Potassium alum

Identification

Name
Potassium alum
Accession Number
DB09087
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Potassium alum is considered by the FDA as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance.[9] It is an inorganic salt, also called potassium aluminum sulfate with a formula of AlK(SO4)2 that is predominantly produced in the dodecahydrate form (AlK(SO4)2 * 12H2O). Potassium alum is formed by large, transparent crystals that are used in different products like food or drugs as a buffer, neutralizing or forming agent.[4]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aluminium potassium sulfate
  • Aluminum potassium sulfate anhydrous
  • Potash alum
  • Potassium aluminium sulfate
External IDs
E-522 / INS NO.522 / INS-522
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Potassium alum dodecahydrateNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Categories
UNII
09OXB01F3O
CAS number
10043-67-1
Weight
Average: 258.205
Monoisotopic: 257.848703658
Chemical Formula
AlKO8S2
InChI Key
GRLPQNLYRHEGIJ-UHFFFAOYSA-J
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.K.2H2O4S/c;;2*1-5(2,3)4/h;;2*(H2,1,2,3,4)/q+3;+1;;/p-4
IUPAC Name
aluminium(3+) ion potassium disulfate
SMILES
[Al+3].[K+].[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O.[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Potassium alum is considered safe by the FDA and its use is in homepathic or OTC products. Due to its presence in several different drugs, the main indications for the use of potassium alum are:

-Constipation[10] -Cosmetic or drug astringent, helping the shrinkage of tissues and the dry of secretions[11] -Oral health care drug[11] -Part of formulation in cleansing products, skin-care products, mosturizers, face powders and deodorants[12] -Antiperspirant[13] -Antifungal[13]

Pharmacodynamics

The presence of potassium alum reduces swollen mucous membranes that result from inflammation of the nasal, gastrointestinal and urinary passages as well as in the presence of excessive secretions. The induction of the coagulation cascade will also stop bleeding.[14]

Mechanism of action

The main functions of potassium alum in drugs are as an astringent, antiseptic or adjuvant agent. The astringent action is performed by the induction of coagulation in the superficial tissue layers until the formation of a crust. The formation of alum ions neutralize the charges on plasma proteins, causing the blood to coagulate. Similar effect is observed in disinfectants where these ions react with the free organic acid and thiol groups of proteins on microbes and free proteins, resulting in protein precipitation. This action will generate the contraction of the tissue and dry up secretions. Its adjuvant properties are mainly used in the production of vaccines where the presence of this chemical enhances the immune response.[15]

Absorption

Potassium alum is found in its dodecahydrate form that produces a very large molecule. This large molecule cannot be absorbed through the skin when this substance is included as an astringent agent in topical OTC.[5] If ingested, the aluminum salts are rapidly solubilized in the stomach and then they can generate aluminum hydroxide or poorly absorbed basic aluminum salts.[6]

Volume of distribution

The distribution of aluminum salts in the body is influenced by increased concentrations of parathyroid hormone. It was shown, in preclinical studies, that oral administration of aluminum salts produces a distribution profile that forms deposits in kidneys, muscle, bone and gray matter.[7]

Protein binding

In studies, it has been shown that aluminum and aluminum salts are highly bound to plasma proteins. From the reports, it was found that 70-90% is bound to plasma proteins of which 60-70% is related to high molecular weight proteins and 10-20% to albumin.[1]

Metabolism

Potassium alum does not go through a metabolic pathway. When ingested or absorbed, it will get rapidly dissolved and it will form ions that will later generate other salt derivatives.

Route of elimination

When potassium alum is absorbed, the kidney is responsible for the elimination of the major portion of the absorbed dose.[2] From the excretion, 0.1-0.3% of the absorbed dose is eliminated via the urine.[8]

Half life

Studies performed with aluminum compounds have shown a half-life of 4.5 h when administered intravenously.[8]

Clearance

Renal clearance of aluminum is approximately 5-10% of the excretion of urea or creatinine. The reduced clearance of aluminum compounds is due to the high protein binding.[3]

Toxicity

There is no evidence of potassium alum that demonstrates any suspicious for it to be a hazard for the consumers in the currently approved levels of use.[9]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AcebutololPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acemetacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AgmatinePotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Agmatine.
AlclofenacPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alclofenac.
AliskirenPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aliskiren.
AlminoprofenPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alminoprofen.
AlprenololPotassium alum may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alprenolol.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Potassium alum is combined with Amiloride.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Elliott HL, Macdougall AI: Aluminium studies in dialysis encephalopathy. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc. 1978;15:157-63. [PubMed:740662]
  2. Kovalchik MT, Kaehny WD, Hegg AP, Jackson JT, Alfrey AC: Aluminum kinetics during hemodialysis. J Lab Clin Med. 1978 Nov;92(5):712-20. [PubMed:712205]
  3. Berlyne GM, Ben-Ari J, Pest D, Weinberger J, Stern M, Levine R, Gilmore GR: Hyperaluminaemia from aluminum resins in renal failure. Lancet. 1970 Sep 5;2(7671):494-6. [PubMed:4194940]
  4. Burdock G. (1997). Encyclopedia of food and color additives. CRC Press.
  5. Burke I. (2000). The nature of beauty . Ebury Press.
  6. McEvoy G., Miller J. and Litvak K. (1990). AHFS Drug information 90.. Bethesda.
  7. National research council (1981). Drinking water and health (4th ed.). National academy press.
  8. Ellenhorn M.J. and Barceloux D.G. (1988). Medical toxicology: diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning. Elsevier.
  9. FDA GRAS [Link]
  10. Homepathic label [Link]
  11. EWG's skin deep [Link]
  12. Cosmetics info [Link]
  13. FDA OTC ingredients [Link]
  14. Encyclopaedia Britannica [Link]
  15. What is alum? [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
24856
PubChem Substance
310265014
ChemSpider
23239
ChEBI
86463
Wikipedia
Potassium_alum
MSDS
Download (47.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)92.5 °C'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)200 °C'MSDS'
water solubility1 g/ 7.5 ml at 25ºCBurdock G. Encyclopedia of food and color additives. (1997).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity11.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal sulfates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is sulfate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Post-transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Post-transition metal sulfates
Direct Parent
Post-transition metal sulfates
Alternative Parents
Post-transition metal salts / Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Post-transition metal sulfate / Inorganic post-transition metal salt / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
potassium salt, metal sulfate, aluminium salt (CHEBI:86463)

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Elliott HL, Macdougall AI: Aluminium studies in dialysis encephalopathy. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc. 1978;15:157-63. [PubMed:740662]

Drug created on September 15, 2015 14:19 / Updated on November 02, 2018 08:46