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Identification
NameLactic Acid
Accession NumberDB04398  (EXPT01996, DB09294)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
DescriptionA normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste. It is produced by fermentation of a sugar source, such as corn or beets, and then, by neutralizing the resulting lactic acid to create a compound having the formula NaC3H5O3.
Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
Sodium lactateTU7HW0W0QT 72-17-3NGSFWBMYFKHRBD-UHFFFAOYSA-MDetails
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sodium LactateInjection, solution, concentrate5.6 g/10mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.1984-09-05Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Keri Fast Absorbing - Aha - Lot 5%Lotion5 %TopicalBristol Myers Squibb1996-06-272001-07-30Canada
Keri Original - Aha - Lotion 5%Lotion5 %TopicalBristol Myers Squibb1996-06-272002-07-04Canada
Lactimol - Crm 10%Cream10 %TopicalUcb Inc1996-12-061998-04-21Canada
Penederm LotionLotion5 %TopicalPenederm Inc.1995-12-312001-08-17Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cheongin HaejanghwanPellet.001 g/gOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-18Not applicableUs
Cheongin HaewoohwanPellet.001 g/gOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-18Not applicableUs
Cheongin SamrakhwanPellet.001 g/gOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-17Not applicableUs
Fresh Morning Bifidus BifidusPowder.0316 mg/mgOralSaimdang Cosmetics Co., Ltd2010-08-21Not applicableUs
Herbal Stemcell Aha PeelLiquid.01 mg/mLTopicalAmi Cosmetic Co.,Ltd.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
(40 Mmols/l) Potassium Chloride In Lactated Ringer's Injection USPBaxter Laboratories
Cuplex GelTrans Canaderm Inc.
Curel Alpha Hydroxy Dry Skin LotionJergens Canada Inc.
Dianeal Pd109 Capd SolutionBaxter Laboratories
ExtranealBaxter Laboratories
Glycerolyte 57 SolutionFenwal, Inc.
Hemosol Lg2Gambro Inc
Hemosol Lg4Gambro Inc
Hemosol LoGambro Inc
Kimchi Vitamin Chewable MultivitaminTobico
Lactated Ringer's InjectionHospira, Inc.
Lactated Ringer's Injection USPB. Braun Medical Inc.
Lactated Ringer's IrrigationHospira, Inc.
Lactated Ringer's Irrigation SolBaxter Laboratories
Lactated RingersB. Braun Medical Inc.
Lactated Ringers Inj USPBaxter Laboratories
Lactated Ringers IrrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.
Penederm CreamPenederm Inc.
Potassium Chloride In Lactated Ringer's InjectionBaxter Laboratories
Prenate RestoreAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prism0calBaxter Laboratories
Prismasol 0Baxter Laboratories
Prismasol 2Baxter Laboratories
Prismasol 4Baxter Laboratories
Selutrio 10Fresenius Medical Care Deutchland Gmbh
Selutrio 40Fresenius Medical Care Deutchland Gmbh
Ti-U-lac LotionMerit Industries Inc.
Tiacid SolutionMerit Industries Inc.
Categories
UNII3B8D35Y7S4
CAS number50-21-5
WeightAverage: 90.0779
Monoisotopic: 90.031694058
Chemical FormulaC3H6O3
InChI KeyJVTAAEKCZFNVCJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H6O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2,4H,1H3,(H,5,6)
IUPAC Name
2-hydroxypropanoic acid
SMILES
CC(O)C(O)=O
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as an alkalinizing agent.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsLactic acid produces a metabolic alkalinizing effect.
Mechanism of actionLactate ions are metabolized ultimately to carbon dioxide and water, which requires the consumption of hydrogen cations.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Bifunctional protein PutAProteinunknownNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)P09546 details
NimA-related proteinProteinunknownNot AvailableDeinococcus radiodurans (strain ATCC 13939 / DSM 20539 / JCM 16871 / LMG 4051 / NBRC 15346 / NCIMB 9279 / R1 / VKM B-1422)Q9RW27 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
FlecainideThe serum concentration of Flecainide can be increased when it is combined with Lactic Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Yoshihide Hagiwara, Miyauchi Tetsuji, Yuki Morimasa, “Process for preparing food products containing a lactic acid bacteria-fermented product of a cereal germ.” U.S. Patent US4056637, issued February, 1933.

US4056637
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesG01AD01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2CompletedTreatmentArterial hypoxia / Hypotension1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrain Injuries,Traumatic1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionAtherosclerosis1
2CompletedSupportive CareHygiene1
2CompletedTreatmentAcidosis, Respiratory / Shock, Hemorrhagic / Traumatic Shock1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Heart Failure (AHF)1
2CompletedTreatmentBlood Loss,Surgical / Carcinoma of the Prostate / General Surgery1
2RecruitingNot AvailablePain1
2RecruitingPreventionPancreaticoduodenectomy1
2TerminatedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHead Trauma1
3CompletedPreventionHygiene4
3CompletedSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers7
3CompletedSupportive CareHygiene25
3CompletedTreatmentCAPD / Diabetes / End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
3CompletedTreatmentColon Cancer / Colon Polyps / Colorectal Polyps / Crohn's Disease (CD) / Diverticulitis / Rectal Cancers / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes / ESRD1
3CompletedTreatmentHygiene10
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
4CompletedSupportive CareHygiene3
4CompletedTreatmentAPD / CAPD / Diabetes / ESRD1
4CompletedTreatmentArthrocentesis / Pain / Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction1
4CompletedTreatmentHygiene1
4RecruitingTreatmentRenal Insufficiency1
4TerminatedTreatmentDepression / Depression, Myalgia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentTraumas1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingScreeningActual Impaired Fluid Volume1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Ketoacidosis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentShock / Shock, Septic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePatients Undergoing Open Resection of Colorectal Tumours1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PelletOral.001 g/g
GelTopical
SolutionHemodialysis
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal
SolutionIntraperitoneal
PowderOral.0316 mg/mg
SolutionUnknown
LiquidTopical.01 mg/mL
Tablet, chewableOral
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionIrrigation
LiquidIrrigation
Injection, solutionIntravenous
IrrigantIrrigation
CreamTopical10 %
CreamTopical
LotionTopical5 %
LiquidIntravenous
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
SolutionHemodialysis; Intravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous5.6 g/10mL
LotionTopical
SolutionTopical
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6077836 No1997-06-202017-06-20Us
US6248726 No1998-06-192018-06-19Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point16.8 °CPhysProp
boiling point122 °C at 1.50E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-0.72HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa3.86 (at 20 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility562.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.79ALOGPS
logP-0.47ChemAxon
logS0.79ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity18.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.05 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET featuresNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014i-1900000000-e4b0458c1830f2273dbfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0002-9000000000-6b805941ef8da414e517View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transcriptional repressor activity, bacterial-type rna polymerase core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
Oxidizes proline to glutamate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source and also function as a transcriptional repressor of the put operon.
Gene Name:
putA
Uniprot ID:
P09546
Molecular Weight:
143813.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Deinococcus radiodurans (strain ATCC 13939 / DSM 20539 / JCM 16871 / LMG 4051 / NBRC 15346 / NCIMB 9279 / R1 / VKM B-1422)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q9RW27
Molecular Weight:
21890.23 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Functions as high-affinity pyruvate transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID:
O60669
Molecular Weight:
52199.745 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
  2. Broer S, Broer A, Schneider HP, Stegen C, Halestrap AP, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the high-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem J. 1999 Aug 1;341 ( Pt 3):529-35. [PubMed:10417314 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular Weight:
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724351 ]
  2. Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Functional characterization of pH-sensitive organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B in human. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):438-45. Epub 2003 Nov 10. [PubMed:14610227 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
  2. Broer S, Schneider HP, Broer A, Rahman B, Hamprecht B, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by changes in cytosolic pH. Biochem J. 1998 Jul 1;333 ( Pt 1):167-74. [PubMed:9639576 ]
  3. Broer S, Rahman B, Pellegri G, Pellerin L, Martin JL, Verleysdonk S, Hamprecht B, Magistretti PJ: Comparison of lactate transport in astroglial cells and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT 1) expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. Expression of two different monocarboxylate transporters in astroglial cells and neurons. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30096-102. [PubMed:9374487 ]
  4. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
  5. Takanaga H, Tamai I, Inaba S, Sai Y, Higashida H, Yamamoto H, Tsuji A: cDNA cloning and functional characterization of rat intestinal monocarboxylate transporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Dec 5;217(1):370-7. [PubMed:8526936 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, as well as PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2A.
Gene Name:
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q92959
Molecular Weight:
70043.33 Da
References
  1. Chan BS, Endo S, Kanai N, Schuster VL: Identification of lactate as a driving force for prostanoid transport by prostaglandin transporter PGT. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Jun;282(6):F1097-102. [PubMed:11997326 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID:
O15427
Molecular Weight:
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. [PubMed:11101640 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 29, 2017 04:36