Identification

Name
Sodium carbonate
Accession Number
DB09460
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Sodium Carbonate is the disodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing property. When dissolved in water, sodium carbonate forms carbonic acid and sodium hydroxide. As a strong base, sodium hydroxide neutralizes gastric acid thereby acting as an antacid.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Anhydrous sodium carbonate
  • Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:2)
  • Carbonic acid, disodium salt
  • Disodium carbonate
  • Natriumkarbonat
  • Natrum carbonicum
  • Soda ash
  • Soda-ash
  • Sodium carbonate (anhydrous)
  • Sodium carbonate anhydrous
  • Sodium carbonate, anhydrous
  • Sodium salt of carbonic acid
External IDs
E-500(I) / INS NO.500(I) / INS-500(I)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Carbicarb InjectionSodium carbonate (35 mg) + Sodium bicarbonate (28 mg)LiquidIntravenousInternational Medication Systems, Limited1992-12-311997-08-15Canada
Sel De PerouSodium carbonate (960 mg) + Sodium borate (40 mg)PowderTopicalProduits Francais Labs Inc.1930-12-311997-05-30Canada
Sels MexicainSodium carbonate (17.771 g) + Calcium Carbonate (7.475 g) + Potassium Iodide (110.5 mg) + Sodium Chloride (3.1135 g)PowderTopicalProduits Francais Labs Inc.1930-12-311997-05-30Canada
Urologic G for IrrigationSodium carbonate (2.2 mg) + Citric Acid (148 mg) + Magnesium oxide (1.9 mg)SolutionIrrigationIcu Medical Canada Inc1969-12-31Not applicableCanada
Urologic G for IrrigationSodium carbonate (4.3 mg) + Citric Acid (32.4 mg) + Magnesium oxide (3.8 mg)SolutionIrrigationIcu Medical Canada Inc1971-12-31Not applicableCanada
Urologic Solution GSodium carbonate (430 mg) + Citric Acid (3.24 g) + Magnesium oxide (380 mg)LiquidIrrigationBaxter Laboratories1989-12-312011-07-20Canada
Categories
UNII
45P3261C7T
CAS number
497-19-8
Weight
Average: 105.9884
Monoisotopic: 105.964283216
Chemical Formula
CNa2O3
InChI Key
CDBYLPFSWZWCQE-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/CH2O3.2Na/c2-1(3)4;;/h(H2,2,3,4);;/q;2*+1/p-2
IUPAC Name
disodium carbonate
SMILES
[Na+].[Na+].[O-]C([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used topically for dermatitides, mouthwash, vaginal douche; veterinary use as emergency emetic.Occasionally, for dermatitides topically as a lotion. Medication (Vet): In solution to cleanse skin, in eczema, to soften scabs of ringworm.

Pharmacodynamics

Alkalizing buffering action: Sodium bicarbonate is an alkalinizing agent that dissociates to provide bicarbonate ion. Bicarbonate in excess of that needed to buffer hydrogen ions causes systemic alkalinization and, when excreted, urine alkalinization as well. Oral antacid action: Taken orally, sodium bicarbonate neutralizes stomach acid by the above mechanism.

Mechanism of action

Carbon dioxide from the tissues diffuses rapidly into red blood cells, where it is hydrated with water to form carbonic acid. This reaction is accelerated by carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme present in high concentrations in red blood cells. The carbonic acid formed dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. Most of the bicarbonate ions diffuse into the plasma. Since the ratio of H2CO3 to dissolved CO2 is constant at equilibrium, pH may be expressed in terms of bicarbonate ion concentration and partial pressure of CO2 by means of the Henderson-Hasselbach equation: pH = pk + log [HCO3-]/aPCO2

TargetActionsOrganism
UCarbonic anhydrase 1
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 2
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 4
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 9
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

The uptake of sodium, via exposure to sodium carbonate, is much less than the uptake of sodium via food. Therefore, sodium carbonate is not expected to be systemically available in the body. Furthermore, an oral uptake of sodium carbonate will result in a neutralization in the stomach due to the gastric acid.

Volume of distribution

Distribution occurs naturally and is confined to the systemic circulation.

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

None.

Route of elimination

Filtered and reabsorbed by the kidney; less than 1% of filtered bicarbonate is excreted.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Man: LD50 (Oral) - 714 mg/kg, Effect: Behavioural,General Anesthetic : GI Ulceration or Bleeding from small intestine. Mouse : LC50 ( Inhalation ) - 1200mg/m3/2h : GI Other Change Mouse : LC50 ( Intraperitoneal ) - 117mg/kg Mouse : LD50 ( Oral) - 6600mg/kg Mouse : LD50 (Subcutaneous ) - 2210 mg/kg Rat : LC50 ( Inhalation ) 2300mg/m3/2H Rat: LD50 (Oral) - 4090 mg/kg

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Glowm [Link]
  2. Drugs.com [Link]
  3. ChemIDplus [Link]
  4. Pubchem [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
10340
PubChem Substance
347827855
ChemSpider
9916
ChEBI
29377
ChEMBL
CHEMBL186314
Wikipedia
Sodium_carbonate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous
PowderTopical
SolutionIrrigation
LiquidIrrigation
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility607.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.34ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.76ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity31.17 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.52 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organic carbonic acids. These are compounds comprising the carbonic acid functional group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Organic carbonic acids
Direct Parent
Organic carbonic acids
Alternative Parents
Carbonate salts / Organic sodium salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Carbonate salt / Carbonic acid / Organic alkali metal salt / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic sodium salt / Organic salt / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
carbonate salt, organic sodium salt (CHEBI:29377)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
CA1
Uniprot ID
P00915
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. ChEMBL [Link]
  3. UniProt [Link]
  4. KEGG [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. KEGG [Link]
  3. UniProt [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina an...
Gene Name
CA4
Uniprot ID
P22748
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 4
Molecular Weight
35032.075 Da
References
  1. UniProt [Link]
  2. ChEMBL [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervic...
Gene Name
CA9
Uniprot ID
Q16790
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 9
Molecular Weight
49697.36 Da
References
  1. ChEMBL [Link]
  2. KEGG [Link]
  3. UniProt [Link]

Drug created on November 30, 2015 12:10 / Updated on November 02, 2018 07:03