Polyvinyl alcohol

Identification

Name
Polyvinyl alcohol
Accession Number
DB11060
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Polyvinyl alcohol is a water-soluble synthetic polymer obtained by polymerization of vinyl alcohol. It has varying roles in commercial and industrial applications such as papermaking, textiles, and printing. Polyvinyl alcohol is found in ophthalmic solutions as a lubricant to prevent irritation or to relieve dryness of the eyes [4].

Synonyms
  • Alcohol polivin√≠lico
  • Polyvinyl alcohol, unspecified
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Akwa TearsSolution14 mg/1mLOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-11-222013-06-11Us
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-03-13Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicCardinal Health2011-11-15Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions2011-10-07Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicRugby2011-10-07Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution1.4 %OphthalmicIvax Pharmaceuticals Incorporated1996-12-102015-10-26Canada
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicLake Erie Medical &Surgical Supply Dba Quality Care Products Llc2012-03-232014-12-31Us
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn1998-03-01Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicMwi2015-03-23Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicA S Medication Solutions2011-10-07Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Artificial TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicMc Kesson2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Artificial TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicKc Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2003-11-25Not applicableUs
Artificial Tears ExtraPolyvinyl alcohol (1.4 %) + Povidone (0.6 %)SolutionOphthalmicPharmascience Inc1997-05-162016-10-31Canada
Artificial Tears Lubricant EyePolyvinyl alcohol (5.0 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6.0 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Artificial Tears Lubricant EyePolyvinyl alcohol (500 mg/100mL) + Povidone (600 mg/100mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicWinco Foods2015-01-09Not applicableUs
Artificial Tears PlusPolyvinyl alcohol (1.4 %) + Povidone (0.6 %)SolutionOphthalmicIvax Pharmaceuticals Incorporated1996-12-102015-10-26Canada
Clear Eyes Natural TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5.0 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6.0 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Clear Eyes Outdoor Dry Eye ProtectionPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2011-11-15Not applicableUs
Clear Eyes Travelers Eye ReliefPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2011-11-15Not applicableUs
Clear Eyes Travelers Eye ReliefPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2011-11-15Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
532B59J990
CAS number
9002-89-5
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as a lubricant to prevent further irritation or to relieve dryness of the eye(s) [6].

Pharmacodynamics

Temporarily relieves burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye or from exposure to wind or sun. Lubricates the eyes and helps protect against further eye irritation/dryness [7].

Mechanism of action

As a synthetic resin with hydrophilic properties, it increases the persistence of tear film and therefore lubricates and soothes dry/irritated eyes [9].

Absorption

Polyvinyl alcohol is poorly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract, and readily eliminated from the body [5].

Volume of distribution

This drug does not accumulate in the body when administered orally [1].

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

When injected intravenously, polyvinyl alcohol has a half-life of 90 min [2].

Intraocularly, in eye drop form, the half-life is 7.2 minutes [3].

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The oral acute toxicity of PVOH (LD50) in rats and mice are 20 g/kg and 14.7 g/kg, respectively [5]. Adverse effects include eye pain and changes of vision, and redness or irritation of the eye [9].

Mild stinging or irritation of the eye, crusting of eyelid, eye pain, ocular hyperaemia, eye pruritus, foreign body sensation, eye discharge, and increased lacrimation may also occur [8].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. DeMerlis CC, Schoneker DR: Review of the oral toxicity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Mar;41(3):319-26. [PubMed:12504164]
  2. Yamaoka T, Tabata Y, Ikada Y: Comparison of body distribution of poly(vinyl alcohol) with other water-soluble polymers after intravenous administration. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1995 Jun;47(6):479-86. [PubMed:7674130]
  3. O'Connor, Davies, G.A. Hopkins, R.M. Hopkins (2014). The Actions and Uses of Ophthalmic Drugs. Butterworth-Heinemann.
  4. Polyvinyl alcohol, PubChem [Link]
  5. Polivinyl Alcohol Review [Link]
  6. Daily Med, Artificial Tears [Link]
  7. HYPOTEARS - polyvinyl alcohol and polyehtylene glycol 400 solution/ drops [Link]
  8. MIMS, Polyvinyl Alcohol [Link]
  9. Pediatrics On Call: Polyvinyl Alcohol [Link]
  10. European Food Safety Document [File]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911099
Wikipedia
Polyvinyl_alcohol
AHFS Codes
  • 52:13.00* — Artificial Tears
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous
MSDS
Download (65.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1
2CompletedTreatmentBrittle Nails1
2CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Seasonal Allergic1
2RecruitingTreatmentThyroid Eye Disease1
2TerminatedTreatmentDry Eye Syndromes1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNuclear Cataract1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Viral1
3CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Viral1
3CompletedTreatmentExfoliation Syndrome / Glaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG)1
3CompletedTreatmentEye Dryness1
3CompletedTreatmentBacterial blepharitis / Xerophthalmia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAdenovirus / Conjunctivitis1
4CompletedNot AvailableEndothelial Graft Rejection1
4CompletedPreventionOcular Hypertension / Posterior Capsule Opacification1
4CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Seasonal Allergic2
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)2
4CompletedTreatmentEye Dryness1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Ocular Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMyopia1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticEye Dryness1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEye Dryness1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEye Dryness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntraocular Pressure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMigraines1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAdenoviral Conjunctivitis / Conjunctivitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic14 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic14 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsIntraocular
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic3 %
SolutionOphthalmic
LiquidOphthalmic
LiquidOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitysoluble in water (slightly)MSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:58