Identification

Name
Taurine
Accession Number
DB01956  (EXPT03010, DB11103)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Taurine, whose chemical name is 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is one of the most abundant amino acids in several organs. It plays important role in essential biological processes.[1] This conditional amino acid can be either be manufactured by the body or obtained in the diet mainly by the consumption of fish and meat.[8] The supplements containing taurine were FDA approved by 1984 and they are hypertonic injections composed by cristalline amino acids.[FDA Label]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  • Taurineold
External IDs
FEMA NO. 3813
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aminosyn-PFTaurine (50 mg/100mL) + Glutamic Acid (576 mg/100mL) + Glycine (270 mg/100mL) + Histidine (220 mg/100mL) + L-Alanine (490 mg/100mL) + L-Arginine (861 mg/100mL) + L-Aspartic Acid (370 mg/100mL) + L-Isoleucine (534 mg/100mL) + L-Leucine (831 mg/100mL) + L-Lysine (475 mg/100mL) + L-Phenylalanine (300 mg/100mL) + L-Proline (570 mg/100mL) + L-Threonine (360 mg/100mL) + L-Tryptophan (125 mg/100mL) + L-Tyrosine (44 mg/100mL) + L-Valine (452 mg/100mL) + Methionine (125 mg/100mL) + Serine (347 mg/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1985-09-06Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PFTaurine (70 mg/100mL) + Glutamic Acid (820 mg/100mL) + Glycine (385 mg/100mL) + Histidine (312 mg/100mL) + L-Alanine (698 mg/100mL) + L-Arginine (1227 mg/100mL) + L-Aspartic Acid (527 mg/100mL) + L-Isoleucine (760 mg/100mL) + L-Leucine (1200 mg/100mL) + L-Lysine (677 mg/100mL) + L-Phenylalanine (427 mg/100mL) + L-Proline (812 mg/100mL) + L-Threonine (512 mg/100mL) + L-Tryptophan (180 mg/100mL) + L-Tyrosine (44 mg/100mL) + L-Valine (673 mg/100mL) + Methionine (180 mg/100mL) + Serine (495 mg/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-10-17Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PF 10%Taurine (70 mg) + Glutamic Acid (820 mg) + Glycine (385 mg) + Histidine (312 mg) + L-Alanine (698 mg) + L-Arginine (1.227 g) + L-Aspartic Acid (527 mg) + L-Isoleucine (760 mg) + L-Leucine (1.2 g) + L-Lysine (677 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (427 mg) + L-Proline (812 mg) + L-Threonine (512 mg) + L-Tryptophan (180 mg) + L-Tyrosine (44 mg) + L-Valine (673 mg) + Methionine (180 mg) + Serine (495 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn-PF 7%Taurine (50 mg) + Glutamic Acid (576 mg) + Glycine (270 mg) + Histidine (220 mg) + L-Alanine (490 mg) + L-Arginine (861 mg) + L-Aspartic Acid (370 mg) + L-Isoleucine (534 mg) + L-Leucine (831 mg) + L-Lysine (475 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (300 mg) + L-Proline (570 mg) + L-Threonine (360 mg) + L-Tryptophan (125 mg) + L-Tyrosine (44 mg) + L-Valine (452 mg) + Methionine (125 mg) + Serine (347 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
Premasol - sulfite-free (Amino Acid)Taurine (15 mg/100mL) + Glutamic Acid (.3 g/100mL) + Glycine (.22 g/100mL) + Histidine (.29 g/100mL) + L-Alanine (.32 g/100mL) + L-Arginine (.73 g/100mL) + L-Aspartic Acid (.19 g/100mL) + L-Cysteine (.014 g/100mL) + L-Isoleucine (.49 g/100mL) + L-Leucine (.84 g/100mL) + L-Lysine (.49 g/100mL) + L-Phenylalanine (.29 g/100mL) + L-Proline (.41 g/100mL) + L-Threonine (.25 g/100mL) + L-Tryptophan (.12 g/100mL) + L-Tyrosine (.14 g/100mL) + L-Valine (.47 g/100mL) + Methionine (.2 g/100mL) + Serine (.23 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2003-06-19Not applicableUs
Premasol - sulfite-free (Amino Acid)Taurine (25 mg/100mL) + Glutamic Acid (.5 g/100mL) + Glycine (.36 g/100mL) + Histidine (.48 g/100mL) + L-Alanine (.54 g/100mL) + L-Arginine (1.2 g/100mL) + L-Aspartic Acid (.32 g/100mL) + L-Cysteine (.016 g/100mL) + L-Isoleucine (.82 g/100mL) + L-Leucine (1.4 g/100mL) + L-Lysine (.82 g/100mL) + L-Phenylalanine (.48 g/100mL) + L-Proline (.68 g/100mL) + L-Threonine (.42 g/100mL) + L-Tryptophan (.2 g/100mL) + L-Tyrosine (.24 g/100mL) + L-Valine (.78 g/100mL) + Methionine (.34 g/100mL) + Serine (.38 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2003-06-19Not applicableUs
Primene 10%Taurine (60 mg) + Glutamic Acid (1 g) + Glycine (400 mg) + Histidine (380 mg) + L-Alanine (800 mg) + L-Arginine (840 mg) + L-Aspartic Acid (600 mg) + L-Cysteine (189 mg) + L-Isoleucine (670 mg) + L-Leucine (1 g) + L-Lysine (1.1 g) + L-Phenylalanine (420 mg) + L-Proline (300 mg) + L-Threonine (370 mg) + L-Tryptophan (200 mg) + L-Tyrosine (45 mg) + L-Valine (760 mg) + Methionine (240 mg) + Ornithine dihydrochloride (318 mg) + Serine (400 mg)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Primene 10%-liq IVTaurine (60 mg) + Glutamic Acid (1 g) + Glycine (400 mg) + Histidine (380 mg) + L-Alanine (800 mg) + L-Arginine (840 mg) + L-Aspartic Acid (600 mg) + L-Cysteine hydrochloride (246 mg) + L-Isoleucine (670 mg) + L-Leucine (1 g) + L-Lysine (1.1 g) + L-Phenylalanine (420 mg) + L-Proline (300 mg) + L-Threonine (370 mg) + L-Tryptophan (200 mg) + L-Tyrosine (45 mg) + L-Valine (760 mg) + Methionine (240 mg) + Ornithine (249 mg) + Serine (400 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1995-12-311998-08-13Canada
SmofkabivenTaurine (0.05 g) + Calcium Chloride (0.028 g) + Fish oil (0.57 g) + Glucose (12.7 g) + Glycine (0.56 g) + Histidine (0.15 g) + L-Alanine (0.71 g) + L-Arginine (0.61 g) + L-Isoleucine (0.25 g) + L-Leucine (0.38 g) + L-Lysine (0.34 g) + L-Phenylalanine (0.26 g) + L-Proline (0.57 g) + L-Threonine (0.22 g) + L-Tryptophan (0.10 g) + L-Tyrosine (0.02 g) + L-Valine (0.31 g) + Magnesium Sulfate (0.061 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (1.14 g) + Methionine (0.22 g) + Nitrogen (0.8 g) + Olive oil (0.95 g) + Potassium Chloride (0.23 g) + Serine (0.33 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.17 g) + Sodium glycerophosphate (0.21 g) + Soybean oil (1.14 g) + Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (0.00066 g)EmulsionIntravenousFresenius Kabi2015-09-15Not applicableCanada
Smofkabiven Electrolyte FreeTaurine (0.05 g) + Fish oil (0.57 g) + Glucose (12.7 g) + Glycine (0.56 g) + Histidine (0.15 g) + L-Alanine (0.71 g) + L-Arginine (0.61 g) + L-Isoleucine (0.25 g) + L-Leucine (0.38 g) + L-Lysine (0.34 g) + L-Phenylalanine (0.26 g) + L-Proline (0.57 g) + L-Threonine (0.22 g) + L-Tryptophan (0.10 g) + L-Tyrosine (0.02 g) + L-Valine (0.31 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (1.14 g) + Methionine (0.22 g) + Nitrogen (0.8 g) + Olive oil (0.95 g) + Serine (0.33 g) + Soybean oil (1.14 g)EmulsionIntravenousFresenius Kabi2015-09-15Not applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
TozalTaurine (400 mg/31) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/31) + Copper (1.6 mg/31) + Cyanocobalamin (100 ug/31) + Folic Acid (1 mg/31) + Lutein (15 mg/31) + Omega-3 fatty acids (600 mg/31) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/31) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 [iU]/31) + Vitamin C (452 mg/31) + Vitamin E (200 [iU]/31) + Zeaxanthin (3 mg/31) + Zinc picolinate (40 mg/31)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralFocus Laboratories, Inc.2013-06-012016-10-13Us
Categories
Not Available
UNII
1EQV5MLY3D
CAS number
107-35-7
Weight
Average: 125.147
Monoisotopic: 125.014663785
Chemical Formula
C2H7NO3S
InChI Key
XOAAWQZATWQOTB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H7NO3S/c3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h1-3H2,(H,4,5,6)
IUPAC Name
2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
SMILES
NCCS(O)(=O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

The use of diet supplements containing taurine is indicated for the nutritional support of infants and young pediatric patients requiring total parenteral nutrition via central or peripheral routes. The usage of diet supplements containing taurine prevents nitrogen and weight loss or to treat negative nitrogen balance in pediatric patients where the alimentary tract cannot be done through oral, gastrostomy or jejunostomy administration, there is impaired gastrointestinal absorption or protein requirements are substantially increased.[FDA Label]

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

The diet supplements containing taurine are formulated as a well-tolerated nitrogen source for nutritional support. Administration of diet supplements regulates the level of plasma amino acid concentration, nitrogen balance, weight and serum protein concentration to reach normal values, thus improving the nutritional status.[FDA Label]

Mechanism of action

The diet supplements containing taurine function by replacing the missing nutriments in the body. Taurine, as a single agent, presents different functions like substrate for formation of bile salts, cell volume regulation, modulation of intracellular calcium, cytoprotection of central nervous system, etc.[2]

TargetActionsOrganism
UAlpha-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine dioxygenaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UCholoylglycine hydrolaseNot AvailableClostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
inhibitor
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-2
agonist
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-3
agonist
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
agonist
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
agonist
Human
Absorption

Oral administration of taurine was studied and it reported dose-dependent values of AUC, Cmax and tmax wherein a dose of 1-30 mg/kg ranged from 89-3452 mcg min/L, 2-15.7 mcg min/ml and 15 min respectively.[3] Further studies in healthy individuals gave an AUC, Cmax and tmax in the range of 116-284.5 mg h/L, 59-112.6 mg/L and 1-2.5 h.[4]

Volume of distribution

The distribution of taurine was studied under the two-compartment model and each one of the compartments gave a range for the volume of distribution of 299-353 ml/kg in compartment 1 and 4608-8374 ml/kg in compartment 2 in mice.[3] Further studies in healthy indivudals gave a volume of distribution that ranged from 19.8 to 40.7 L.[4]

Protein binding

Taurine is highly bound to plasma proteins and retained in the plasma fraction.[6]

Metabolism

Taurine can be metabolized by diverse organisms to form different types of metabolites derived from the original form of taurine. In the human, the pathways that form the metabolism of taurine are divided in the formation of 5-glutamyl-taurine by the action of the enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase 6 or the formation of taurocholate by the action of the bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase.[9]

Route of elimination

Taurine flows and gets distributed in veins and arteries and reports have observed the presence of a significant released of taurine in portally drained viscera, thus suggesting that the main elimination route of taurine is by the gut. This elimination route may be explained by the enterohepatic cycle of taurine.[5]

Half life

Oral administration of taurine in healthy individuals gave a plasma elimination half-life that ranged from 0.7-1.4 h.[4]

Clearance

The clearance rate of orally administered taurine was reported to be dose-dependent wherein a dose of 1 mg/kg it presents a clearance rate of 11.7 ml min/kg, 10 mg/kg generates a clearance rate of 18.7 ml min/kg and a dose of 30 mg/kg reports a clearance rate of 9.4 ml min/kg.[3] Further studies in healthy individuals generate a clearance rate that ranged from 14 to 34.4 L/h.[4]

Toxicity

The administration of taurine has been correlatefd to significant in the hypothalamus and the modification of neuroendocrine functions. Other than that, taurine administration in regular doses is reported by different articles and institutions to be safe.[7]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
27-Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)Disease
Bile Acid BiosynthesisMetabolic
Familial Hypercholanemia (FHCA)Disease
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismMetabolic
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIDisease
Zellweger SyndromeDisease
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIIDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Olson JE, Martinho E Jr: Regulation of taurine transport in rat hippocampal neurons by hypo-osmotic swelling. J Neurochem. 2006 Mar;96(5):1375-89. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03652.x. [PubMed:16478528]
  2. Ripps H, Shen W: Review: taurine: a "very essential" amino acid. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2673-86. Epub 2012 Nov 12. [PubMed:23170060]
  3. Nielsen CU, Bjerg M, Ulaganathan N, Holm R: Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of taurine in sprague-dawley rats: the influence of dose and the possible involvement of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, PAT1, in oral taurine absorption. Physiol Rep. 2017 Oct;5(19). pii: 5/19/e13467. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13467. Epub 2017 Oct 16. [PubMed:29038364]
  4. Ghandforoush-Sattari M, Mashayekhi S, Krishna CV, Thompson JP, Routledge PA: Pharmacokinetics of oral taurine in healthy volunteers. J Amino Acids. 2010;2010:346237. doi: 10.4061/2010/346237. Epub 2010 Jun 29. [PubMed:22331997]
  5. van Stijn MF, Vermeulen MA, Siroen MP, Wong LN, van den Tol MP, Ligthart-Melis GC, Houdijk AP, van Leeuwen PA: Human taurine metabolism: fluxes and fractional extraction rates of the gut, liver, and kidneys. Metabolism. 2012 Jul;61(7):1036-40. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2011.12.005. Epub 2012 Feb 2. [PubMed:22304837]
  6. Tang DQ, Li YJ, Li Z, Bian TT, Chen K, Zheng XX, Yu YY, Jiang SS: Study on the interaction of plasma protein binding rate between edaravone and taurine in human plasma based on HPLC analysis coupled with ultrafiltration technique. Biomed Chromatogr. 2015 Aug;29(8):1137-45. doi: 10.1002/bmc.3401. Epub 2014 Dec 26. [PubMed:25545282]
  7. Mantovani J, DeVivo DC: Effects of taurine on seizures and growth hormone release in epileptic patients. Arch Neurol. 1979 Nov;36(11):672-4. [PubMed:508122]
  8. FDA GRAS [Link]
  9. KEGG metabolism [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000251
KEGG Drug
D00047
KEGG Compound
C00245
PubChem Compound
1123
PubChem Substance
46506189
ChemSpider
1091
BindingDB
50357220
ChEBI
507393
ChEMBL
CHEMBL239243
PharmGKB
PA451590
IUPHAR
2379
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
TAU
PDB Entries
1gqw / 1gy9 / 1os7 / 1otj / 2bjf / 2bz1 / 3uyw / 3v39 / 4fcf / 4foq
show 2 more
FDA label
Download (176 KB)
MSDS
Download (47.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHomocystinuria1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentBecause the Body Does Not Produce Enough Insulin / Is Produced / It is a Group of Metabolic Diseases in / Or Because Cells do Not Respond to the Insulin That / Which a Person Has High Blood Sugar, Either1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar / Mania1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPsychotic Disorder NOS1
3CompletedPreventionPrehypertension1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1
3CompletedTreatmentParents2
4CompletedDiagnosticHand Skill, Relative1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCognitive Decline / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Taurine1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Lower Extremity Artery Disease / Taurine1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)300 °C'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)It decomposes before reaching boiling point (325ºC)O'Neil, MJ. The Merxk Index. (2013)
water solubility65 g/L in cold water'MSDS'
pKa1.5Dawson et al. Data for Biochemical Research. 3 ed. (1986)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS-0.08ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.39 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.6511
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7419
Caco-2 permeable-0.6272
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8245
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.878
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9704
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8833
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8835
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8043
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7015
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9165
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9217
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9331
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9215
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9763
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9712
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.6212
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7666
Rat acute toxicity1.4296 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5873
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8162
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0036-9000000000-a96a1a8b53b1b556f6ca
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-57e6677f8d16d2985bfc
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-6c843965de2368577a54
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9200000000-bc9330a846bf43b4bd3f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0910000000-3db15ccd0e35f4d28cff
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-9800000000-2b8831b551e784a41008
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-773b190e6818e815f3c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a6f41eee062c4713d181
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0920000000-a558d03e31ae58106185
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-9cd32466db0b0c9c5c55
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-06101a50ac12515e4fd0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-10d63d9e046e843a5fca
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0890202100-ef2de9b47cafa707f789
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-530438ccab9f22503af5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-ad642e440d924dfd8e20
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0097000000-24cfd722ea30b6a3b22d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0790202100-45d57f0101d4cefbc981
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-bd1f04d82f9e675f2303
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-d411fff703670832e445
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0098000000-c86b66ff71cff513520f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-31f44189a2671cf5d2e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00e9-6900000000-cc7fe1badfe13959526d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-ae6465f92e91cfad7276
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-af0ea33a51fe79abee00
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-27d6c7ae55f73bb21b3c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-2900000000-a48be30a953f106419c0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a6x-9800000000-bd1deb0a50f0e9af0e96
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-0c03a0f8f6217caf42a4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3090000000-bf77c1393db9a517e6c0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-954acc76409dfcde667b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-56d319e5898af6d405d5
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-31f44189a2671cf5d2e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00e9-6900000000-cc7fe1badfe13959526d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-ae6465f92e91cfad7276
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-af0ea33a51fe79abee00
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-27d6c7ae55f73bb21b3c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-530438ccab9f22503af5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-ad642e440d924dfd8e20
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0097000000-e6d9cd15ddc56b10a1c6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-bd1f04d82f9e675f2303
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-d411fff703670832e445
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0098000000-c86b66ff71cff513520f
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-4900000000-9793e5415fbc98c19205
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-2900000000-774377f299c9a6849cc6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a6x-9800000000-bd1deb0a50f0e9af0e96
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-0c03a0f8f6217caf42a4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3090000000-bf77c1393db9a517e6c0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-954acc76409dfcde667b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-9800000000-2b8831b551e784a41008
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-773b190e6818e815f3c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a6f41eee062c4713d181
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-9cd32466db0b0c9c5c55
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-06101a50ac12515e4fd0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-10d63d9e046e843a5fca
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-56d319e5898af6d405d5
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organosulfonic acids. These are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic sulfonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Organosulfonic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Organosulfonic acids
Alternative Parents
Sulfonyls / Alkanesulfonic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Alkanesulfonic acid / Sulfonyl / Organosulfonic acid / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary amine / Organosulfur compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
amino sulfonic acid (CHEBI:15891)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Taurine dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of taurine and alpha ketoglutarate to sulfite, aminoacetaldehyde and succinate. Required for the utilization of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) as an alternative sulfu...
Gene Name
tauD
Uniprot ID
P37610
Uniprot Name
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine dioxygenase
Molecular Weight
32409.26 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Clostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Choloylglycine hydrolase activity
Specific Function
The enzyme catalyzes the degradation of conjugated bile acids in the mammalian gut.
Gene Name
cbh
Uniprot ID
P54965
Uniprot Name
Choloylglycine hydrolase
Molecular Weight
37185.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Jensen AA, Kristiansen U: Functional characterisation of the human alpha1 glycine receptor in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 May 1;67(9):1789-99. [PubMed:15081878]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic site...
Gene Name
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID
Q13224
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
Molecular Weight
166365.885 Da
References
  1. Chan CY, Singh I, Magnuson H, Zohaib M, Bakshi KP, Le Francois B, Anazco-Ayala A, Lee EJ, Tom A, YeeMon K, Ragnauth A, Friedman E, Banerjee SP: Taurine Targets the GluN2b-Containing NMDA Receptor Subtype. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;803:531-44. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-15126-7_43. [PubMed:25833525]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA2
Uniprot ID
P23416
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
52001.585 Da
References
  1. Guide to pharmacology [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA3
Uniprot ID
O75311
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
53799.775 Da
References
  1. Guide to pharmacology [Link]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

Components:
References
  1. Kilb W, Fukuda A: Taurine as an Essential Neuromodulator during Perinatal Cortical Development. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017 Oct 24;11:328. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2017.00328. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:29123472]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coup...
Gene Name
GABBR1
Uniprot ID
Q9UBS5
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
Molecular Weight
108319.4 Da
References
  1. Kilb W, Fukuda A: Taurine as an Essential Neuromodulator during Perinatal Cortical Development. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017 Oct 24;11:328. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2017.00328. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:29123472]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins.
Gene Name
TGM6
Uniprot ID
O95932
Uniprot Name
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 6
Molecular Weight
79311.745 Da
References
  1. KEGG metabolism [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Very long chain acyl-coa hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The...
Gene Name
BAAT
Uniprot ID
Q14032
Uniprot Name
Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase
Molecular Weight
46298.865 Da
References
  1. KEGG metabolism [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recog...
Gene Name
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID
Q7Z2H8
Uniprot Name
Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53075.045 Da
References
  1. Nielsen CU, Bjerg M, Ulaganathan N, Holm R: Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of taurine in sprague-dawley rats: the influence of dose and the possible involvement of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, PAT1, in oral taurine absorption. Physiol Rep. 2017 Oct;5(19). pii: 5/19/e13467. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13467. Epub 2017 Oct 16. [PubMed:29038364]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-dependent taurine and beta-alanine transporter. Chloride ions are necessary for optimal uptake.
Specific Function
Amino acid transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC6A6
Uniprot ID
P31641
Uniprot Name
Sodium- and chloride-dependent taurine transporter
Molecular Weight
69829.405 Da
References
  1. Nielsen CU, Bjerg M, Ulaganathan N, Holm R: Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of taurine in sprague-dawley rats: the influence of dose and the possible involvement of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, PAT1, in oral taurine absorption. Physiol Rep. 2017 Oct;5(19). pii: 5/19/e13467. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13467. Epub 2017 Oct 16. [PubMed:29038364]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. FDA GRAS [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 19, 2018 10:57