modulated by the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in elderly men? Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Mar;156(3):395-401. [PubMed:17322500 ]
  4. Small EJ, Ryan CJ: The case for secondary hormonal therapies in the chemotherapy age. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 2):S66-71. [PubMed:17084172 ]
  5. Omwancha J, Brown TR: Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Oct;7(10):873-81. [PubMed:17086931 ]
  6. McPhaul MJ, Young M: Complexities of androgen action. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Sep;45(3 Suppl):S87-94. [PubMed:11511858 ]
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Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:10 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23