Astaxanthin

This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.

Identification

Name
Astaxanthin
Accession Number
DB06543
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational
Description

Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid in the terpenes class of chemical compounds. It is classified as a xanthophyll but it is a carotenoid with no vitamin A activity. It is present in most red-coloured aquatic organisms. Astaxanthin has shown to mediate anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. It may be found in fish feed or some animal food as a color additive.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
International/Other Brands
AstaFactor
Categories
UNII
8XPW32PR7I
CAS number
472-61-7
Weight
Average: 596.852
Monoisotopic: 596.386560154
Chemical Formula
C40H52O4
InChI Key
MQZIGYBFDRPAKN-UWFIBFSHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C40H52O4/c1-27(17-13-19-29(3)21-23-33-31(5)37(43)35(41)25-39(33,7)8)15-11-12-16-28(2)18-14-20-30(4)22-24-34-32(6)38(44)36(42)26-40(34,9)10/h11-24,35-36,41-42H,25-26H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,17-13+,18-14+,23-21+,24-22+,27-15+,28-16+,29-19+,30-20+/t35-,36-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(6S)-6-hydroxy-3-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-18-[(4S)-4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl]-3,7,12,16-tetramethyloctadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaen-1-yl]-2,4,4-trimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-one
SMILES
C\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C

Pharmacology

Indication

Investigated for use/treatment in eye disorders/infections, cancer/tumors (unspecified), and asthma.

Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UNF-kappa-B inhibitor alphaNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbciximabAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcenocoumarolAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved, Investigational
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved, Vet Approved
AloxiprinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aloxiprin is combined with Astaxanthin.Experimental
AlprostadilAlprostadil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
Aminosalicylic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aminosalicylic Acid is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved
AnagrelideAnagrelide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
AncrodAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Approved, Investigational
AndrographolideAndrographolide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
Antithrombin III humanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.Approved
AprotininThe therapeutic efficacy of Astaxanthin can be decreased when used in combination with Aprotinin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArdeparinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AzelastineAzelastine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
BecaplerminAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BeraprostBeraprost may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
BivalirudinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BuflomedilBuflomedil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Experimental
ButylphthalideButylphthalide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
CangrelorCangrelor may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
Carbaspirin calciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbaspirin calcium is combined with Astaxanthin.Experimental, Investigational
CertoparinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
CilostazolCilostazol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
Citric AcidAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClopidogrelClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
CloricromenCloricromen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Experimental
Dabigatran etexilateAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DefibrotideDefibrotide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
DersalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dersalazine is combined with Astaxanthin.Investigational
DesirudinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DextranAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DicoumarolAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diflunisal is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
Edetic AcidAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnoxaparinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EpinastineEpinastine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
EplivanserinEplivanserin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
eplivanserineeplivanserine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
EptifibatideEptifibatide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetateAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
Ferulic acidAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FluindioneAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
GabexateAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guacetisal is combined with Astaxanthin.Experimental
Hemoglobin crosfumarilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hemoglobin crosfumaril is combined with Astaxanthin.Experimental
HeparinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HydroxytyrosolHydroxytyrosol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
IbudilastIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
Icosapent ethylIcosapent ethyl may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
IdraparinuxAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IfenprodilIfenprodil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IfetrobanIfetroban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
IloprostIloprost may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
IndobufenIndobufen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
KetanserinKetanserin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
LepirudinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LimaprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Limaprost is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
LinsidomineLinsidomine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Experimental
MelagatranAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesalazine is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved
Methyl salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyl salicylate is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved, Vet Approved
MilrinoneMilrinone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
NadroparinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved, Investigational
NafamostatAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftopidilNaftopidil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
NimesulideNimesulide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroaspirin is combined with Astaxanthin.Investigational
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olsalazine is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved
OtamixabanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
Pentaerythritol TetranitrateAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
PhenindioneAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenprocoumonAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
Phenyl aminosalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenyl aminosalicylate is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved
PicotamidePicotamide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Experimental
Potassium CitrateAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Potassium Citrate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrasugrelPrasugrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
Protein CAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
RamatrobanRamatroban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
RelcovaptanRelcovaptan may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
ResveratrolResveratrol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ReviparinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RidogrelRidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
RivaroxabanAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylic acid is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SarpogrelateSarpogrelate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium CitrateAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sodium Citrate.Approved, Investigational
SRT501SRT501 may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
SulodexideAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TesmilifeneTesmilifene may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
TicagrelorTicagrelor may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
TiclopidineTiclopidine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
TirofibanTirofiban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
TranilastTranilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
TrapidilTrapidil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Astaxanthin is combined with Treprostinil.Approved, Investigational
TriflusalTriflusal may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved, Investigational
Trolamine salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trolamine salicylate is combined with Astaxanthin.Approved
TroxerutinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
VorapaxarVorapaxar may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Approved
WarfarinAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranAstaxanthin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0002204
KEGG Compound
C08580
PubChem Compound
5281224
PubChem Substance
347827776
ChemSpider
4444636
ChEBI
40968
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1255871
HET
AXT
Wikipedia
Astaxanthin
PDB Entries
1gka

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentNon-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceBody Temperature Regulation1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000667 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.4ALOGPS
logP8.05ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity195.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability73.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthophylls. These are carotenoids containing an oxygenated carotene backbone. Carotenes are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Carotenes belonging form a subgroup of the carotenoids family. Xanthophylls arise by oxygenation of the carotene backbone.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Tetraterpenoids
Direct Parent
Xanthophylls
Alternative Parents
Cyclohexenones / Secondary alcohols / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Xanthophyll / Cyclohexenone / Cyclic ketone / Secondary alcohol / Ketone / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
carotenone, carotenol (CHEBI:40968) / C40 isoprenoids (tetraterpenes), Carotenoids (C08580) / C40 isoprenoids (tetraterpenes) (LMPR01070263)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Inhibits the activity of dimeric NF-kappa-B/REL complexes by trapping REL dimers in the cytoplasm through masking of their nuclear localization signals. On cellular stimulation by immune and proinf...
Gene Name
NFKBIA
Uniprot ID
P25963
Uniprot Name
NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha
Molecular Weight
35608.65 Da
References
  1. Lee SJ, Bai SK, Lee KS, Namkoong S, Na HJ, Ha KS, Han JA, Yim SV, Chang K, Kwon YG, Lee SK, Kim YM: Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing I(kappa)B kinase-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Mol Cells. 2003 Aug 31;16(1):97-105. [PubMed:14503852]

Drug created on March 19, 2008 10:36 / Updated on August 02, 2018 05:37