Identification

Name
Aluminum chloride
Accession Number
DB11081
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Aluminum chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AlCl3. When contaminated with iron chloride, it often displays a yellow color compared to the white pure compound. It is used in various chemical applications as a Lewis base, with anhydrous aluminium trichloride being the most commonly used Lewis acid. It may also be found in over-the-counter as an antiperspirant or prescription products as an antihemorrhagic agent. In antiperspirant products, FDA approves the use of aluminum chloride as an active ingredient up to 15%, calculated on the hexahydrate form, in an aqueous solution nonaerosol dosage form [4].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aluminium chloride
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Aluminium chloride hexahydrate3CYT62D3GA7784-13-6JGDITNMASUZKPW-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
AluminiumunknownCPD4NFA9037429-90-5XAGFODPZIPBFFR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Aluminum cationionic3XHB1D032B22537-23-1REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Denti-care Hemostatic SolutionLiquid25 %DentalAr Medicom Inc.1999-11-262006-08-03Canada
Gingi Aid 10%Liquid100 mgDentalGingi Pak Labs, Division Of Belport Co., Inc.1979-12-311996-09-09Canada
Gingi Aid 25%Liquid250 mgDentalGingi Pak Labs, Division Of Belport Co., Inc.1979-12-312004-08-16Canada
Gingi Aid Dark Braid #3Packing1 mgDentalGingi Pak Labs, Division Of Belport Co., Inc.1981-12-311997-08-11Canada
Gingigel Gel 200mg/gmGel200 mgTopicalVan R Dental Products Inc.1986-12-312007-07-31Canada
Hemogin L Hemostatic Liq 25%Liquid250 mgDentalVan R Dental Products Inc.1981-12-312005-08-04Canada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AaricaLiquid15 g/100mLTopicalThe Podiatree Company2014-05-06Not applicableUs
AaricaLiquid15 g/100mLTopicalThe Podiatree Company2014-05-06Not applicableUs
Aquastop LiqLiquid20 %TopicalAqua Pharmaceuticals1977-12-312002-08-15Canada
Certain Dri Roll-ONLiquid0.12 mg/1.0mLTopicalDenison Pharmaceuticals, Llc.2017-01-01Not applicableUs
CERTAIN DRI Roll-OnLiquid12 mL/100mLTopicalDse Healthcare Solutions, Llc.2012-05-22Not applicableUs
Certain Dri Roll-ONLiquid0.12 mg/1.0mLTopicalClarion Brands, Llc2015-11-01Not applicableUs
CERTAIN DRI Roll-OnLiquid12 mg/1mLTopicalDse Healthcare Solutions, Llc.2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Clinical Strength MiracleDry Antiperspirant Deodorant PMLiquid12 mg/1mLTopicalHighland Consumer Products2012-10-15Not applicableUs
Duradry PMGel150 mg/1mLTopicalNovadore USA, LLC2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Gingi Aid Dark Braid #2Packing1 mgDental; TopicalGingi Pak Labs, Division Of Belport Co., Inc.1981-12-311997-08-11Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Anti-perspirant Roll-ON DeodAluminum chloride (2 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (20 %)LiquidTopicalEstee Lauder Dist1987-12-312002-07-31Canada
Arrid CreamAluminum chloride (1 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (21.2 %)CreamTopicalCarter Products, Division Of Carter Wallace Ns Inc.1939-12-311999-09-27Canada
Mitchum Anti Perspirant Crm ScentedAluminum chloride (4 g) + Alcloxa (250 mg) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (19 g)CreamTopicalMitchum Thayer Ltd.1965-12-311996-09-09Canada
Mitchum Antipersp Crm UnscentedAluminum chloride (4 %) + Alcloxa (.25 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (19 %)CreamTopicalMitchum Thayer Ltd.1978-12-311996-09-09Canada
Racestyptine CordAluminum chloride (60 mg) + Lidocaine (35 mg) + Oxyquinoline sulfate (.24 mg)PackingDentalSeptodont1981-12-312000-08-03Canada
Racestyptine SolAluminum chloride (25 g) + Oxyquinoline sulfate (100 mg)LiquidDentalSeptodont1977-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sulpak IIAluminum chloride (25 %) + Oxyquinoline sulfate (.1 %)LiquidDentalNorth Pacific Dental Inc.1983-12-311997-12-22Canada
Youth Dew Roll On Antipersp Deod LotAluminum chloride (2 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (20 %)LotionTopicalEstee Lauder Dist1986-12-312000-07-25Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Frenna ACAluminium chloride hexahydrate (8.75 g/35g)SolutionDental; Oral; TopicalDharma Research, Inc.2013-01-01Not applicableUs
HemalAluminum chloride (250 mg/1g)SolutionDentalDarby Dental Supply Llc1963-02-19Not applicableUs
HemobanAluminum chloride (250 mg/1g)SolutionDentalDentsply Llc, Professional Division, Trading As "Sultan Healthcare"1963-02-19Not applicableUs
HemobanAluminum chloride (250 mg/1g)SolutionDentalDSHealthcare1963-02-192010-02-04Us
Hemostatic SolutionAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalCrosstex International Inc.2013-01-15Not applicableUs
Hemox AAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalMycone Dental Supply Co., Inc Dba Keystone Industries And Deepak Products Inc.2013-01-15Not applicableUs
HypercareAluminium chloride hexahydrate (1 g/5mL) + Ethanol (3.75 g/5mL)SolutionTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-04-212013-01-15Us
HypercareAluminium chloride hexahydrate (1 g/5mL) + Ethanol (3.75 g/5mL)SolutionTopicalStratus Pharmaceuticals2008-04-212015-04-09Us
LumicainAluminium chloride hexahydrate (250 mg/1g)SolutionTopicalMedicap Laboratories Inc.2010-09-29Not applicableUs
Ms HemostaticAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalM&S Dental Supply Co., Llc2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
LIF1N9568Y
CAS number
7446-70-0
Weight
Average: 133.341
Monoisotopic: 131.888096562
Chemical Formula
AlCl3
InChI Key
VSCWAEJMTAWNJL-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.3ClH/h;3*1H/q+3;;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
trichloroalumane
SMILES
Cl[Al](Cl)Cl

Pharmacology

Indication
  • Indicated for the control of minor hemorrhage during dental restorative procedures.
  • Indicated to reduce underarm perspiration.
Pharmacodynamics

Aluminum chloride is a hemostatic and antiperspirant agent.

Mechanism of action

Aluminum chloride is commonly used topical antiperspirant. It is proposed that aluminum chloride works by causing an obstruction of the distal sweat gland ducts, where the metal ions precipitate with mucopolysaccharides, damaging epithelial cells along the lumen of the duct and forming a plug that blocks sweat output [3]. Aluminum chloride is also an astringent that promotes hemostasis; it precipitates proteins on the superficial layer of mucosa and make it mechanically stronger [1]. It creates superficial and local coagulation in minor hemorrhages.

TargetActionsOrganism
UGlutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
inactivator
Human
Absorption

It is reported that about 17-30 % of aluminum chloride formed from the reaction between orally ingested aluminum hydroxide and hydrochloric acid of the stomach is absorbed [5]. In rabbits, administration of a single maximum safe oral dose aluminum chloride (333 mg Al/kg) resulted in aluminum absorption of 0.57 % [5]. Aluminum chloride may be absorbed via dermal route, with the uptake increasing in the microgram range but with an upper limit [5].

Volume of distribution

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the steady‐state volume of distribution of aluminum was 38.4 ± 6.4 mL/kg [2].

Protein binding

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the fraction of plasma protein binding of aluminum was approximately 98 % [2].

Metabolism

In the small intestine, aluminum chloride is rapidly converted to insoluble poorly absorbed basic aluminum salts, consisting of a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxide, oxyaluminum hydroxide, various basic aluminum carbonates, and aluminum soaps [5].

Route of elimination

Absorbed aluminum chloride is rapidly excreted by the kidneys in individuals with normal renal function [5]. Aluminum chloride may be absorbed dermally.

Half life

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the half-life of aluminum was 5.29 ± 0.47 h [2].

Clearance

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the clearance of aluminum was 8.87 ± 1.76 mL/(h*kg) [2].

Toxicity

Oral LD50 is 3470 mg/kg in rat and dermal LD50 is > 2 g/kg in rabbit [MSDS]. As aluminum accumulates in the brain, ataxia and seizures may be observed following ingestion of higher doses. Mental status changes, including obtundation, lethargy and confusion may be seen [5]. Liver damage has been reported in acute and chronic toxicity of aluminum [5].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Tarighi P, Khoroushi M: A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2014 Jul;11(4):423-8. [PubMed:25225553]
  2. Gupta S, Waters D, Gwilt P: Absorption and disposition of aluminum in the rat Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1986 June 1;75(6):586-589.
  3. Khademi Kalantari K, Zeinalzade A, Kobarfard F, Nazary Moghadam S: The effect and persistency of 1% aluminum chloride hexahydrate iontophoresis in the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis. Iran J Pharm Res. 2011 Summer;10(3):641-5. [PubMed:24250398]
  4. FDA CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, PART 350: ANTIPERSPIRANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE [Link]
  5. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
24012
PubChem Substance
347827889
ChemSpider
22445
ChEBI
30114
ChEMBL
CHEMBL3833401
Wikipedia
Aluminum_chloride
ATC Codes
D10AX01 — Aluminium chloride
AHFS Codes
  • 84:12.00 — Astringents and Deodorants
  • 34:00.00 — Dental Agents
MSDS
Download (50.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1RecruitingTreatmentHyperhidrosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical15 g/100mL
LiquidTopical
LiquidTopical20 %
LiquidTopical0.12 mg/1.0mL
LiquidTopical12 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical12 mg/1mL
LiquidDental25 %
GelTopical150 mg/1mL
SolutionDental; Oral; Topical8.75 g/35g
LiquidDental100 mg
LiquidDental250 mg
PackingDental; Topical1 mg
PackingDental1 mg
SolutionDental; Oral; Periodontal3.75 g/15mL
GelTopical200 mg
SolutionDental7500 mg/30mL
GelTopical15 g/100mL
SolutionTopical
SolutionTopical15 g/100mL
SolutionTopical250 mg/1g
CreamTopical
LiquidTopical15 mg/1mL
Aerosol, sprayTopical150 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical150 mg/1mL
PackingDental
LiquidDental
SolutionTopical140 mg/1mL
SolutionDental250 mg/1g
LiquidTopical0.0625 g/1g
SprayEpidural4.4375 g/35.5mL
SprayEpidural5.325 g/35.5mL
LotionTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)194MSDS
water solubilityWater reactiveMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.65ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity18.41 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal chlorides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest halogen atom is Chlorine, and the heaviest metal atom is a post-transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Post-transition metal salts
Sub Class
Post-transition metal chlorides
Direct Parent
Post-transition metal chlorides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic chloride salts
Substituents
Post-transition metal chloride / Inorganic chloride salt / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
aluminium coordination entity (CHEBI:30114)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inactivator
General Function
Nad+ binding
Specific Function
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in th...
Gene Name
GLUD1
Uniprot ID
P00367
Uniprot Name
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61397.315 Da
References
  1. Yang SJ, Huh JW, Lee JE, Choi SY, Kim TU, Cho SW: Inactivation of human glutamate dehydrogenase by aluminum. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003 Nov;60(11):2538-46. [PubMed:14625697]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on November 17, 2018 07:25