Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate

Identification

Name
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate
Accession Number
DB09409
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate is a hydrated form of anhydrous magnesium acetate salt with the chemical formula of Mg(CH3COO)2 • 4H2O. As a salt form of magnesium, magnesium acetate is one of the bioavailable forms of magnesium and forms a very water soluble compound. Magnesium is an essential element and second most abundant cation in the body that plays a key role in maintaining normal cellular function such as production of ATP and efficient enzyme activity. Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be used as an electrolyte supplementation or a reagent in molecular biology experiments.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Acetic acid, magnesium salt, tetrahydrate
  • Magnesium diacetate tetrahydrate
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Magnesium cationionicT6V3LHY83822537-22-0JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Plasma-lyte 56Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate (.23 mg/1mL) + Potassium acetate (1.28 mg/1mL) + Sodium chloride (2.34 mg/1mL)InjectionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2006-09-192018-10-11Us
Plasma-lyte 56 and DextroseMagnesium acetate tetrahydrate (32 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL) + Potassium acetate (128 mg/100mL) + Sodium chloride (234 mg/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1979-02-012016-10-31Us
Categories
UNII
I01G0EJC3B
CAS number
16674-78-5
Weight
Average: 214.453
Monoisotopic: 214.05390911
Chemical Formula
C4H14MgO8
InChI Key
XKPKPGCRSHFTKM-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/2C2H4O2.Mg.4H2O/c2*1-2(3)4;;;;;/h2*1H3,(H,3,4);;4*1H2/q;;+2;;;;/p-2
IUPAC Name
magnesium(2+) ion diacetate tetrahydrate
SMILES
O.O.O.O.[Mg++].CC([O-])=O.CC([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as magnesium salf-containing laxatives to prevent constipation. It can bring synergistic effect to restore normal bowel function when using in combination with aluminum salts that induce bowel retention [8]. Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate is used as a source of water and electrolytes when combined with dextrose and other salts to form intravenous infusions. This injection can be used for patients with carbohydrate or magnesium deficiency, insulin hypoglycemia, constipation or hypertension during pregnancy.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Magnesium is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions such as protein synthesis and ATP production. It also participates in adenylyl cyclase pathway and tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. Magnesium may also play a role in regulating glucose metabolism. It serves as an essential cation for a number of biochemical processes involved in nerve signaling, bone mineralization and muscle contractions.

Mechanism of action

Magnesium ions electrostatically stabilize the adenylyl cyclase complex and enhance its catalytic actions and production of cAMP. They also regulate the level of phosphorylation in various pathways by formation of transition state of phosphoryl transfer reaction by protein kinases and stabilize ATP binding to protein kinases via electrostatic interactions [7]. Many metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis and Krebs cycle are magnesium-dependent. Magnesium-containing laxatives cause diarrhea through water retention and increased fecal mass that stimulates peristalsis. When used as an electrolyte supplementation, magnesium acetate tetrahydrate induces diuresis and metabolic alkalinizing effect. Magnesium ions enhance reactivity of arteries to vasoconstrictors, promotes vasoconstriction, and increases peripheral resistance, leading to increased blood pressure [4] through potential competition with calcium ions in the vascular system. Magnesium ions also regulate other ions entering and exiting the cell membrane by acting as a ligand in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

TargetActionsOrganism
UGlutamate (NMDA) receptor
ligand
Humans
Absorption

Intestinal absorption is achieved mainly through passive diffusion.

Volume of distribution

Magnesium ions display approximate volume of distribution of 0.2 to 0.4 L/kg

Protein binding

Protein binding of magnesium ions is about 30%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Mainly renal exctretion, where up to 97% of magnesium may be excreted renally during hypermagnesemia.

Half life

Elimination half-life has been reported to be 27.7 hours following an overdose of 400mEq magnesium in an adult.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Predicted oral LD50 value is >2000mg/kg. In case of mild to moderate toxicity, it may cause irritation in case of skin or eye contact,and nausea or vomiting from ingestion and inhalation. In overdose, magnesium impairs neuromuscular transmission, manifested as weakness and hyporeflexia. Early manifestations of severe toxicity are lethargy, hyporeflexia, followed by weakness, paralysis, hypotension, ECG changes (prolonged PR and QRS intervals), CNS depression, seizures, and respiratory depression.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
AgmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Agmatine.
AlcuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Alcuronium can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
AlfentanilThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alfentanil.
AlphacetylmethadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlphaprodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alphaprodine.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
AmiodaroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Amiodarone.
AmlodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Amlodipine.
ApramycinThe risk or severity of neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Apramycin is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Guerrera MP, Volpe SL, Mao JJ: Therapeutic uses of magnesium. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Jul 15;80(2):157-62. [PubMed:19621856]
  2. Zimmermann G, Zhou D, Taussig R: Mutations uncover a role for two magnesium ions in the catalytic mechanism of adenylyl cyclase. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 31;273(31):19650-5. [PubMed:9677392]
  3. Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F: Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52. [PubMed:12663588]
  4. Jin K, Kim TH, Kim YH, Kim YW: Additional antihypertensive effect of magnesium supplementation with an angiotensin II receptor blocker in hypomagnesemic rats. Korean J Intern Med. 2013 Mar;28(2):197-205. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2013.28.2.197. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23526071]
  5. Touyz RM, Milne FJ: Magnesium supplementation attenuates, but does not prevent, development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Aug;12(8 Pt 1):757-65. [PubMed:10480467]
  6. Kh R, Khullar M, Kashyap M, Pandhi P, Uppal R: Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and calcium handling in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertension in rats. J Hypertens. 2000 Jul;18(7):919-26. [PubMed:10930190]
  7. Yu L, Xu L, Xu M, Wan B, Yu L, Huang Q.: Role of Mg2+ ions in protein kinase phosphorylation: insights from molecular dynamics simulations of ATP-kinase complexes Molecular Simulation. 2011 September 20;37(14):1143-1150.
  8. 29. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 364). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
  9. 46. (2011). In Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, Pharmacological basis of therapeutics (12th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. [ISBN:9780071624428]
  10. 2. (2013). In Clinical naturopathic medicine (pp. 76-78). Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013. [ISBN:9780729582261]
  11. Civitelli, R., Ziambaras, K. and Leelawattana, R. (1997). 6. In Metabolic Bone Disease and Clinically Related Disorders (pp. 191-194). Academic Press. [ISBN:9780080536279]
  12. Santa Cruz Biotechnology [Link]
  13. PLASMA-LYTE 56 and 5% Dextrose Injection (Multiple Electrolytes and Dextrose Injection, Type 1, USP) in VIAFLEX Plastic Container: Drug Label [Link]
  14. Magnesium Absorption in Humans [Link]
  15. TOXNET Magnesium compounds [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
134717
PubChem Substance
347827845
ChemSpider
118734
ChEMBL
CHEMBL3989858
Wikipedia
Magnesium_acetate
MSDS
Download (41.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)80Fischer Scientific MSDS
boiling point (°C)117.1 °C at 760 mmHgPredicted value by Santa Cruz Biotechnology
water solubilitySolubleFischer Scientific MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility98.2 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP-0.22ChemAxon
logS-0.16ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.13 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity23.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability4.96 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acetate salts. These are organic compounds containing acetic acid as its acid component.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Carboxylic acid derivatives
Direct Parent
Acetate salts
Alternative Parents
Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Acetate salt / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic salt / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...

Components:

Drug created on November 30, 2015 12:10 / Updated on November 02, 2018 07:02