Identification

Name
Glucose
Accession Number
DB09341
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet Approved
Description

Glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) generated during phosynthesis involving water, carbon and sunlight in plants. It is produced in humans via hepatic gluconeogenesis and breakdown of polymeric glucose forms (glycogenolysis). It circulates in human circulation as blood glucose and acts as an essential energy source for many organisms through aerobic or anaerobic respiration and fermentation. It is primarily stored as starch in plants and glycogen in animals to be used in various metabolic processes in the cellular level. Its aldohexose stereoisomer, dextrose or D-glucose, is the most commonly occurring isomer of glucose in nature. L-glucose is a synthesized enantiomer that is used as a low-calorie sweetener and laxative. The unspecified form of glucose is commonly supplied as an injection for nutritional supplementation or metabolic disorders where glucose levels are improperly regulated. Glucose is listed on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

Synonyms
  • Dextrose
  • Grape sugar
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
10% Dextrose Injection USPSolution100 mgIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
10% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution10 gIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
100gm Glucose Tolerance DrinkLiquid10 gOralCriterion Sciences1992-12-311999-11-18Canada
13.3% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution13.3 gIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312015-08-05Canada
20% Dextrose Injection USPSolution200 mgIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
20% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution20 gIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
33.3% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution33.3 gIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
40% Dextrose Injection USPSolution40 %IntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1998-11-03Not applicableCanada
40% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution40 gIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
5% Dextrose Injection USPSolution50 mgIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Monoject Insulin Reaction Gel 40%Gel40 %OralSherwood Medical Company1989-12-311999-10-20Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
5% DextroseInjection, solution5000 mg/100mLIntravenousSc Infomed Fluids Srl2017-04-242017-06-20Us
DextroseInjection, solution25 g/50mLIntravenousA S Medication Solutions1990-09-302017-06-20Us
DextroseInjection, solution25 g/50mLIntravenousMc Kesson Packaging Services A Buisness Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2010-05-032017-08-09Us
Dextrose MonohydrateInjection500 mg/mLParenteralAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2000-06-012016-12-03Us
Dextrose MonohydrateInjection500 mg/mLParenteralInternational Medication Systems, Limited2000-06-01Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
(20 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 3.3% Dextrose and 0.3% Sodium Chloride Injection USPGlucose (3.3 g) + Potassium Chloride (150 mg) + Sodium Chloride (300 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
(20 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USPGlucose (5 g) + Potassium Chloride (150 mg) + Sodium Chloride (900 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
(20 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose Injection USPGlucose (5 g) + Potassium Chloride (150 mg)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
(20mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.2% Sodium Chloride Injection USPGlucose (5 g) + Potassium Chloride (150 mg) + Sodium Chloride (200 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-312016-07-15Canada
(20mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection USPGlucose (5 g) + Potassium Chloride (150 mg) + Sodium Chloride (450 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
(40 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose Injection USPGlucose (5 g) + Potassium Chloride (300 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
(40mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 3.3% Dextrose and 0.3% Sodium Chloride Injection USPGlucose (3.3 g) + Potassium Chloride (300 mg) + Sodium Chloride (300 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
(40mmol/l)potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection USPGlucose (5 g) + Potassium Chloride (300 mg) + Sodium Chloride (450 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
0.15% Potassium Chloride In 3.3% Dextrose and 0.30% Sodium Chloride InjectionGlucose (3.3 g) + Potassium Chloride (150 mg) + Sodium Chloride (300 mg)SolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
0.15% Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.20% Sodium Chloride Injection USPGlucose (5 g) + Potassium Chloride (150 mg) + Sodium Chloride (200 mg)LiquidIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1998-09-03Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
IY9XDZ35W2
CAS number
50-99-7
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Glucose pharmaceutical formulations (oral tablets, injections) are indicated for caloric supply and carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation. It is also used in metabolic disorders such as hypoglycemia.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Blood glucose is an obligatory energy source in humans involved in various cellular activities, and it also acts as a signalling molecule for diverse glucose-sensing molecules and proteins. Glucose undergoes oxidation into carbon dioxide, water and yields energy molecules in the process of glycolysis and subsequent citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose is readily converted into fat in the body which can be used as a source of energy as required. Under a similar conversion into storage of energy, glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Glucose stores are mobilized in a regulated manner, depending on the tissues' metabolic demands. Oral glucose tablets or injections serve to increase the supply of glucose and oral glucose administration is more effective in stimulating insulin secretion because it stimulates the incretin hormones from the gut, which promotes insulin secretion.

Mechanism of action

Glucose supplies most of the energy to all tissues by generating energy molecules ATP and NADH during a series of metabolism reactions called glycolysis. Glycolysis can be divided into 2 main phases where the preparatory phase is initiated by the phosphorylation of glucose by a hexokinase to form glucose 6-phosphate. The addition of the high-energy phosphate group activates glucose for subsequent breakdown in later steps of glycolysis and is the rate-limiting step. Products end up as substrates for following reactions, to ultimately convert C6 glucose molecule into two C3 sugar molecules. These products enter the energy-releasing phase where total of 4ATP and 2NADH molecules are generated per one glucose molecule. The total aerobic metabolism of glucose can produce up to 36 ATP molecules. This energy-producing reactions of glucose is limited to D-glucose as L-glucose cannot be phosphorlyated by hexokinase. Glucose can act as precursors to generate other biomolecules such as vitamin C. It plays a role as a signaling molecule to control glucose and energy homeostasis. Glucose can regulate gene transcription, enzyme activity, hormone secretion, and the activity of glucoregulatory neurons. The types, number and kinetics of glucose transporters expressed depends on the tissues and fine-tunes glucose uptake, metabolism, and signal generation in order to preserve cellular and whole body metabolic integrity [1].

Absorption

Polysaccharides can be broken down into smaller units by pancreatic and intestinal glycosidases or intestinal flora. Sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and GLUT2 (SLC2A2) play predominant roles in intestinal transport of glucose into the circulation. SGLT1 is located in the apical membrane of the intestinal wall while GLUT2 is located in the basolateral membrane, but it was proposed that GLUT2 can be recruited into the apical membrane after a high luminal glucose bolus allowing bulk absorption of glucose by facilitated diffusion [3]. Oral preparation of glucose reaches the peak concentration within 40 minutes and the intravenous infusions display 100% bioavailability.

Volume of distribution

The mean volume of distribution after intravenous infusion is 10.6L.

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Glucose can undergo aerobic oxidation in conjunction to the synthesis of energy molecules. Glycolysis is the initial stage of glucose metabolism where one glucose molecule is degraded into 2 molecules of pyruvate via substrate-level phosphorylation. These products are transported to the mitochondria where they are further oxidized into oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Route of elimination

Glucose can be renally excreted.

Half life

The approximate half-life is 14.3 minutes following intravenous infusion. Gut glucose half-life was markedly higher in females (79 ± 2 min) than in males (65 ± 3 min, P < 0.0001) and negatively related to body height (r = -0.481; P < 0.0001).

Clearance

The mean metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR) for the 10 subjects studied at the higher insulin level was 2.27 ± 0.37 ml/kg/min at euglycemia and fell to 1.51±0.21 ml/kg/ at hyperglycemia. The mean MCR for the six subjects studied at the lower insulin level was 1.91 ± 0.31 ml/kg/min at euglyglycemia.

Toxicity

Oral LD50 value in rats is 25800mg/kg. The administration of glucose infusions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of the serum electrolyte concentrations, over-hydration, congested states, or pulmonary oedema. Hypersensitivity reactions may also occur including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions from oral tablets and intravenous infusions.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Thorens B, Mueckler M: Glucose transporters in the 21st Century. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;298(2):E141-5. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00712.2009. Epub 2009 Dec 15. [PubMed:20009031]
  2. Ferraris RP: Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Biochem J. 2001 Dec 1;360(Pt 2):265-76. [PubMed:11716754]
  3. Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24587162]
  4. Deng D, Sun P, Yan C, Ke M, Jiang X, Xiong L, Ren W, Hirata K, Yamamoto M, Fan S, Yan N: Molecular basis of ligand recognition and transport by glucose transporters. Nature. 2015 Oct 15;526(7573):391-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14655. Epub 2015 Jul 15. [PubMed:26176916]
  5. Jiang G, Zhang BB: Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;284(4):E671-8. [PubMed:12626323]
  6. Anderwald C, Gastaldelli A, Tura A, Krebs M, Promintzer-Schifferl M, Kautzky-Willer A, Stadler M, DeFronzo RA, Pacini G, Bischof MG: Mechanism and effects of glucose absorption during an oral glucose tolerance test among females and males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):515-24. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1398. Epub 2010 Dec 8. [PubMed:21147888]
  7. Kouider S, Kolb FE, Lippmann R: [Behavior of various blood constituents (glucose, fructose, insulin, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids, inorganic phosphate) and the half-life of monosaccharides in plasma after i.v infusion of glucose, fructose, galactose and invert sugar solutions in ruminants. 3. Studies in sheep]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1978;32(5):715-25. [PubMed:736717]
  8. JOKIPII SG, TURPEINEN O: Kinetics of elimination of glucose from the blood during and after a continuous intravenous injection. J Clin Invest. 1954 Mar;33(3):452-8. [PubMed:13143092]
  9. Revers RR, Kolterman OG, Olefsky JM: Relationship between serum glucose level and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1983 Jul;32(7):627-32. [PubMed:6345242]
  10. 30. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 372-377). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
  11. 16. (2000). In Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. [ISBN:0-7167-3136-3]
  12. Baxter Health GLUCOSE INTRAVENOUS INFUSION BP Product information [Link]
  13. Glucose injection (Viaflex bag) Product information [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
310265216
Wikipedia
Glucose
ATC Codes
V04CA02 — GlucoseC05BB56 — Glucose, combinationsV06DC01 — GlucoseB05CX01 — Glucose
AHFS Codes
  • 40:20.00 — Caloric Agents
  • 36:18.00 — Cardiac Function
  • 36:26.00 — Diabetes Mellitus
  • 40:34.00* — Hemodialysis Solution
  • 92:00.00 — Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Schizotypal Personality1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceHypoglycemia1
0RecruitingTreatmentDegeneration of Lumbar or Lumbosacral Intervertebral Disc / Sciatica / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
0WithdrawnBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Insulin Resistance / Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young, Type 2 / MODY21
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcidosis, Respiratory / Shock, Septic / Thiamine Deficiency1
1RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1RecruitingTreatmentType1 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedNot AvailableDisseminated Sclerosis / Healthy Volunteers1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrain Injuries,Traumatic1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1, 2Unknown StatusNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionHemorrhage of Cesarean Section and/or Perineal Wound1
2CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Insulin / Regional Blood Flow / Retina1
2CompletedPreventionBronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) / Infant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Retinopathy of Prematurity1
2CompletedPreventionCardiac Surgery for Rheumatic Valvular Heart Disease / Renal Dysfunction1
2CompletedPreventionHard of Hearing1
2CompletedPreventionPostpartum Hemorrhage1
2CompletedTreatmentAnemia of Chronic Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
2CompletedTreatmentRhinovirus1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHyperkalemia1
2RecruitingDiagnosticBrain Neoplasms, Malignant / Metastasis1
2RecruitingTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis (BV) / Haudongchun / HUDC_VT1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentCongenital Diaphragmatic Hernias / Hypoplasia, Pulmonary / Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure / Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn1
2RecruitingTreatmentUreaplasma Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCirrhosis With Ascites1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCancer, Ovarian / Cancers / Tumors, Solid2
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Sensitivity / Metabolic Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionCarnitine Deficiency / Neurodevelopmental Disorders / Premature Babies1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAchilles Tendinopathy / Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy / Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy / Mid-Portion Achilles Tendinopathy / Non-Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Surgical Procedures / Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation1
3CompletedPreventionNeutropenia in Prematures1
3CompletedSupportive CareEpilepsies / Hydrocephaly1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Unstable Angina (UA)1
3CompletedTreatmentCataracts2
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Nicotine Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentHyponatremias1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Premature, Diseases / Pain / Respiration; Insufficient or Poor, Newborn1
3CompletedTreatmentSepsis / Severe Sepsis / Shock, Septic1
3CompletedTreatmentSkin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction (MI)1
3RecruitingPreventionIntraventricular haemorrhage neonatal1
3RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Intraventricular Hemorrhage of Prematurity1
3RecruitingTreatmentCarcinologic Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Surgery1
3RecruitingTreatmentJoint Diseases1
3TerminatedPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)1
3TerminatedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentInflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
3WithdrawnPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedDiagnosticPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Lung Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiac Echocardiography Assessment1
4CompletedTreatmentDomperidone / Domperidone Overdose / Feeding Intolerance / Gastric Retention / Premature Births1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Morbidity1
4CompletedTreatmentTelangiectasias / Varicosities of the great saphenous vein1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentVaricosities of the great saphenous vein1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableEnd-Stage Kidney Disease / Hemodialysis-dependent patients1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceInsulin Secretion1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFunctional Disturbance / Physical Activity1
4RecruitingDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtrial Flutter / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction (MI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Heart Failure (AHF)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypoglycemia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Sarcopenia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSubstance Abuse1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProphylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningInjury of Ureter1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningOther Diseases or Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLiver Function1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareMinor burns1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComparison of Onset Time1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongestive Cardiomyopathy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFatty Acids, Nonesterified / Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) / Renal Circulation / Renal Plasma Flow1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableGastrointestinal Infections / Ketosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableIntra Operative Bleeding, Blood Salvage1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia / Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadotropism / Infertilities1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Primary apnea of premature newborns1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDumping Syndrome / Oesophageal Atresia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionObstetric Labor / Pregnancy in Diabetics1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Pancreatitis (AP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Emergency / Hypoglycemia Non Diabetics / Pediatric ALL1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHaemolytic and Uremic Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSuperficial Radial Nerve Lesion1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentUlnar Neuropathy at Elbow1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionInfants / Newborn Diseases1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionOnce a Preterm Developed Hypoglycemia, no More Blood Glucose Was Measured During the Study Period1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentThumb Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableInfant, Newborn, Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFetal Movement Perception1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHyperglycemias / Infant, Low Birth Weight1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous100 mg
SolutionIntravenous13.3 g
SolutionIntravenous20 g
SolutionIntravenous33.3 g
SolutionIntravenous40 %
SolutionIntravenous40 g
Injection, solutionIntravenous5000 mg/100mL
LiquidSubarachnoid
SolutionIntravenous500 mg
SolutionIntravenous50 g
LiquidOral5 g
LiquidIntravenous700 mg
SolutionIntravenous70 g
LiquidOral7.5 g
Powder, for solutionIntraocular
SolutionExtracorporeal
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal
SolutionUnknown
Injection, solutionIntravenous
TabletOral5 g
Kit
Kit; solutionIntraocular
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous250 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 g/50mL
SolutionIntravenous10 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous5 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous70 g/100mL
SolutionIrrigation
SolutionIntravenous10 g
SolutionIntravenous200 mg
SolutionIntravenous333 mg
SolutionIntravenous400 mg
LiquidIntravenous5 g
SolutionIntravenous50 mg
SolutionIntravenous700 mg
LiquidIntravenous13.3 g
LiquidIntravenous250 mg
LiquidIntravenous50 mg
LiquidIntravenous500 mg
LiquidIntravenous50 %
InjectionParenteral500 mg/mL
Powder, for solutionHemodialysis173.2 g
Powder, for solutionHemodialysis207.9 g
PowderHemodialysis182.1 g
PowderHemodialysis222.7 g
Powder, for solutionOral
LiquidHemodialysis
SolutionOral
LiquidOral100 g
LiquidOral75 g
LiquidOral
SolutionHemodialysis
LiquidIntraperitoneal
SolutionHemodialysis; Intraperitoneal
SolutionIntraperitoneal
SolutionIntravenous1.78 g/70mL
SolutionIntravenous1.78 g/30mL
GelOral40 %
SyrupOral
Kit; solutionIntraocular; Irrigation
SolutionIntravenous3.57 g/70mL
EmulsionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
DoucheVaginal
KitInfiltration; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
LiquidParenteral; Topical
LiquidInfiltration
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
LiquidOral10 g
LiquidIntraspinal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)146MSDS
water solubilitySoluble MSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Mannokinase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
HK1
Uniprot ID
P19367
Uniprot Name
Hexokinase-1
Molecular Weight
102485.1 Da
References
  1. Rose IA, O'Connell EL, Litwin S: Determination of the rate of hexokinase-glucose dissociation by the isotope-trapping method. J Biol Chem. 1974 Aug 25;249(16):5163-8. [PubMed:4604308]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Glucose binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when gluco...
Gene Name
GCK
Uniprot ID
P35557
Uniprot Name
Glucokinase
Molecular Weight
52191.07 Da
References
  1. Matschinsky FM: Glucokinase as glucose sensor and metabolic signal generator in pancreatic beta-cells and hepatocytes. Diabetes. 1990 Jun;39(6):647-52. [PubMed:2189759]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform may be responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad substrate specificity; can transport a wide range of aldoses including b...
Gene Name
SLC2A1
Uniprot ID
P11166
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1
Molecular Weight
54083.325 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Hexose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta c...
Gene Name
SLC2A2
Uniprot ID
P11168
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 2
Molecular Weight
57488.955 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter that can also mediate the uptake of various other monosaccharides across the cell membrane (PubMed:9477959, PubMed:26176916). Mediates the uptake of glucose, 2-deox...
Gene Name
SLC2A3
Uniprot ID
P11169
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3
Molecular Weight
53923.785 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A4
Uniprot ID
P14672
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4
Molecular Weight
54786.79 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter; binds cytochalasin B with low affinity.
Gene Name
SLC2A6
Uniprot ID
Q9UGQ3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 6
Molecular Weight
54538.55 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity transporter for glucose and fructose Does not transport galactose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose and xylose.
Gene Name
SLC2A7
Uniprot ID
Q6PXP3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 7
Molecular Weight
55726.915 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter. Binds cytochalasin B in a glucose-inhibitable manner. Seems to be a dual-specific sugar transporter as it is inhibitable by fructose (By similari...
Gene Name
SLC2A8
Uniprot ID
Q9NY64
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 8
Molecular Weight
50818.54 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Transport urate and fructose. May have a role in the urate reabsorption by proximal tubules. Also transports glucose at low rate.
Gene Name
SLC2A9
Uniprot ID
Q9NRM0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9
Molecular Weight
58701.205 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A10
Uniprot ID
O95528
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 10
Molecular Weight
56910.77 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A11
Uniprot ID
Q9BYW1
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11
Molecular Weight
53702.055 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A12
Uniprot ID
Q8TD20
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 12
Molecular Weight
66965.7 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [PubMed:23506862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Actively transports glucose into cells by Na(+) cotransport with a Na(+) to glucose coupling ratio of 2:1. Efficient substrate transport in mammalian kidney is provided by the concerted action of a...
Gene Name
SLC5A1
Uniprot ID
P13866
Uniprot Name
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1
Molecular Weight
73497.275 Da
References
  1. Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24587162]

Drug created on November 27, 2015 13:19 / Updated on December 10, 2017 17:18