Identification

Name
Thyroid, porcine
Accession Number
DB09100
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones
Description

Thyroid extract is dried and powdered thyroid glands from pigs containing tiiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) used to supplement low or absent thyroid activity.4,10 Thyroid extract has been described in literature to treat hypothyroidism since 18912 but its use dates back as far as the 6th century.4 Thyroid extract is no longer considered a first line therapy as it delivers a dose that is inconsistent with the stated strength of the tablet.3 Currently, patients are more likely to be treated with levothyroxine.3

Thyroid extracts were never FDA approved as their use in the United States predates the FDA.4

Protein chemical formula
Not Available
Protein average weight
Not Available
Sequences
Not Available
Synonyms
  • Pig thyroid
  • Porcine thyroid
  • Sus scrofa thyroid
  • Thyroid (pork)
  • Thyroid extract, porcine
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Armour ThyroidTablet300 mg/1OralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidTablet60 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1996-04-01Not applicableUs00456 0459 01 nlmimage10 760ebb35
Armour ThyroidTablet30 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidTablet30 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-06-082011-06-30Us
Armour ThyroidTablet240 mg/1OralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidTablet180 mg/1OralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidTablet15 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-01-152011-06-30Us
Armour ThyroidTablet90 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-09-292013-01-15Us
Armour ThyroidTablet120 mg/1OralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs0456 046120180913 8702 s8ysxu
Armour ThyroidTablet30 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2010-10-19Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (300 mg/1)TabletOralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (60 mg/1)TabletOralA S Medication Solutions1996-04-01Not applicableUs00456 0459 01 nlmimage10 760ebb35
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (30 mg/1)TabletOralA S Medication Solutions1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (30 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-06-082011-06-30Us
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (240 mg/1)TabletOralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (180 mg/1)TabletOralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (15 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-01-152011-06-30Us
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (90 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-09-292013-01-15Us
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (120 mg/1)TabletOralAllergan, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs0456 046120180913 8702 s8ysxu
Armour ThyroidThyroid, porcine (30 mg/1)TabletOralRebel Distributors2010-10-19Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
6RV024OAUQ
CAS number
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Thyroid extract is indicated for replacement therapy in decreased or absent thyroid function.10

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Thyroid extract increases the metabolic rate of patients with hypothyroidism.8,9 The therapeutic index of thyroid extract is wide, as patients can be given varying doses.10 The duration of action is long as thyroid extract is generally given once daily.10 Patients should not use thyroid extract for weight loss.10

Mechanism of action

T3 binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), changes the conformation of the TR, allowing it to bind to the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and form a coactivator complex.8 The coactivator complex has histone acetyltransferase activity, which activates genes.8 In the absence of T3, TR and RXR form a corepressor complex with histone deacetylase activity, which represses genes.8 The macroscopic effects of thyroid hormones is an increase in the metabolic rate.9 T4 has similar but weaker activity to T3.9

TargetActionsOrganism
UThyroid hormone receptor alpha
substrate
Humans
UThyroid hormone receptor beta
substrate
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Contraindications

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Absorption

T4 is 48-79% absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and T3 is 95% absorbed.10 L-triiodothyronine reaches a Cmax of 320±60ng/L, with a Tmax of 1.8±0.3h.6 Levothyroxin has a Tmax of2-3h.5

Volume of distribution

Data regarding the volume of distribution of thyroid extract is not readily available as it is a mixture of many compounds.10 Levothyroxine, a synthetic form of T4, has a volume of distribution of 11-15L.5 L-triiodothyronine, a synthetic form of T3, has an apparent volume of distribution of 14.9±4.2L.6

Protein binding

Thyroid hormones are more than 99% protein bound, typically to albumin, transthyretin, and thyroxine-binding globulin.1,10

Metabolism

Approximately one third of the active T4 is deiodinated to the active T3, one third is deiodinated to the inactive reverse T3 (rT3), and one third is glucuronidated or sulfated.7 Deiodination is mediated by iodothryonine deiodinases, glucuronidation is mediated by glucuronyltransferases, and sulfation is mediated by sulfotransferases.7,5 T3 and rT3 are further deiodinated to diiodothyronine (T2), iodothyronine (T1), and their reverse forms.5 T4 can also undergo ether bond cleavage or oxidative deamination but these pathways are incredibly minor.7

Route of elimination

Data regarding the route of elimination of thyroid extract is not readily available as it is a mixture of many compounds.10 20% of the body's naturally produced thyroxine is eliminated in the feces.7

Half life

Data regarding the half life of thyroid extract is not readily available as it is a mixture of many compounds.10 Levothyroxine, a synthetic form of T4, has a half life of 6.2 days in euthyroid patients and 7.5 days in hypothyroid patients.5 T3 has a half life of 1.0 days in euthyroid patients and 1.4 days in hypothyroid patients.5

Clearance

Data regarding the clearance of thyroid extract is not readily available as it is a mixture of many compounds.10 The clearance of levothyroxine, a synthetic form of T4, is 0.044L/h in euthyroid patients and 0.038L/h in hypothyroid patients.5

Toxicity

Patients experiencing and overdose may present with symptoms of a hypermetabolic state.10 Overdose may be treated by symptomatic and supportive treatment, dose reduction or temporarily stopping the medication, induction of vomiting, administering oxygen, cardiac glycosides, as well as methods to control fever, hypoglycemia, and fluid loss.10

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Thyroid, porcine is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Thyroid, porcine is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThyroid, porcine may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine is combined with Thyroid, porcine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine is combined with Thyroid, porcine.
3-[4-(1-formylpiperazin-4-yl)-benzylidenyl]-2-indolinoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Thyroid, porcine can be decreased when used in combination with 3-[4-(1-formylpiperazin-4-yl)-benzylidenyl]-2-indolinone.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThyroid, porcine may increase the excretion rate of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Thyroid, porcine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Thyroid, porcine is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
6-O-benzylguanineThyroid, porcine may increase the excretion rate of 6-O-benzylguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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    Evidence Level

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

References

General References
  1. Rabah SA, Gowan IL, Pagnin M, Osman N, Richardson SJ: Thyroid Hormone Distributor Proteins During Development in Vertebrates. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Aug 8;10:506. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00506. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31440205]
  2. Murray GR: Note on the Treatment of Myxoedema by Hypodermic Injections of an Extract of the Thyroid Gland of a Sheep. Br Med J. 1891 Oct 10;2(1606):796-7. doi: 10.1136/bmj.2.1606.796. [PubMed:20753415]
  3. McAninch EA, Bianco AC: The Swinging Pendulum in Treatment for Hypothyroidism: From (and Toward?) Combination Therapy. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Jul 9;10:446. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00446. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31354624]
  4. Mateo RCI, Hennessey JV: Thyroxine and treatment of hypothyroidism: seven decades of experience. Endocrine. 2019 Oct;66(1):10-17. doi: 10.1007/s12020-019-02006-8. Epub 2019 Jul 18. [PubMed:31321670]
  5. Colucci P, Yue CS, Ducharme M, Benvenga S: A Review of the Pharmacokinetics of Levothyroxine for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. Eur Endocrinol. 2013 Mar;9(1):40-47. doi: 10.17925/EE.2013.09.01.40. Epub 2013 Mar 15. [PubMed:30349610]
  6. Van Tassell B, Wohlford GF 4th, Linderman JD, Smith S, Yavuz S, Pucino F, Celi FS: Pharmacokinetics of L-Triiodothyronine in Patients Undergoing Thyroid Hormone Therapy Withdrawal. Thyroid. 2019 Oct;29(10):1371-1379. doi: 10.1089/thy.2019.0101. Epub 2019 Sep 12. [PubMed:31364488]
  7. Peeters RP, Visser TJ: Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone . [PubMed:25905401]
  8. Zhang J, Lazar MA: The mechanism of action of thyroid hormones. Annu Rev Physiol. 2000;62:439-66. doi: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.62.1.439. [PubMed:10845098]
  9. Hulbert AJ: Thyroid hormones and their effects: a new perspective. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2000 Nov;75(4):519-631. doi: 10.1017/s146479310000556x. [PubMed:11117200]
  10. Health Canada Approved Drug Products: Desiccated Thyroid Oral Tablets [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347910404
RxNav
235479
AHFS Codes
  • 68:36.04 — Thyroid Agents

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedDiagnosticDifferentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC)1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2RecruitingTreatmentEuthyroid / Hypothyroidism / Thyroid Diseases / Thyroid Gland / Thyroid Hormones1
2, 3CompletedPreventionGraves' Disease1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentThyroid Eye Disease1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
3CompletedTreatmentDown Syndrome (DS)1
3TerminatedPreventionHeart Failure1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentThyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableThyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionRecurrent Laryngeal Nerve / Vocal Cord Paralysis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHypothyroidism1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentThyroid Papillary Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticLacrimal Apparatus Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPrimary Hypothyroidism1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral120 mg/1
TabletOral15 mg/1
TabletOral180 mg/1
TabletOral240 mg/1
TabletOral30 mg/1
TabletOral300 mg/1
TabletOral60 mg/1
TabletOral90 mg/1
TabletOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Isoform Alpha-1: Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.Isoform Al...
Gene Name
THRA
Uniprot ID
P10827
Uniprot Name
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
54815.055 Da
References
  1. Ortiga-Carvalho TM, Sidhaye AR, Wondisford FE: Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Oct;10(10):582-91. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2014.143. Epub 2014 Aug 19. [PubMed:25135573]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
Gene Name
THRB
Uniprot ID
P10828
Uniprot Name
Thyroid hormone receptor beta
Molecular Weight
52787.16 Da
References
  1. Ortiga-Carvalho TM, Sidhaye AR, Wondisford FE: Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Oct;10(10):582-91. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2014.143. Epub 2014 Aug 19. [PubMed:25135573]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Responsible for the deiodination of T4 (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine) into T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) and of T3 into T2 (3,3'-diiodothyronine). Plays a role in providing a source of plasma T3 by deiodination of T4 in peripheral tissues such as liver and kidney.
Specific Function
Selenium binding
Gene Name
DIO1
Uniprot ID
P49895
Uniprot Name
Type I iodothyronine deiodinase
Molecular Weight
28924.21 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Responsible for the deiodination of T4 (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine) into T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine). Essential for providing the brain with appropriate levels of T3 during the critical period of development.
Specific Function
Selenium binding
Gene Name
DIO2
Uniprot ID
Q92813
Uniprot Name
Type II iodothyronine deiodinase
Molecular Weight
30551.48 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Responsible for the deiodination of T4 (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine) into RT3 (3,3',5'-triiodothyronine) and of T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) into T2 (3,3'-diiodothyronine). RT3 and T2 are inactive metabolites. May play a role in preventing premature exposure of developing fetal tissues to adult levels of thyroid hormones. Can regulate circulating fetal thyroid hormone concentrations throughout gestation. Essential role for regulation of thyroid hormone inactivation during embryological development.
Specific Function
Thyroxine 5'-deiodinase activity
Gene Name
DIO3
Uniprot ID
P55073
Uniprot Name
Thyroxine 5-deiodinase
Molecular Weight
33947.175 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Has also estroge...
Gene Name
SULT1A1
Uniprot ID
P50225
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase 1A1
Molecular Weight
34165.13 Da
References
  1. Peeters RP, Visser TJ: Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone . [PubMed:25905401]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Is also responsible for the sulfonation and activation of minoxidil. Mediates the metabolic activation of carcinogenic N-hydroxyarylamines to DNA binding products and could so participate as modulating factor of cancer risk.
Specific Function
Aryl sulfotransferase activity
Gene Name
SULT1A2
Uniprot ID
P50226
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase 1A2
Molecular Weight
34309.49 Da
References
  1. Peeters RP, Visser TJ: Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone . [PubMed:25905401]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Specific Function
Amine sulfotransferase activity
Gene Name
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID
P0DMM9
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase 1A3
Molecular Weight
34195.96 Da
References
  1. Peeters RP, Visser TJ: Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone . [PubMed:25905401]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulf...
Gene Name
SULT1B1
Uniprot ID
O43704
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase family cytosolic 1B member 1
Molecular Weight
34898.955 Da
References
  1. Peeters RP, Visser TJ: Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone . [PubMed:25905401]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of drugs, xenobiotic compounds, hormones, and neurotransmitters. May be involved in the activation of carcinogenic hydroxylamines. Shows activity towards p-nitrophenol and N-hydroxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene (N-OH-2AAF).
Specific Function
Sulfotransferase activity
Gene Name
SULT1C2
Uniprot ID
O00338
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase 1C2
Molecular Weight
34879.905 Da
References
  1. Peeters RP, Visser TJ: Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone . [PubMed:25905401]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of estradiol and estrone. May play a role in the regulation of estrogen r...
Gene Name
SULT1E1
Uniprot ID
P49888
Uniprot Name
Estrogen sulfotransferase
Molecular Weight
35126.185 Da
References
  1. Peeters RP, Visser TJ: Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone . [PubMed:25905401]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Rabah SA, Gowan IL, Pagnin M, Osman N, Richardson SJ: Thyroid Hormone Distributor Proteins During Development in Vertebrates. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Aug 8;10:506. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00506. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31440205]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name
TTR
Uniprot ID
P02766
Uniprot Name
Transthyretin
Molecular Weight
15886.88 Da
References
  1. Rabah SA, Gowan IL, Pagnin M, Osman N, Richardson SJ: Thyroid Hormone Distributor Proteins During Development in Vertebrates. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Aug 8;10:506. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00506. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31440205]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Major thyroid hormone transport protein in serum.
Gene Name
SERPINA7
Uniprot ID
P05543
Uniprot Name
Thyroxine-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
46324.12 Da
References
  1. Rabah SA, Gowan IL, Pagnin M, Osman N, Richardson SJ: Thyroid Hormone Distributor Proteins During Development in Vertebrates. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Aug 8;10:506. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00506. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31440205]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu,...
Gene Name
SLC16A2
Uniprot ID
P36021
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 8
Molecular Weight
59510.86 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-gluc...
Gene Name
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID
Q9NYB5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1
Molecular Weight
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as estrone-3-sulfate (PubMed:10873595). Mediates transport of prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2, thyroxine (T4), deltorphin II, BQ-123 an...
Gene Name
SLCO3A1
Uniprot ID
Q9UIG8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1
Molecular Weight
76552.135 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate.
Gene Name
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID
Q96BD0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1
Molecular Weight
77192.505 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Involved in cellular a...
Gene Name
SLC7A5
Uniprot ID
Q01650
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1
Molecular Weight
55009.62 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presenc...
Gene Name
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID
Q14973
Uniprot Name
Sodium/bile acid cotransporter
Molecular Weight
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A, Morte B: Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;11(7):406-17. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.66. Epub 2015 May 5. [PubMed:25942657]

Drug created on September 16, 2015 15:09 / Updated on March 30, 2020 22:56

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