Identification

Name
Lactic acid
Accession Number
DB04398
Description

A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste. It is produced by fermentation of a sugar source, such as corn or beets, and then, by neutralizing the resulting lactic acid to create a compound having the formula NaC3H5O3.

Lactic acid was one of active ingredients in Phexxi, a non-hormonal contraceptive agent that was approved by the FDA on May 2020.1

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 90.0779
Monoisotopic: 90.031694058
Chemical Formula
C3H6O3
Synonyms
  • (±)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
  • 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  • 2-Hydroxypropionic acid
  • ácido láctico
  • Acidum lacticum
  • DL- lactic acid
  • DL-Lactic Acid
  • DL-Milchsäure
  • Lacticum acidum
  • Milchsäure
  • Milk acid
  • rac-lactic acid
  • α-hydroxypropanoic acid
  • α-hydroxypropionic acid
External IDs
  • BRN 5238667
  • CCRIS 2951
  • E270
  • NSC 367919
  • SY-83

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as an alkalinizing agent.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Lactic acid produces a metabolic alkalinizing effect.

Mechanism of action

Lactate ions are metabolized ultimately to carbon dioxide and water, which requires the consumption of hydrogen cations.

TargetActionsOrganism
UBifunctional protein PutANot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UNimA-related proteinNot AvailableDeinococcus radiodurans (strain ATCC 13939 / DSM 20539 / JCM 16871 / LMG 4051 / NBRC 15346 / NCIMB 9279 / R1 / VKM B-1422)
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium lactateTU7HW0W0QT72-17-3NGSFWBMYFKHRBD-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium cationionicLYR4M0NH3717341-25-2FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Lactic AcidCream100 mg/1gTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-06-012011-11-30Us
Lactic AcidLotion1 g/10mLTopicalStratus Pharmaceuticals2009-01-082017-05-03Us
Lactic AcidCream11.34 g/113.4gTopicalStratus Pharmaceuticals2009-01-162017-05-03Us
Lactic AcidLotion.1 mL/1mLTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-06-012010-02-28Us
LactinolLotion35.484 mL/354.84mLTopicalPedinol Pharmacal, Inc.1992-02-012009-10-26Us
Lactinol-ECream11.34 g/113.4gTopicalPedinol Pharmacal, Inc.1991-02-012009-11-10Us
Sodium LactateInjection, solution, concentrate5.6 g/10mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2006-06-282019-10-01Us
Sodium LactateInjection, solution1.87 g/100mLIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1971-03-222012-10-31Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Cheongin HaejanghwanPellet0.001 g/1gOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-18Not applicableUs
Cheongin HaewoohwanPellet0.001 g/1gOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-18Not applicableUs
Cheongin SamrakhwanPellet0.001 g/1gOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-17Not applicableUs
Cluederm Aqua Solution Peel PlusLiquid45 mg/500mLTopicalClassys Inc.2018-07-192019-03-29Us
Fresh Morning Bifidus bifidusPowder0.0316 mg/1mgOralSaimdang Cosmetics Co., Ltd2010-08-21Not applicableUs
Herbal Stemcell Aha PeelLiquid0.01 mg/1mLTopicalAmi Cosmetic Co.,Ltd.2013-08-012019-01-15Us
Keri Fast Absorbing - Aha - Lot 5%LotionTopicalBristol Myers Squibb1996-06-272001-07-30Canada
Keri Original - Aha - Lotion 5%LotionTopicalBristol Myers Squibb1996-06-272002-07-04Canada
Lactimol - Crm 10%CreamTopicalUcb Inc1996-12-061998-04-21Canada
Penederm LotionLotionTopicalPenederm Inc.1995-12-312001-08-17Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
(40 Mmols/l) Potassium Chloride In Lactated Ringer's Injection USPSodium lactate (310 mg) + Calcium chloride (20 mg) + Potassium chloride (328 mg) + Sodium chloride (600 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2002-12-112016-07-15Canada
5% Dextrose In Lactated Ringer's InjectionSodium lactate (310 mg) + Calcium chloride (20 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g) + Potassium chloride (30 mg) + Sodium chloride (600 mg)SolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1993-12-312012-04-10Canada
Balance 1.5% Glucose, 1.25 Mmol/l CalciumSodium lactate (3.925 g) + Calcium chloride (0.1838 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (16.5 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.1017 g) + Sodium chloride (5.64 g)SolutionHemodialysisFresenius Medical Care Korea2006-07-25Not applicableCanada
Balance 1.5% Glucose, 1.75 Mmol/l CalciumSodium lactate (3.925 g) + Calcium chloride (0.2573 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (16.5 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.1017 g) + Sodium chloride (5.64 g)SolutionHemodialysisFresenius Medical Care KoreaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Balance 2.3% Glucose, 1.25 Mmol/l CalciumSodium lactate (3.925 g) + Calcium chloride (0.1838 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.1017 g) + Sodium chloride (5.64 g)SolutionHemodialysisFresenius Medical Care Korea2006-01-03Not applicableCanada
Balance 2.3% Glucose, 1.75 Mmol/l CalciumSodium lactate (3.925 g) + Calcium chloride (0.2573 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.1017 g) + Sodium chloride (5.64 g)SolutionHemodialysisFresenius Medical Care KoreaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Balance 4.25% Glucose, 1.25 Mmol/l CalciumSodium lactate (3.925 g) + Calcium chloride (0.1838 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (46.75 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.1017 g) + Sodium chloride (5.64 g)SolutionHemodialysisFresenius Medical Care Korea2006-01-03Not applicableCanada
Balance 4.25% Glucose, 1.75 Mmol/l CalciumSodium lactate (3.925 g) + Calcium chloride (0.2573 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (46.75 g) + Magnesium chloride (0.1017 g) + Sodium chloride (5.64 g)SolutionHemodialysisFresenius Medical Care KoreaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Caneal Peritoneal Dialysis SolutionSodium lactate (392 mg) + Calcium chloride (25.7 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (1.5 g) + Magnesium chloride (15.2 mg) + Sodium chloride (567 mg)SolutionHemodialysisChief Medical Supplies LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Caneal Peritoneal Dialysis SolutionSodium lactate (448 mg) + Calcium chloride (18.3 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (4.25 g) + Magnesium chloride (5.08 mg) + Sodium chloride (538 mg)SolutionHemodialysisChief Medical Supplies LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Cheongin HaejanghwanLactic acid (0.001 g/1g)PelletOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-18Not applicableUs
Cheongin HaewoohwanLactic acid (0.001 g/1g)PelletOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-18Not applicableUs
Cheongin SamrakhwanLactic acid (0.001 g/1g)PelletOralEntechbio Co., Ltd2011-02-17Not applicableUs
Cluederm Aqua Solution Peel PlusLactic acid (45 mg/500mL)LiquidTopicalClassys Inc.2018-07-192019-03-29Us
Dianeal for Peritoneal DialysisSodium lactate (4.48 g/1000mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.184 g/1000mL) + D-glucose (22.7 g/1000mL) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.051 g/1000mL) + Sodium chloride (5.38 g/1000mL)Injection, solutionIntraperitonealBaxter Healthcare Corporation2014-10-272016-12-31Us
Dianeal for Peritoneal DialysisSodium lactate (4.48 g/1000mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.184 g/1000mL) + D-glucose (13.6 g/1000mL) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.051 g/1000mL) + Sodium chloride (5.38 g/1000mL)Injection, solutionIntraperitonealBaxter Healthcare Corporation2014-10-272016-12-31Us
Dianeal for Peritoneal DialysisSodium lactate (4.48 g/1000mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.184 g/1000mL) + D-glucose (38.6 g/1000mL) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.051 g/1000mL) + Sodium chloride (5.38 g/1000mL)Injection, solutionIntraperitonealBaxter Healthcare Corporation2014-10-272016-12-31Us
Fresh Morning Bifidus bifidusLactic acid (0.0316 mg/1mg)PowderOralSaimdang Cosmetics Co., Ltd2010-08-21Not applicableUs
Glysol-500Sodium lactate (1.60 g/100mL) + Glycerin (57.10 g/100mL) + Potassium chloride (0.03 g/100mL)SolutionExtracorporealBiomet Biologics2010-01-012010-09-06Us
Herbal Stemcell Aha PeelLactic acid (0.01 mg/1mL)LiquidTopicalAmi Cosmetic Co.,Ltd.2013-08-012019-01-15Us

Categories

ATC Codes
G01AD01 — Lactic acid
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Hydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Secondary alcohols / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Alcohol / Aliphatic acyclic compound / Alpha-hydroxy acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Hydrocarbon derivative / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
2-hydroxy monocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:78320)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
3B8D35Y7S4
CAS number
50-21-5
InChI Key
JVTAAEKCZFNVCJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H6O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2,4H,1H3,(H,5,6)
IUPAC Name
2-hydroxypropanoic acid
SMILES
CC(O)C(O)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Yoshihide Hagiwara, Miyauchi Tetsuji, Yuki Morimasa, "Process for preparing food products containing a lactic acid bacteria-fermented product of a cereal germ." U.S. Patent US4056637, issued February, 1933.

US4056637
General References
  1. Drugs.com: Phexxi Approval History [Link]
  2. FDA Approved Drug Products: PHEXXI (lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium bitartrate) vaginal gel [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0144295
KEGG Drug
D00111
KEGG Compound
C01432
PubChem Compound
612
PubChem Substance
46505582
ChemSpider
592
BindingDB
23233
RxNav
1314409
ChEBI
78320
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200559
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Lactic_acid
AHFS Codes
  • 84:24.12 — Basic Ointments and Protectants
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImpaired kidney function1
4CompletedSupportive CareHygiene3
4CompletedTreatmentAPD / Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy / Diabetes / ESRD1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Peritoneal dialysis therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentHygiene1
4TerminatedTreatmentHypertriglyceridemias / Peritoneal dialysis therapy1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
3CompletedPreventionHygiene4
3CompletedSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Contract Pharm
  • Groupe Parima Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • PEDiNOL
  • Philipp Thomas Usa LLC
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Sheffield Laboratories Div Faria Limited LLC
  • Sonar Products Inc.
  • Stratus Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Synthera Dr Friedrichs Gmgh Co. KG
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
PelletOral0.001 g/1g
LiquidTopical45 mg/500mL
SolutionIntraperitoneal
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal
LiquidHemodialysis
SolutionHemodialysis
PowderOral0.0316 mg/1mg
SolutionUnknown
SolutionExtracorporeal
LiquidTopical0.01 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraperitoneal
SolutionHemodialysis; Intraperitoneal
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidIrrigation
IrrigantIrrigation
Solution, for slushIrrigation
SolutionIrrigation
CreamTopical100 mg/1g
LotionTopical.1 mL/1mL
LotionTopical1 g/10mL
CreamTopical
GelTopical
CreamTopical
LotionTopical35.484 mL/354.84mL
CreamTopical11.34 g/113.4g
LotionTopical
InjectionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
KitHemodialysis
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionHemodialysis; Intravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous1.87 g/100mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous5.6 g/10mL
LotionTopical
SolutionTopical
LiquidTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US6077836No2000-06-202017-06-20Us
US6248726No2001-06-192018-06-19Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)16.8 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)122 °C at 1.50E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-0.72HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa3.86 (at 20 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility562.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.79ALOGPS
logP-0.47ChemAxon
logS0.79ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity18.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.05 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-e4b0458c1830f2273dbf
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00kb-9000000000-e9462d6d6eeac598b73b
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00kb-0900000000-31df199e59f138c8cc73
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-6b805941ef8da414e517
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aa
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aa
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aa
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aa
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9000000000-02a1cd4a8992ca170923
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dj-9000000000-aea7835dfa5a89c7ad72
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-05dj-9000000000-853c8ae85554cbf4f3aa
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b6d22eee857dbd8c67c1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0079-9000000000-79419ab380c5c954afa8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-1ab6a665296f80ee0127
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-32a7c59ca2c276cf73a6
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
The references provide evidence of inhibition by lactate molecule.
General Function
Transcriptional repressor activity, bacterial-type rna polymerase core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
Oxidizes proline to glutamate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source and also function as a transcriptional repressor of the put operon.
Gene Name
putA
Uniprot ID
P09546
Uniprot Name
Bifunctional protein PutA
Molecular Weight
143813.665 Da
References
  1. Zhang M, White TA, Schuermann JP, Baban BA, Becker DF, Tanner JJ: Structures of the Escherichia coli PutA proline dehydrogenase domain in complex with competitive inhibitors. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12539-48. doi: 10.1021/bi048737e. [PubMed:15449943]
  2. Lee YH, Nadaraia S, Gu D, Becker DF, Tanner JJ: Structure of the proline dehydrogenase domain of the multifunctional PutA flavoprotein. Nat Struct Biol. 2003 Feb;10(2):109-14. [PubMed:12514740]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Deinococcus radiodurans (strain ATCC 13939 / DSM 20539 / JCM 16871 / LMG 4051 / NBRC 15346 / NCIMB 9279 / R1 / VKM B-1422)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q9RW27
Uniprot Name
NimA-related protein
Molecular Weight
21890.23 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID
O60669
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 2
Molecular Weight
52199.745 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900]
  2. Broer S, Broer A, Schneider HP, Stegen C, Halestrap AP, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the high-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem J. 1999 Aug 1;341 ( Pt 3):529-35. [PubMed:10417314]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724351]
  2. Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Functional characterization of pH-sensitive organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B in human. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):438-45. Epub 2003 Nov 10. [PubMed:14610227]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID
P53985
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900]
  2. Broer S, Schneider HP, Broer A, Rahman B, Hamprecht B, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by changes in cytosolic pH. Biochem J. 1998 Jul 1;333 ( Pt 1):167-74. [PubMed:9639576]
  3. Broer S, Rahman B, Pellegri G, Pellerin L, Martin JL, Verleysdonk S, Hamprecht B, Magistretti PJ: Comparison of lactate transport in astroglial cells and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT 1) expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. Expression of two different monocarboxylate transporters in astroglial cells and neurons. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30096-102. [PubMed:9374487]
  4. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682]
  5. Takanaga H, Tamai I, Inaba S, Sai Y, Higashida H, Yamamoto H, Tsuji A: cDNA cloning and functional characterization of rat intestinal monocarboxylate transporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Dec 5;217(1):370-7. [PubMed:8526936]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, a...
Gene Name
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID
Q92959
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1
Molecular Weight
70043.33 Da
References
  1. Chan BS, Endo S, Kanai N, Schuster VL: Identification of lactate as a driving force for prostanoid transport by prostaglandin transporter PGT. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Jun;282(6):F1097-102. [PubMed:11997326]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID
O15427
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 4
Molecular Weight
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. [PubMed:11101640]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 10, 2020 08:11

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