Ammonium chloride

Identification

Name
Ammonium chloride
Accession Number
DB06767
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
E 510 / E-510 / FEMA NO. 4494 / Ins no.510 / Ins-510
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acidax Inj 0.9% USPLiquid.9 %IntravenousWentworth Hall1986-12-311997-05-30Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ammonium ChlorideInjection, solution, concentrate5 meq/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-02-282012-01-01Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acididyn TabAmmonium chloride (32.4 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (178.2 mg)TabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1975-12-311997-08-22Canada
Babys Own Cough SyrAmmonium chloride (910 mg) + Guaifenesin (1 g) + Mepyramine maleate (160 mg)LiquidOralG.T. Fulford Pharmaceuticals1977-12-311998-06-25Canada
Balminil Codeine Night Time + ExpectorantAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Codeine phosphate (3.33 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)LiquidOralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc2003-06-032015-10-01Canada
Balminil Night-timeAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (15 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)SyrupOralTeva2001-03-20Not applicableCanada
Bemosin TabAmmonium chloride (97.2 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (130 mg) + Pepsin (130 mg)TabletOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1988-12-312003-07-16Canada
Betasin TabAmmonium chloride (97.2 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (130 mg) + Pepsin (130 mg)TabletOralBio Vita1987-12-311996-09-09Canada
Bronch EzeAmmonium chloride (100 mg) + Ephedrine hydrochloride (4 mg)SyrupOralPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.1984-12-312000-08-18Canada
Bronchodex Fort-DM SyrAmmonium chloride (129.6 mg) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (15 mg) + Menthol (.405 mg) + Mepyramine maleate (10 mg) + Sodium Citrate (64.8 mg)SyrupOralTherapex Division De E Z Em Canada Inc1980-12-311997-07-22Canada
CalmylinAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Codeine phosphate (3.33 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)LiquidOralTeva1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Calmylin #4 SyrAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (15 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)SyrupOralTechnilab Pharma Inc.1992-12-312003-09-24Canada
Categories
UNII
01Q9PC255D
CAS number
12125-02-9
Weight
Average: 53.491
Monoisotopic: 53.00322684
Chemical Formula
ClH4N
InChI Key
NLXLAEXVIDQMFP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/ClH.H3N/h1H;1H3
IUPAC Name
ammonium chloride
SMILES
[NH4+].[Cl-]

Pharmacology

Indication
  1. Expectorant in cough syrups.
  2. The ammonium ion (NH4+) in the body plays an important role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining acid-base balance, especially as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism in metabolic acidosis. The therapeutic effects of Ammonium Chloride depend upon the ability of the kidney to utilize ammonia in the excretion of an excess of fixed anions and the conversion of ammonia to urea by the liver, thereby liberating hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl–) ions into the extracellular fluid. Ammonium Chloride Injection, USP, after dilution in isotonic sodium chloride injection, may be indicated in the treatment of patients with: (1) hypochloremic states and (2) metabolic alkalosis.
Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Systemic acidifier. In liver ammonium chloride is converted into urea with the liberation of hydrogen ions ( which lowers the pH) and chloride.

Mechanism of action
  1. Increases acidity by increasing the amount of hydrogen ion concentrations.
  2. Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant in cough medicine. Its expectorant action is caused by irritative action on the bronchial mucosa, which causes the production of excess respiratory tract fluid and make it easier to cough it up.
Absorption

Completely absorbed within 3–6 h. In healthy persons, absorption of ammonium chloride given by mouth was practically complete. Only 1 to 3% of the dose was recovered in the feces.

Volume of distribution

Data not found.

Protein binding

Data not found.

Metabolism

Ammonium ion is converted to urea in the liver; chloride ion replaces bicarbonate.

Route of elimination

Excretion: Urine

Half life

Unknown

Clearance

Data not found.

Toxicity

LD50 "Rat" after oral administration is: 1650 mg/kg. Overdosage of Ammonium Chloride has resulted in a serious degree of metabolic acidosis, disorientation, confusion and coma. If metabolic acidosis occur following overdosage, the administration of an alkalinizing solution such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium lactate will serve to correct the acidosis.

Patients administering Ammonium chloride should be watched to the signs of ammonia toxicity including (pallor, sweating, irregular breathing, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, local and general twitching, tonic convulsions and coma). It should be used with caution in patients with high total CO2 and buffer base secondary to primary respiratory acidosis. Intravenous administration should be slow to avoid local irritation and toxic effects.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe serum concentration of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ammonium chloride.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe serum concentration of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ammonium chloride.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ammonium chloride.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ammonium chloride.
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Ammonium chloride.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. product info [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C12538
PubChem Compound
25517
PubChem Substance
347827792
ChemSpider
23807
ChEBI
31206
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200939
PharmGKB
PA448392
Wikipedia
Ammonium_chloride
ATC Codes
G04BA01 — Ammonium chlorideB05XA04 — Ammonium chloride
AHFS Codes
  • 40:04.00 — Acidifying Agents

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous.9 %
TabletOral
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous5 meq/1mL
SyrupOral
LiquidOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)350 ° C (Sublimes)NIOSH, 2016
boiling point (°C)SublimesNIOSH, 2016
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility124.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.21ALOGPS
logP0.61ChemAxon
logS0.37ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal halides. These are inorganic compounds containing 'other non-metals' and halogen.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Other non-metal halides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Other non-metal halides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic chloride salts
Substituents
Other non-metal halide / Inorganic chloride salt / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
ammonium salt, inorganic chloride (CHEBI:31206)

Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:21 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:55