1,4-Dithiothreitol

Identification

Name
1,4-Dithiothreitol
Accession Number
DB04447  (EXPT01291)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description

A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-dithiobutane
Categories
Not Available
UNII
T8ID5YZU6Y
CAS number
3483-12-3
Weight
Average: 154.251
Monoisotopic: 154.012220944
Chemical Formula
C4H10O2S2
InChI Key
VHJLVAABSRFDPM-IMJSIDKUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H10O2S2/c5-3(1-7)4(6)2-8/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R)-1,4-disulfanylbutane-2,3-diol
SMILES
O[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UProtease synthase and sporulation negative regulatory protein PAI 1Not AvailableBacillus subtilis (strain 168)
UHolo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthaseNot AvailableBacillus subtilis (strain 168)
UHistidinol dehydrogenaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UShikimate dehydrogenaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UGalectin-1Not AvailableHuman
UCalcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alphaNot AvailableHuman
U50S ribosomal protein L27Not AvailableThermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
URetinal dehydrogenase 1Not AvailableHuman
UOrganic hydroperoxide resistance proteinNot AvailablePseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)
U3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomeraseNot AvailablePseudomonas putida
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7Not AvailableHuman
UUnsaturated glucuronyl hydrolaseNot AvailableBacillus sp. (strain GL1)
UCyclic pyranopterin monophosphate synthaseNot AvailableStaphylococcus aureus (strain MW2)
UC protein alpha-antigenNot AvailableStreptococcus agalactiae serotype Ia (strain ATCC 27591 / A909 / CDC SS700)
UMitochondrial peptide methionine sulfoxide reductaseNot AvailableHuman
UChaperone protein TorDNot AvailableShewanella massilia
UAxin-1Not AvailableHuman
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase BNot AvailableHuman
UAmylosucraseNot AvailableNeisseria polysaccharea
UThymidylate synthaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UTriosephosphate isomeraseNot AvailableHuman
UMaleylacetoacetate isomeraseNot AvailableHuman
U3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductaseNot AvailableHuman
UListeriolysin regulatory proteinNot AvailableListeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a (strain ATCC BAA-679 / EGD-e)
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0013593
KEGG Compound
C00265
PubChem Compound
439196
PubChem Substance
46505212
ChemSpider
388336
ChEBI
42106
ChEMBL
CHEMBL406270
HET
DTT
PDB Entries
1a78 / 1b2l / 1dk8 / 1dq8 / 1eac / 1f0c / 1f7t / 1fa2 / 1fvg / 1fw1
show 203 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.14 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.18ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity38.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.68 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00yr-4980000000-015b0bd9159f84485733
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00yr-4980000000-015b0bd9159f84485733
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,2-diols. These are polyols containing an alcohol group at two adjacent positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Alcohols and polyols
Direct Parent
1,2-diols
Alternative Parents
Secondary alcohols / Alkylthiols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Secondary alcohol / 1,2-diol / Alkylthiol / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organosulfur compound / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
1,4-dithiothreitol (CHEBI:42106)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Diamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the protection against polyamine toxicity by regulating their concentration. Also could be involved in the negative control of sporulation as well as production of degradative enzymes s...
Gene Name
paiA
Uniprot ID
P21340
Uniprot Name
Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase
Molecular Weight
20014.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Transfers the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety from coenzyme A to a Ser of fatty acid acyl-carrier-protein ACP. Also modifies the D-alanyl carrier protein but fails to recognize PCP and AcpK, an acyl c...
Gene Name
acpS
Uniprot ID
P96618
Uniprot Name
Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase
Molecular Weight
13717.63 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the sequential NAD-dependent oxidations of L-histidinol to L-histidinaldehyde and then to L-histidine.
Gene Name
hisD
Uniprot ID
P06988
Uniprot Name
Histidinol dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
46109.815 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Shikimate 3-dehydrogenase (nadp+) activity
Specific Function
Involved in the biosynthesis of the chorismate, which leads to the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Catalyzes the reversible NADPH linked reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate (DHSA) to yield shikim...
Gene Name
aroE
Uniprot ID
P15770
Uniprot Name
Shikimate dehydrogenase (NADP(+))
Molecular Weight
29413.305 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
Lectin that binds beta-galactoside and a wide array of complex carbohydrates. Plays a role in regulating apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Inhibits CD45 protein phosphatase ac...
Gene Name
LGALS1
Uniprot ID
P09382
Uniprot Name
Galectin-1
Molecular Weight
14715.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitato...
Gene Name
CAMK2A
Uniprot ID
Q9UQM7
Uniprot Name
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
54087.265 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of ribosome
Specific Function
Found on the solvent side of the large subunit.
Gene Name
rpmA
Uniprot ID
P60493
Uniprot Name
50S ribosomal protein L27
Molecular Weight
9508.0 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID
P00352
Uniprot Name
Retinal dehydrogenase 1
Molecular Weight
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ohr
Uniprot ID
Q9HZZ3
Uniprot Name
Organic hydroperoxide resistance protein
Molecular Weight
14522.335 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas putida
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes an anti cycloisomerization.
Gene Name
pcaB
Uniprot ID
P32427
Uniprot Name
3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase
Molecular Weight
44675.755 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Essential ion channel and serine/threonine-protein kinase. Divalent cation channel permeable to calcium and magnesium. Has a central role in magnesium ion homeostasis and in the regulation of anoxi...
Gene Name
TRPM7
Uniprot ID
Q96QT4
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7
Molecular Weight
212695.37 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus sp. (strain GL1)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds
Specific Function
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with unsaturated glucuronyl residues at the non-reducing terminal, to a sugar or an amino sugar, and an unsaturated D-glucuronic acid (GlcA), which is n...
Gene Name
ugl
Uniprot ID
Q9RC92
Uniprot Name
Unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase
Molecular Weight
42861.02 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus (strain MW2)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes, together with MoaC, the conversion of 5'-GTP to cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP or molybdopterin precursor Z).
Gene Name
moaA
Uniprot ID
P65389
Uniprot Name
Cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate synthase
Molecular Weight
39077.505 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus agalactiae serotype Ia (strain ATCC 27591 / A909 / CDC SS700)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
May play a role in both virulence and immunity.
Gene Name
bca
Uniprot ID
Q02192
Uniprot Name
C protein alpha-antigen
Molecular Weight
108704.715 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptide-methionine (s)-s-oxide reductase activity
Specific Function
Has an important function as a repair enzyme for proteins that have been inactivated by oxidation. Catalyzes the reversible oxidation-reduction of methionine sulfoxide in proteins to methionine.
Gene Name
MSRA
Uniprot ID
Q9UJ68
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase
Molecular Weight
26132.42 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Shewanella massilia
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Involved in the biogenesis of TorA. Acts on TorA before the insertion of the molybdenum cofactor and, as a result, probably favors a conformation of the apoenzyme that is competent for acquiring th...
Gene Name
torD
Uniprot ID
O87949
Uniprot Name
Chaperone protein TorD
Molecular Weight
23554.45 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Component of the beta-catenin destruction complex required for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling. Controls dorsoventral patterning vi...
Gene Name
AXIN1
Uniprot ID
O15169
Uniprot Name
Axin-1
Molecular Weight
95634.205 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name
PPIB
Uniprot ID
P23284
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B
Molecular Weight
23742.405 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Neisseria polysaccharea
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Cation binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the synthesis of alpha-glucan from sucrose. Catalyzes, in addition, sucrose hydrolysis, maltose and maltotriose synthesis by successive transfers of the glucosyl moiety of sucrose onto th...
Gene Name
ams
Uniprot ID
Q9ZEU2
Uniprot Name
Amylosucrase
Molecular Weight
72343.005 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thymidylate synthase activity
Specific Function
Provides the sole de novo source of dTMP for DNA biosynthesis. This protein also binds to its mRNA thus repressing its own translation.
Gene Name
thyA
Uniprot ID
P0A884
Uniprot Name
Thymidylate synthase
Molecular Weight
30479.475 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
TPI1
Uniprot ID
P60174
Uniprot Name
Triosephosphate isomerase
Molecular Weight
30790.785 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme showing minimal glutathione-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity. Has also low glutathi...
Gene Name
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID
O43708
Uniprot Name
Maleylacetoacetate isomerase
Molecular Weight
24212.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including...
Gene Name
HMGCR
Uniprot ID
P04035
Uniprot Name
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Molecular Weight
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a (strain ATCC BAA-679 / EGD-e)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor activity, sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Positively regulates expression of listeriolysin, of 1-phosphadidylinositol phosphodiesterase (PI-PLC) and other virulence factors.
Gene Name
prfA
Uniprot ID
P22262
Uniprot Name
Listeriolysin regulatory protein
Molecular Weight
27301.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 01, 2018 13:50