Iodipamide is used as a contrast agent for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.
Following intravenous administration of Cholografin Meglumine, iodipamide is carried to the liver where it is rapidly secreted. The contrast medium appears in the bile within 10 to 15 minutes after injection, thus permitting visualization of the hepatic and common bile ducts, even in cholecystectomized patients. The biliary ducts are readily visualized within about 25 minutes after administration, except in patients with impaired liver function. The gallbladder begins to fill within an hour after injection; maximum filling is reached after two to two and one-half hours. The contrast medium is finally eliminated in the feces without passing through the enterohepatic circulation, except for approximately 10 percent of the intravenously administered dose which is excreted through the kidneys.
Mechanism of action
Organic iodine compounds block x-rays as they pass through the body, thereby allowing body structures containing iodine to be delineated in contrast to those structures that do not contain iodine. The degree of opacity produced by these iodinated organic compounds is directly proportional to the total amount (concentration and volume) of the iodinated contrast agent in the path of the x-rays. Iodipamide's primary excretion through the hepato-biliary system and concentration in bile allows visualization of the gallbladder and biliary ducts.
Volume of distribution
Route of elimination
Ionic radiocontrast agents like iodipamide are cytotoxic to renal cells. The toxic effects include apoptosis, cellular energy failure, disruption of calcium homeostasis, and disturbance of tubular cell polarity, and are thought to be linked to oxidative stress. Acute IV LD50 is 5000 mg/kg in rat, 3195 mg/kg in mouse, and 1200 mg/kg in dog.
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
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