Polyvinyl alcohol


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Polyvinyl alcohol
Accession Number
Small Molecule

Polyvinyl alcohol is a water-soluble synthetic polymer obtained by polymerization of vinyl alcohol. It has varying roles in commercial and industrial applications such as papermaking, textiles, and printing. Polyvinyl alcohol is found in ophthalmic solutions as a lubricant to prevent irritation or to relieve dryness of the eyes 4.

  • Alcohol polivin√≠lico
  • Polyvinyl alcohol
  • PVOH
External IDs
E-1203 / INS-1203
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Akwa TearsSolution14 mg/1mLOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-11-222013-06-11Us
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn Animal Health, Inc.2015-06-152015-06-15Us
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicRugby2011-10-07Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn1998-03-01Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicA S Medication Solutions2011-10-07Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions2011-10-07Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-03-13Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops1.4 %OphthalmicRivex Ophthalmics Inc.1997-08-112003-07-28Canada
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicLake Erie Medical &Surgical Supply Dba Quality Care Products Llc2012-03-232014-12-31Us
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicMwi2015-03-23Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Artifical TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (0.05 g/1mL) + Povidone (0.06 g/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicmedsource pharmaceuticals2016-04-04Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicKc Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2003-11-25Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicMc Kesson2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Artificial Tears ExtraPolyvinyl alcohol (1.4 %) + Povidone (0.6 %)SolutionOphthalmicPharmascience Inc1997-05-162016-10-31Canada
Artificial Tears Lubricant EyePolyvinyl alcohol (5.0 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6.0 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Artificial Tears Lubricant EyePolyvinyl alcohol (500 mg/100mL) + Povidone (600 mg/100mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicWinco Foods2015-01-09Not applicableUs
Artificial Tears PlusPolyvinyl alcohol (1.4 %) + Povidone (0.6 %)SolutionOphthalmicIvax Pharmaceuticals Incorporated1996-12-102015-10-26Canada
Clear Eyes Natural TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5.0 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6.0 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Clear Eyes Outdoor Dry Eye ProtectionPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2011-11-15Not applicableUs
Clear Eyes Travelers Eye ReliefPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2011-11-15Not applicableUs
CAS number



For use as a lubricant to prevent further irritation or to relieve dryness of the eye(s) 6.


Temporarily relieves burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye or from exposure to wind or sun. Lubricates the eyes and helps protect against further eye irritation/dryness 7.

Mechanism of action

As a synthetic resin with hydrophilic properties, it increases the persistence of tear film and therefore lubricates and soothes dry/irritated eyes 9.

Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Polyvinyl alcohol is poorly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract, and readily eliminated from the body 5.

Volume of distribution

This drug does not accumulate in the body when administered orally 1.

Protein binding
Not Available
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

When injected intravenously, polyvinyl alcohol has a half-life of 90 min 2.

Intraocularly, in eye drop form, the half-life is 7.2 minutes 3.

Not Available

The oral acute toxicity of PVOH (LD50) in rats and mice are 20 g/kg and 14.7 g/kg, respectively 5. Adverse effects include eye pain and changes of vision, and redness or irritation of the eye 9.

Mild stinging or irritation of the eye, crusting of eyelid, eye pain, ocular hyperaemia, eye pruritus, foreign body sensation, eye discharge, and increased lacrimation may also occur 8.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available


General References
  1. DeMerlis CC, Schoneker DR: Review of the oral toxicity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Mar;41(3):319-26. [PubMed:12504164]
  2. Yamaoka T, Tabata Y, Ikada Y: Comparison of body distribution of poly(vinyl alcohol) with other water-soluble polymers after intravenous administration. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1995 Jun;47(6):479-86. [PubMed:7674130]
  3. O'Connor, Davies, G.A. Hopkins, R.M. Hopkins (2014). The Actions and Uses of Ophthalmic Drugs. Butterworth-Heinemann.
  4. Polyvinyl alcohol, PubChem [Link]
  5. Polivinyl Alcohol Review [Link]
  6. Daily Med, Artificial Tears [Link]
  7. HYPOTEARS - polyvinyl alcohol and polyehtylene glycol 400 solution/ drops [Link]
  8. MIMS, Polyvinyl Alcohol [Link]
  9. Pediatrics On Call: Polyvinyl Alcohol [Link]
  10. European Food Safety Document [File]
External Links
PubChem Substance
AHFS Codes
  • 52:13.00* — Artificial Tears
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
1CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1
2CompletedTreatmentBrittle Nails1
2CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Seasonal Allergic1
2RecruitingTreatmentThyroid Eye Disease1
2TerminatedTreatmentDry Eye Syndromes1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNuclear Cataract1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Viral1
3CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Viral1
3CompletedTreatmentExfoliation Syndrome / Glaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG)1
3CompletedTreatmentEye Dryness1
3CompletedTreatmentBacterial blepharitis / Xerophthalmia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAdenovirus / Conjunctivitis1
4CompletedNot AvailableEndothelial Graft Rejection1
4CompletedPreventionOcular Hypertension / Posterior Capsule Opacification1
4CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Seasonal Allergic1
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)2
4CompletedTreatmentEye Dryness1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Ocular Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMyopia1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticEye Dryness1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEye Dryness1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEye Dryness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntraocular Pressure1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAdenoviral Conjunctivitis / Conjunctivitis1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMigraine1


Not Available
Not Available
Dosage forms
SolutionOphthalmic14 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic14 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsIntraocular
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic3 %
LiquidOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Not Available
Not Available


Experimental Properties
water solubilitysoluble in water (slightly)MSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Not Available


Not classified

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on July 21, 2019 06:37