Identification

Name
Seletracetam
Accession Number
DB05885  (DB12175)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational
Description

Seletracetam is a pyrrolidone derivative and with a structural similarity to newer generation antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. It binds to the same target as levetiracetam but with higher affinity and has shown potent seizure suppression in models of acquired and genetic epilepsy with high CNS tolerability. It is predicted to have low drug-drug interactions and inhibition or induction of any major human metabolizing enzymes. Seletracetam was in Phase II clinical trials under the supervision of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated as treatment of epilepsy and partial epilepsy however its development had been put on hold in July 2007. As of 2010, its production was further halted due to the investigation of a newer antiepileptic agent, brivaracetam.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-((4S)-4-(2,2-Difluoroethenyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamide
External IDs
UCB 44212 / UCB-44212
Categories
UNII
RFR2CH3QZK
CAS number
357336-74-4
Weight
Average: 232.2272
Monoisotopic: 232.102334112
Chemical Formula
C10H14F2N2O2
InChI Key
ANWPENAPCIFDSZ-RQJHMYQMSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H14F2N2O2/c1-2-7(10(13)16)14-5-6(3-8(11)12)4-9(14)15/h3,6-7H,2,4-5H2,1H3,(H2,13,16)/t6-,7+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-[(4S)-4-(2,2-difluoroethenyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamide
SMILES
CC[C@H](N1C[C@@H](CC1=O)C=C(F)F)C(N)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Investigated for use/treatment in epilepsy.

Pharmacodynamics

Seletracetam is an antiepileptic agent that targets the presynaptic mechanisms of epilepsy. It interferes with synaptic vesicle exocytosis and neurotransmitter release by binding to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) which is involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. It is also a N-type calcium channel blocker that inhibits the abnormal neuronal discharge by inhibiting the calcium channel function and associated calcium currents. Seletracetam markedly reduces epileptiform markers of both hyper-excitability and hyper-synchronization in an in vitro slice model of epilepsy and potently suppresses seizures in in vivo epilepsy models mimicking both partial and generalized epilepsy [A19305].

Mechanism of action

Seletracetam binds to SV2A in a stereospecific and selective manner. SV2A is a membrane glycoprotein present in synaptic vesicles of neurons that plays a role as calcium regulators in neurotransmitter release and modulate synaptic networks. Seletracetam is thought to reduce excessive neuronal activity by modulating SV2A function and restoring the ability of a neuron to regulate its neurotransmitter release. Seizure generation induces a sustained membrane depolarization causing a prolonged firing of voltage-dependent calcium currents sufficient to induce a significant rise in calcium concentration. High voltage-activated calcium currents are inhibited by seletracetam by blocking N-type calcium channels in the pyramidal neurons. The drug reduces the degree of calcium influx and decreases the intraneuronal calcium concentration, blocking the abnormal fluctuations in membrane potential occurring during epileptic discharges.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A
modulator
Human
AVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
blocker
Human
UGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)
binding
Human
Absorption

Seletracetam is rapidly absorbed following oral administration, reaching the Cmax within 1 hour and displaying oral bioavailability of >90%.

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution is approximately 0.6 L/kg, which is close to that of total body water.

Protein binding

Demonstrates low plasma protein binding (<10%)

Metabolism

It undergoes hydrolysis of the acetamide group to form the carboxylic acid metabolite ucb-101596-1, which is pharmacologically inactive.

Route of elimination

Primarily eliminated through renal excretion. It is as mainly excreted as unchanged drug (30%) and an acidic metabolite ucb-101596-1 (60%).

Half life

Approximately 8 hours in healthy young male subjects.

Clearance

The total apparent clearance is approximately 0.8mL/min/kg.

Toxicity

High doses of 2000 mg/kg/day in the mouse and rat and ≥600 mg/kg/day in the dog were not well tolerated in animal studies. Seletracetam does not possess potential teratogenic, reproductive or embryonic toxicities. Most adverse effects are CNS-related effects, including somnolence, dizziness, feeling drunk, euphoria and nausea which all usually tend to be resolved within 24 hours.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbafunginThe therapeutic efficacy of Abafungin can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Investigational
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
AlbaconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Albaconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Investigational
AlclometasoneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Alclometasone.Approved
AlcuroniumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Alcuronium.Experimental
AlfuzosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Alfuzosin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Aminosalicylic AcidSeletracetam may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the bradycardic activities of Seletracetam.Approved
AmobarbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
Amphotericin BSeletracetam may decrease the nephrotoxic activities of Amphotericin B.Approved, Investigational
AmprenavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Amprenavir.Approved, Investigational
ApalutamideThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Apalutamide.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Aripiprazole lauroxilThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Aripiprazole lauroxil is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Seletracetam.Investigational
AsenapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtracuriumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BarbexacloneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Barbexaclone.Experimental
BarbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Barbital.Illicit
BetaxololThe risk or severity of bradycardia can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BevantololThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bevantolol is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
BifonazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Bifonazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
BisacodylThe therapeutic efficacy of Bisacodyl can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
BisoxatinThe therapeutic efficacy of Bisoxatin can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Brexpiprazole is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
BucindololThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bucindolol is combined with Seletracetam.Investigational
BunazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bunazosin is combined with Seletracetam.Investigational
ButalbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Butoconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
CabergolineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Cabergoline.Approved
CalcitriolThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Calcitriol.Approved, Nutraceutical
Calcium AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Acetate.Approved, Investigational
Calcium CarbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Carbonate.Approved, Investigational
Calcium ChlorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.Approved
Calcium CitrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Citrate.Approved
Calcium glubionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium glubionate.Approved
Calcium GluceptateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Gluceptate.Approved
Calcium gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium gluconate.Approved, Vet Approved
Calcium lactateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium lactate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Calcium lactate gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium lactate gluconate.Experimental
Calcium levulinateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium levulinate.Approved, Experimental
Calcium pangamateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium pangamate.Experimental
Calcium PhosphateThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Phosphate.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarboxymethylcelluloseThe therapeutic efficacy of Carboxymethylcellulose can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Castor oilThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CevimelineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Cevimeline.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved, Investigational
CisatracuriumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
Clobetasol propionateThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Clobetasol propionate.Approved
ClonidineClonidine may increase the bradycardic activities of Seletracetam.Approved
ClopidogrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CurcuminThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Curcumin.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved, Investigational
DanazolThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Danazol.Approved
DanthronThe therapeutic efficacy of Danthron can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
DapsoneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Dapsone.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DiflunisalSeletracetam may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diflunisal.Approved, Investigational
DihydroergotamineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Dihydroergotamine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DisopyramideThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Disopyramide.Approved
DocusateThe therapeutic efficacy of Docusate can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
DofetilideThe metabolism of Dofetilide can be decreased when combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
DoxacuriumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Doxacurium.Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Dronedarone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
DroperidolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
EconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Econazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfinaconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Efinaconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
EletriptanThe metabolism of Eletriptan can be decreased when combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErgocalciferolThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Ergocalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
ErgotamineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Ergotamine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of bradycardia can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Esmolol.Approved
EtoposideThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Etoposide.Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
FenticonazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenticonazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Experimental
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved, Investigational
FlunisolideThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Flunisolide.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone acetonideThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Fluocinolone Acetonide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FlutrimazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Flutrimazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Experimental
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
Folic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Folic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved, Investigational
GabapentinGabapentin may increase the bradycardic activities of Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
GallamineSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Gallamine.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
GlycerinThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerin can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydrocortisoneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
IcosapentThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Icosapent is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Nutraceutical
IdelalisibThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Iloperidone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
IndoraminThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Seletracetam.Withdrawn
IsavuconazoleThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazole.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Isoconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved, Investigational
IsradipineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved, Investigational
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
KetorolacThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
LabetalolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
LactitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactitol can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Investigational
LactuloseThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
LinaclotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linaclotide can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
LiothyronineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Lorpiprazole.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be decreased when combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
LubiprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Lubiprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
Magnesium carbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium carbonate can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium citrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Magnesium oxide.Approved
Magnesium peroxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium peroxide can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Experimental
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Magnesium salicylate.Approved
Magnesium sulfateThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Magnesium sulfate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MannitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Mannitol can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Medroxyprogesterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
MedrysoneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Medrysone.Approved
MesalazineSeletracetam may increase the anticoagulant activities of Mesalazine.Approved
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Methohexital.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Methyl celluloseThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyl cellulose can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetocurineSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Metocurine.Approved
Metocurine IodideSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Metocurine Iodide.Approved, Withdrawn
MibefradilThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidodrineSeletracetam may increase the bradycardic activities of Midodrine.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
Mineral oilThe therapeutic efficacy of Mineral oil can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MivacuriumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Nafcillin.Approved, Investigational
NaloxoneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Naloxone.Approved, Vet Approved
NaproxenThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Naproxen is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Nefazodone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Nicardipine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
NicergolineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Nicergoline is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
NiguldipineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Niguldipine is combined with Seletracetam.Experimental
NilotinibThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideSeletracetam may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved, Investigational
NorgestimateThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Norgestimate.Approved, Investigational
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
OmoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Omoconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Experimental
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxiconazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Oxiconazole.Approved
OxyphenisatinThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenisatin can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Investigational, Withdrawn
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved, Investigational
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
PancuroniumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.Approved
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Patent BlueThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Patent Blue.Approved
PegvisomantThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Pegvisomant.Approved
PentaerithritylThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentaerithrityl can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Experimental
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenolphthaleinThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenolphthalein can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Withdrawn
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Phenoxybenzamine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Phentolamine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Phenytoin can be decreased when combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
PipecuroniumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pipecuronium.Approved
PitolisantThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Pizotifen is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
Plantago seedThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
PlecanatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Plecanatide can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
PolycarbophilThe therapeutic efficacy of Polycarbophil can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Experimental
Polyethylene glycolThe therapeutic efficacy of Polyethylene glycol can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Potassium acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Potassium acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
PregabalinPregabalin may increase the bradycardic activities of Seletracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Promazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PropericiazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Propericiazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
PropiomazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Propiomazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
PropiverineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Propiverine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
PropranololThe risk or severity of bradycardia can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
PrucaloprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Prucalopride can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
QuinidineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Quinidine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
QuinineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RapacuroniumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Approved, Withdrawn
RavuconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Ravuconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Investigational
RifampicinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifamycinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Rifamycin.Investigational
RifapentineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved, Investigational
RifaximinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Rifaximin.Approved, Investigational
RimexoloneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Rimexolone.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RocuroniumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SarilumabThe therapeutic efficacy of Seletracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Sarilumab.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SennosidesThe therapeutic efficacy of Sennosides can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
SertaconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Sertaconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be decreased when combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Silodosin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Sodium phosphate, monobasicThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phosphate, monobasic can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
Sodium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium sulfate can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium tartrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium tartrate can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
SorbitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Sorbitol can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SuccinylcholineThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Succinylcholine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
SulconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
SulfanilamideThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Sulfanilamide.Approved
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Tamsulosin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
TegaserodThe therapeutic efficacy of Tegaserod can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemazepamThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Temazepam.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Terazosin is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Terconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Seletracetam.Approved
ThiamylalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioproperazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Thioproperazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Withdrawn
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TimololThe risk or severity of bradycardia can be increased when Seletracetam is combined with Timolol.Approved
TioconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Tioconazole can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Seletracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolazolineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Tolazoline is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be increased when combined with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
TrimazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trimazosin is combined with Seletracetam.Experimental
TrimethoprimThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Trimethoprim is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
TroleandomycinThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
TubocurarineSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Tubocurarine.Approved
UrapidilThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Urapidil is combined with Seletracetam.Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
VecuroniumSeletracetam may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.Approved
VemurafenibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Vemurafenib is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Seletracetam can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
ZincThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Seletracetam.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Seletracetam.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
  1. Wong MG, Defina JA, Andrews PR: Conformational analysis of clinically active anticonvulsant drugs. Journal of Medical Chemistry 1986 (29): 562-72. [PubMed: 3959032]
  2. Bruno-Blanch L, Gálvez J, García-Domenech R: Topological virtual screening: a way to find new anticonvulsant drugs from chemical diversity 2003 (13): 2749-54. [PubMed: 12873507]
  3. Kamiński K, Rzepka S ,Obniska J: Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of new 1-[2-oxo-2-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl]pyrrolidine-2,5-diones. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2011; 21 (19): 5800–3. [PubMed: 21875804]
General References
  1. Bennett B, Matagne A, Michel P, Leonard M, Cornet M, Meeus MA, Toublanc N: Seletracetam (UCB 44212). Neurotherapeutics. 2007 Jan;4(1):117-22. [PubMed:17199025]
  2. Bialer M: New antiepileptic drugs that are second generation to existing antiepileptic drugs. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Jun;15(6):637-47. [PubMed:16732716]
  3. Gillard M, Chatelain P, Fuks B: Binding characteristics of levetiracetam to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) in human brain and in CHO cells expressing the human recombinant protein. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Apr 24;536(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16556440]
  4. Ziolkowski H, Jaroszewski JJ, Ziolkowska N, Jasiecka A: Characteristics of selected second-generation antiepileptic drugs used in dogs. Pol J Vet Sci. 2012;15(3):571-82. [PubMed:23214383]
  5. de Groot M, Toering ST, Boer K, Spliet WG, Heimans JJ, Aronica E, Reijneveld JC: Expression of synaptic vesicle protein 2A in epilepsy-associated brain tumors and in the peritumoral cortex. Neuro Oncol. 2010 Mar;12(3):265-73. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nop028. Epub 2010 Jan 6. [PubMed:20167814]
  6. Luszczki JJ: Third-generation antiepileptic drugs: mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics and interactions. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):197-216. [PubMed:19443931]
  7. 59. (2004). In The Treatment of Epilepsy (2nd ed., pp. 736). John Wiley & Sons. [ISBN:0-632-06046-8]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D05817
PubChem Compound
9942725
PubChem Substance
175427051
ChemSpider
8118337
ChEMBL
CHEMBL3918017
Wikipedia
Seletracetam

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsy, Localization Related2
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related1
3WithdrawnNot AvailableEpilepsies1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsies1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.02 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.51ALOGPS
logP0.091ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.66ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.75ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.4 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity64.33 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.1 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9859
Caco-2 permeable-0.5795
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5226
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5203
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9211
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7747
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8933
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8178
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5193
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7893
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7033
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9242
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6378
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8864
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8343
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6472
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.839
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.6055 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9688
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7837
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Pyrrolidine-2-ones / Fatty amides / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Primary carboxylic acid amides / Ketene acetals / Lactams / Vinyl fluorides / Azacyclic compounds / Fluoroalkenes
show 6 more
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Fatty amide / Fatty acyl / Pyrrolidone / 2-pyrrolidone / N-alkylpyrrolidine / Pyrrolidine / Tertiary carboxylic acid amide / Carboxamide group / Ketene acetal or derivatives
show 19 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays a role in the control of regulated secretion in neural and endocrine cells, enhancing selectively low-frequency neurotransmission. Positively regulates vesicle fusion by maintaining the readi...
Gene Name
SV2A
Uniprot ID
Q7L0J3
Uniprot Name
Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A
Molecular Weight
82694.665 Da
References
  1. Bennett B, Matagne A, Michel P, Leonard M, Cornet M, Meeus MA, Toublanc N: Seletracetam (UCB 44212). Neurotherapeutics. 2007 Jan;4(1):117-22. [PubMed:17199025]
  2. Pollard JR: Seletracetam, a small molecule SV2A modulator for the treatment of epilepsy. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jan;9(1):101-7. [PubMed:18183537]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Blocker
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID
Q00975
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
Molecular Weight
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Lukyanetz EA, Shkryl VM, Kostyuk PG: Selective blockade of N-type calcium channels by levetiracetam. Epilepsia. 2002 Jan;43(1):9-18. [PubMed:11879381]
  2. Martella G, Bonsi P, Sciamanna G, Platania P, Madeo G, Tassone A, Cuomo D, Pisani A: Seletracetam (ucb 44212) inhibits high-voltage-activated Ca2+ currents and intracellular Ca2+ increase in rat cortical neurons in vitro. Epilepsia. 2009 Apr;50(4):702-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01915.x. Epub 2008 Dec 4. [PubMed:19055493]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binding
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).

Components:
References
  1. Bialer M, Johannessen SI, Kupferberg HJ, Levy RH, Perucca E, Tomson T: Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: a summary of the Eigth Eilat Conference (EILAT VIII). Epilepsy Res. 2007 Jan;73(1):1-52. Epub 2006 Dec 8. [PubMed:17158031]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Uesawa Y, Takeuchi T, Mohri K: Integrated analysis on the physicochemical properties of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in grapefruit juice interactions. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2012 Jul;13(9):1705-17. [PubMed:22039822]

Drug created on November 18, 2007 11:28 / Updated on August 26, 2018 02:01