Identification

Name
D-glucose
Accession Number
DB01914  (EXPT01609, DB11280)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) generated during phosynthesis involving water, carbon and sunlight in plants. It is produced in humans via hepatic gluconeogenesis and breakdown of polymeric glucose forms (glycogenolysis). It circulates in human circulation as blood glucose and acts as an essential energy source for many organisms through aerobic or anaerobic respiration and fermentation.[2] It is primarily stored as starch in plants and glycogen in animals to be used in various metabolic processes in the cellular level. Its aldohexose stereoisomer, dextrose or D-glucose, is the most commonly occurring isomer of glucose in nature. L-glucose is a synthesized enantiomer that is used as a low-calorie sweetener and laxative.[10] The unspecified form of glucose is commonly supplied as an injection for nutritional supplementation or metabolic disorders where glucose levels are improperly regulated.[12] Glucose is listed on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • aldehydo-D-glucose
  • Anhydrous dextrose
  • D-Glucose in linear form
  • D-glucose, anhydrous
  • D(+)-Glucose
  • Dextrose anhydrous
  • Dextrose, anhydrous
  • Glucose anhydrous
  • Glucose, anhydrous
External IDs
NSC-406891
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
D-glucose monohydrateLX22YL083G77938-63-7SPFMQWBKVUQXJV-BTVCFUMJSA-N
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Dextrose, unspecified formunknownIY9XDZ35W2Not AvailableNot applicable
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
25% Dextrose InfantInjection, solution250 mg/1mLIntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-19Not applicableUs
5% DextroseInjection, solution5 g/100mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-10-18Not applicableUs
50% DextroseInjection, solution25 g/50mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-09-19Not applicableUs
DextroseInjection, solution70 g/100mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-07-14Not applicableUs
DextroseInjection, solution5 g/100mLIntravenousCardinal Health2011-03-182018-06-01Us
DextroseInjection, solution25 g/50mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-09-13Not applicableUs
DextroseInjection, solution100 g/1000mLIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1971-01-25Not applicableUs
DextroseInjection, solution40.00 g/100.00mLIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2006-05-102006-05-10Us
DextroseInjection, solution50 g/100mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2006-05-312011-10-01Us
DextroseInjection, solution25 g/50mLIntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2005-03-31Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DextroseInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2016-10-21Not applicableUs
DextroseInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntravenousBecton Dickinson2016-10-21Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LingteaPowder, for solution5 g/100gOralLinger Water2018-06-25Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Accusol 35 K2D-glucose (1.33 g) + Calcium Chloride (0.343 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.136 g) + Potassium Chloride (0.199 g) + Sodium Chloride (7.66 g) + Sodium bicarbonate (12.9 g)SolutionHemodialysisChief Medical Supplies LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Accusol 35 K4D-glucose (1.33 g) + Calcium Chloride (0.343 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.136 g) + Potassium Chloride (0.398 g) + Sodium Chloride (7.66 g) + Sodium bicarbonate (12.9 g)SolutionHemodialysisChief Medical Supplies Ltd2007-10-31Not applicableCanada
Acd AD-glucose monohydrate (2.45 g/100mL) + Citric acid monohydrate (0.80 g/100mL) + Sodium Citrate (2.2 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousTerumo Bct2002-02-25Not applicableUs
Acd AD-glucose monohydrate (2.45 g/100mL) + Citric acid monohydrate (0.8 g/100mL) + Sodium citrate dihydrate (2.2 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousTerumo Bct, Ltd.2002-02-25Not applicableUs
Acd AD-glucose monohydrate (2.45 g/100mL) + Citric acid monohydrate (0.8 g/100mL) + Sodium citrate dihydrate (2.2 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousTerumo Bct, Ltd.2002-02-25Not applicableUs
ACD Blood-Pack Units (PL 146 Plastic)D-glucose monohydrate (1.65 g/67.5mL) + Citric Acid (493 mg/67.5mL) + Sodium citrate dihydrate (1.48 g/67.5mL)SolutionIntravenousFenwal, Inc.2007-03-01Not applicableUs
Acd-AD-glucose monohydrate (12.25 g/500mL) + Citric Acid (3.65 g/500mL) + Sodium Citrate (11 g/500mL)SolutionIntravenousFenwal, Inc.2007-03-01Not applicableUs
Acd-AD-glucose monohydrate (2.45 g/100mL) + Citric acid monohydrate (0.73 g/100mL) + Sodium Citrate (2.20 g/100mL)SolutionIntravenousHaemonetics Corporation1987-11-06Not applicableUs
Acd-AD-glucose monohydrate (2.45 g/100mL) + Citric Acid (730 mg/100mL) + Sodium Citrate (2.2 g/100mL)SolutionIntravenousFenwal, Inc.2012-10-24Not applicableUs
Additive Formula 3D-glucose monohydrate (1.1 g/100mL) + Adenine (0.03 g/100mL) + Citric acid monohydrate (0.42 g/100mL) + Sodium Chloride (0.41 g/100mL) + Sodium citrate dihydrate (0.59 g/100mL) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate (0.28 g/100mL)SolutionIntravenousTerumo Bct, Ltd2002-05-29Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
5% DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (5000 mg/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSc Infomed Fluids Srl2017-04-242017-06-15Us
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (25 g/50mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-07-01Not applicableUs
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (70 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2012-03-13Not applicableUs
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (25 g/50mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2005-12-07Not applicableUs
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (25 g/50mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousA-S Medication Solutions2005-12-072017-07-31Us
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (25 g/50mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-09-29Not applicableUs
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-02-182015-01-14Us
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (25 g/50mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-12-07Not applicableUs
DextroseD-glucose monohydrate (25 g/50mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousMc Kesson2010-05-032017-08-02Us
Dextrose MonohydrateD-glucose monohydrate (500 mg/1mL)InjectionParenteralAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2000-06-012013-01-10Us
Categories
Not Available
UNII
5SL0G7R0OK
CAS number
50-99-7
Weight
Average: 180.1559
Monoisotopic: 180.063388116
Chemical Formula
C6H12O6
InChI Key
GZCGUPFRVQAUEE-SLPGGIOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-3(9)5(11)6(12)4(10)2-8/h1,3-6,8-12H,2H2/t3-,4+,5+,6+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal
SMILES
[H][C@@](O)(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(O)C=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Glucose pharmaceutical formulations (oral tablets, injections) are indicated for caloric supply and carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation. It is also used for metabolic disorders such as hypoglycemia.[13]

Pharmacodynamics

Blood glucose is an obligatory energy source for humans involved in various cellular activities, and it also acts as a signaling molecule for diverse glucose-sensing molecules and proteins. Glucose undergoes oxidation into carbon dioxide, water, and yields energy molecules in the process of glycolysis and subsequent citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.[6] Glucose is readily converted into fat in the body which can be used as a source of energy as required. Under a similar conversion into storage of energy, glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen.[11] Glucose stores are mobilized in a regulated manner, depending on the tissues' metabolic demands. Oral glucose tablets or injections serve to increase the supply of glucose and oral glucose administration is more effective in stimulating insulin secretion because it stimulates the incretin hormones from the gut, which promotes insulin secretion.[10]

Mechanism of action

Glucose supplies most of the energy to all tissues by generating energy molecules ATP and NADH during a series of metabolism reactions called glycolysis. Glycolysis can be divided into two main phases where the preparatory phase is initiated by the phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase to form glucose 6-phosphate.[5] The addition of the high-energy phosphate group activates glucose for the subsequent breakdown in later steps of glycolysis and is the rate-limiting step. Products end up as substrates for following reactions, to ultimately convert C6 glucose molecule into two C3 sugar molecules. These products enter the energy-releasing phase where the total of 4ATP and 2NADH molecules are generated per one glucose molecule. The total aerobic metabolism of glucose can produce up to 36 ATP molecules. These energy-producing reactions of glucose are limited to D-glucose as L-glucose cannot be phosphorylated by hexokinase.[11] Glucose can act as precursors to generate other biomolecules such as vitamin C. It plays a role as a signaling molecule to control glucose and energy homeostasis. Glucose can regulate gene transcription, enzyme activity, hormone secretion, and the activity of glucoregulatory neurons. The types, number, and kinetics of glucose transporters expressed depends on the tissues and fine-tunes glucose uptake, metabolism, and signal generation to preserve cellular and whole body metabolic integrity.[4]

Absorption

Polysaccharides can be broken down into smaller units by pancreatic and intestinal glycosidases or intestinal flora. Sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and GLUT2 (SLC2A2) play predominant roles in intestinal transport of glucose into the circulation.[1] SGLT1 is located in the apical membrane of the intestinal wall while GLUT2 is located in the basolateral membrane, but it was proposed that GLUT2 can be recruited into the apical membrane after a high luminal glucose bolus allowing bulk absorption of glucose by facilitated diffusion.[3] Oral preparation of glucose reaches the peak concentration within 40 minutes and the intravenous infusions display 100% bioavailability.[6]

Volume of distribution

The mean volume of distribution after intravenous infusion is 10.6L.[7]

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Glucose can undergo aerobic oxidation in conjunction with the synthesis of energy molecules. Glycolysis is the initial stage of glucose metabolism where one glucose molecule is degraded into two molecules of pyruvate via substrate-level phosphorylation. These products are transported to the mitochondria where they are further oxidized into oxygen and carbon dioxide.[5]

Route of elimination

Glucose can be renally excreted.[8]

Half life

The approximate half-life is 14.3 minutes following intravenous infusion. Gut glucose half-life was markedly higher in females (79 ± 2 min) than in males (65 ± 3 min, P < 0.0001) and negatively related to body height (r = -0.481; P < 0.0001).[7]

Clearance

The mean metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR) for the 10 subjects studied at the higher insulin level was 2.27 ± 0.37 ml/kg/min at euglycemia and fell to 1.51±0.21 ml/kg/ at hyperglycemia. The mean MCR for the six subjects studied at the lower insulin level was 1.91 ± 0.31 ml/kg/min at euglycemia.[8]

Toxicity

Oral LD50 value in rats is 25800mg/kg. The administration of glucose infusions can cause fluid and solute overloading resulting in dilution of the serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states, or pulmonary edema. Hypersensitivity reactions may also occur including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions from oral tablets and intravenous infusions.[12]

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Thorens B, Mueckler M: Glucose transporters in the 21st Century. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;298(2):E141-5. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00712.2009. Epub 2009 Dec 15. [PubMed:20009031]
  2. Ferraris RP: Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Biochem J. 2001 Dec 1;360(Pt 2):265-76. [PubMed:11716754]
  3. Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24587162]
  4. Deng D, Sun P, Yan C, Ke M, Jiang X, Xiong L, Ren W, Hirata K, Yamamoto M, Fan S, Yan N: Molecular basis of ligand recognition and transport by glucose transporters. Nature. 2015 Oct 15;526(7573):391-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14655. Epub 2015 Jul 15. [PubMed:26176916]
  5. Jiang G, Zhang BB: Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;284(4):E671-8. [PubMed:12626323]
  6. Anderwald C, Gastaldelli A, Tura A, Krebs M, Promintzer-Schifferl M, Kautzky-Willer A, Stadler M, DeFronzo RA, Pacini G, Bischof MG: Mechanism and effects of glucose absorption during an oral glucose tolerance test among females and males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):515-24. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1398. Epub 2010 Dec 8. [PubMed:21147888]
  7. Kouider S, Kolb FE, Lippmann R: [Behavior of various blood constituents (glucose, fructose, insulin, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids, inorganic phosphate) and the half-life of monosaccharides in plasma after i.v infusion of glucose, fructose, galactose and invert sugar solutions in ruminants. 3. Studies in sheep]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1978;32(5):715-25. [PubMed:736717]
  8. JOKIPII SG, TURPEINEN O: Kinetics of elimination of glucose from the blood during and after a continuous intravenous injection. J Clin Invest. 1954 Mar;33(3):452-8. [PubMed:13143092]
  9. Revers RR, Kolterman OG, Olefsky JM: Relationship between serum glucose level and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1983 Jul;32(7):627-32. [PubMed:6345242]
  10. Rang, H. P. and Dale, M. M. (2012). Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
  11. Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, and Darnell J. (2000). Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. [ISBN:0-7167-3136-3]
  12. Baxter Health GLUCOSE INTRAVENOUS INFUSION BP Product information [Link]
  13. Glucose injection (Viaflex bag) Product information [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
107526
PubChem Substance
46507147
ChemSpider
96749
ChEBI
42758
HET
GLO
Wikipedia
Glucose
PDB Entries
1ac0 / 1ez9 / 1fbo / 1fqc / 1fqd / 1xyb / 1xym / 2zyd / 3fxp / 3kbn
show 6 more
FDA label
Download (142 KB)
MSDS
Download (47 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Schizotypal Personality1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceInsulin Sensitivity / Vascular Stiffness1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUreaplasma Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFunctional Disturbance / Physical Activity1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceInsulin Secretion1
4RecruitingSupportive CareMalnutrition1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableCerebral Palsy Infantile1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia / Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadotropism / Infertilities1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous5000 mg/100mL
SolutionHemodialysis
SolutionIntravenous
Kit
InjectionIntravenous
LiquidOral
SolutionExtracorporeal
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal
InjectionIntravenous5 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 g/1000mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20.00 g/100.00mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 g/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous250 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous30 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous30.00 g/100.00mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous40 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous40.00 g/100.00mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 g/1000mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50.00 g/100.00mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous60.00 g/100.00mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous70 g/100mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous10 g/100mL
InjectionParenteral250 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral500 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal
InjectionIntrathecal
KitIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntraspinal
Powder, for solutionOral5 g/100g
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intravenous
SyrupOral
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
SolutionHemodialysis; Intravenous
SolutionUnknown
SolutionIntraperitoneal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)146 MSDS
water solubilitySolubleMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility261.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.4ALOGPS
logP-3.6ChemAxon
logS0.16ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.35 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.23 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8269
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5569
Caco-2 permeable-0.8842
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6771
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9568
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9378
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9388
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8595
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8847
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7206
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8505
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9411
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9366
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.942
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9065
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9652
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8077
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9596
Rat acute toxicity1.0110 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9883
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9385
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
Hexoses
Alternative Parents
Medium-chain aldehydes / Beta-hydroxy aldehydes / Alpha-hydroxyaldehydes / Secondary alcohols / Polyols / Primary alcohols / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Hexose monosaccharide / Medium-chain aldehyde / Beta-hydroxy aldehyde / Alpha-hydroxyaldehyde / Secondary alcohol / Polyol / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary alcohol / Carbonyl group
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aldehydo-glucose, D-glucose (CHEBI:42758)

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Mannokinase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
HK1
Uniprot ID
P19367
Uniprot Name
Hexokinase-1
Molecular Weight
102485.1 Da
References
  1. Rose IA, O'Connell EL, Litwin S: Determination of the rate of hexokinase-glucose dissociation by the isotope-trapping method. J Biol Chem. 1974 Aug 25;249(16):5163-8. [PubMed:4604308]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when gluco...
Gene Name
GCK
Uniprot ID
P35557
Uniprot Name
Glucokinase
Molecular Weight
52191.07 Da
References
  1. Matschinsky FM: Glucokinase as glucose sensor and metabolic signal generator in pancreatic beta-cells and hepatocytes. Diabetes. 1990 Jun;39(6):647-52. [PubMed:2189759]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform may be responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad substrate specificity; can transport a wide range of aldoses including b...
Gene Name
SLC2A1
Uniprot ID
P11166
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1
Molecular Weight
54083.325 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Hexose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta c...
Gene Name
SLC2A2
Uniprot ID
P11168
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 2
Molecular Weight
57488.955 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter that can also mediate the uptake of various other monosaccharides across the cell membrane (PubMed:9477959, PubMed:26176916). Mediates the uptake of glucose, 2-deox...
Gene Name
SLC2A3
Uniprot ID
P11169
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3
Molecular Weight
53923.785 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A4
Uniprot ID
P14672
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4
Molecular Weight
54786.79 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Cytochalasin B-sensitive carrier. Seems to function primarily as a fructose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A5
Uniprot ID
P22732
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 5
Molecular Weight
54973.42 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter; binds cytochalasin B with low affinity.
Gene Name
SLC2A6
Uniprot ID
Q9UGQ3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 6
Molecular Weight
54538.55 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity transporter for glucose and fructose Does not transport galactose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose and xylose.
Gene Name
SLC2A7
Uniprot ID
Q6PXP3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 7
Molecular Weight
55726.915 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter. Binds cytochalasin B in a glucose-inhibitable manner. Seems to be a dual-specific sugar transporter as it is inhibitable by fructose (By similari...
Gene Name
SLC2A8
Uniprot ID
Q9NY64
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 8
Molecular Weight
50818.54 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Transport urate and fructose. May have a role in the urate reabsorption by proximal tubules. Also transports glucose at low rate.
Gene Name
SLC2A9
Uniprot ID
Q9NRM0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9
Molecular Weight
58701.205 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A10
Uniprot ID
O95528
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 10
Molecular Weight
56910.77 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A11
Uniprot ID
Q9BYW1
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11
Molecular Weight
53702.055 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A12
Uniprot ID
Q8TD20
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 12
Molecular Weight
66965.7 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Actively transports glucose into cells by Na(+) cotransport with a Na(+) to glucose coupling ratio of 2:1. Efficient substrate transport in mammalian kidney is provided by the concerted action of a...
Gene Name
SLC5A1
Uniprot ID
P13866
Uniprot Name
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1
Molecular Weight
73497.275 Da
References
  1. Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24587162]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Low-affinity glucose:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-dependent glucose transporter. Has a Na(+) to glucose coupling ratio of 1:1.Efficient substrate transport in mammalian kidney is provided by the concerted action of a low affinity high capac...
Gene Name
SLC5A2
Uniprot ID
P31639
Uniprot Name
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2
Molecular Weight
72895.995 Da
References
  1. Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24587162]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 08:53