Catalyzes the reversible epimerization at C-2 of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and thereby provides bacteria with UDP-N-acetylmannosamine (UDP-ManNAc), the activated donor of ManNAc residues. Also involved in bacteriophage N4 adsorption.
This protein is the basis of the ABO blood group system. The histo-blood group ABO involves three carbohydrate antigens: A, B, and H. A, B, and AB individuals express a glycosyltransferase activity that converts the H antigen to the A antigen (by addition of UDP-GalNAc) or to the B antigen (by addition of UDP-Gal), whereas O individuals lack such activity.
During replicative cycle of retroviruses, the reverse-transcribed viral DNA is integrated into the host chromosome by the viral integrase enzyme. RNase H activity is associated with the reverse transcriptase.
Involved in the biosynthesis of L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on glycoproteins. Can also play a role in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Substrates include asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), asialo-fetuin, and asialo-neural cell adhesion molecule. Requires sphingomyelin for activity: stearoyl-sphingomyelin was the most effective, followed by palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and lignoceroyl-sphingomyelin. Activit...
Catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to glucose-6-phosphate to form alpha,alpha-1,1 trehalose-6-phosphate. Acts with retention of the anomeric configuration of the UDP-sugar donor. Essential for viability of the cells at low temperatures and at elevated osmotic strength.
Glycosyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of heparan-sulfate and responsible for the alternating addition of beta-1-4-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA) and alpha-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) units to nascent heparan sulfate chains.
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphates at the expense of ATP. Plays an important role in de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Has preference for UMP and CMP as phosphate acceptors. Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.
Catalyzes the transfer of glucose (Glc) from uridine diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glc) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-HMC) in double-stranded DNA. Is involved in a DNA modification process to protect the phage genome against its own nucleases and the host restriction endonuclease system.
Involved in the metabolism of galactose. Catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) to UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) through a mechanism involving the transient reduction of NAD. It is only active on UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose.
Glycosaminoglycans biosynthesis. Involved in forming the linkage tetrasaccharide present in heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Transfers a glucuronic acid moiety from the uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to the common linkage region trisaccharide Gal-beta-1,3-Gal-beta-1,4-Xyl covalently bound to a Ser residue at the glycosaminylglycan attachment site of proteoglycans. Can a...