Identification

Name
Potassium bicarbonate
Accession Number
DB11098
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Potassium bicarbonate is a white, crystalline, slightly alkaline and salty substance. It is produced by the passage of carbon dioxide through an aqueous potassium carbonate solution. It is used in medicine as an antacid.[3] It is registered in the FDA under the section of suitable, safe and effective ingredients for OTC antacids.[7] This FDA denomination classifies potassium bicarbonate as a GRAS ingredient.[8]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Carbonic acid, monopotassium salt
  • Potassium hydrogen carbonate
External IDs
E-501(II) / INS NO.501(II) / INS-501(II)
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Potassium cationionic295O53K15224203-36-9NPYPAHLBTDXSSS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alka-Seltzer GoldPotassium bicarbonate (344 mg/1) + Citric acid monohydrate (1000 mg/1) + Sodium bicarbonate (1050 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralBayer Healthcare Llc.2014-11-19Not applicableUs
BetacolPotassium bicarbonate (41 mg) + Calcium glycerophosphate (50 mg) + Choline bitartrate (2.5 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (61 mg)CapsuleOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1989-12-151996-09-09Canada
CalcorPotassium bicarbonate (100 mg) + Calcium (500 mg) + Magnesium (140 mg) + Silicon (2 mg)TabletOralSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Neo KPotassium bicarbonate (185 mg) + Potassium Chloride (234.68 mg)Granule, effervescentOralNeolab Inc1977-12-311997-08-12Canada
Pleo Alkala AntacidPotassium bicarbonate (117 g/150g) + Sodium Citrate (2.4 g/150g) + Sodium bicarbonate (11.70 g/150g)PowderOralSanum Kehlbeck GmbH & Co. KG1996-12-19Not applicableUs
Potassium-novartisPotassium bicarbonate (400 mg) + Potassium Chloride (600 mg)Tablet, effervescentOralNovartis1968-12-311998-05-08Canada
Relief OTC antacidPotassium bicarbonate (905 mg/118mL) + Calcium Carbonate (545 mg/118mL) + Sodium bicarbonate (2110 mg/118mL)LiquidOralTummy Company, Inc.2014-05-28Not applicableUs
Solution CardaPotassium bicarbonate (.01 %) + Magnesium sulfate (.003 %) + Sodium bicarbonate (.566 %)LiquidOralLaboratoire Atlas Inc1984-12-311996-09-09Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Effer-K 10 mEq Cherry VanillaPotassium bicarbonate (391 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effer-K 10 mEq UnflavoredPotassium bicarbonate (391 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effer-K 20 mEq Orange CreamPotassium bicarbonate (782 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effer-K 20 mEq UnflavoredPotassium bicarbonate (782 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effer-K Cherry BerryPotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effer-K Lemon CitrusPotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effer-K OrangePotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effer-K UnflavoredPotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUs
Effervescent Potassium ChloridePotassium bicarbonate (0.7 g/1) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (1.5 g/1) + Potassium Chloride (1.25 g/1)Tablet, effervescentOralQualitest2006-01-062021-07-31Us
K-effervescentPotassium bicarbonate (25 meq/1)Tablet, effervescentOralQualitest2006-01-06Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
HM5Z15LEBN
CAS number
298-14-6
Weight
Average: 100.1151
Monoisotopic: 99.956275759
Chemical Formula
CHKO3
InChI Key
TYJJADVDDVDEDZ-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/CH2O3.K/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
IUPAC Name
potassium hydrogen carbonate
SMILES
[K+].OC([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Potassium bicarbonate is used as an antacid, electrolyte replenisher and potassium supplement. It can also be used as an excipient in drug formulations.[8] An antacid is a medication used to neutralize gastric acid in a short timeframe after ingestion and the effect is soon overcome by meal-stimulated acid secretion.[1]

Pharmacodynamics

Potassium is the principal intracellular cation in most body tissues. The concentration of potassium ions is essential to conduct nerve impulses in specialized tissues like brain, heart and skeletal muscle, as well as to maintain normal renal function, acid-base balance, and cellular metabolic functions.[9] The use of compounds containing bicarbonate is showed to produce the release of CO2. This effect has been one of the problems of the use of potassium bicarbonate as it can cause eructation.[5]

Mechanism of action

The antacid potential of potassium bicarbonate is attained by increasing the gastrointestinal pH by neutralizing hydrochloric acid.[6] The increase in pH results in suppression of the action of pepsin which is the enzyme that exacerbates ulceration due to the presence of acid.[5]

TargetActionsOrganism
APepsin
inhibitor
Human
AHydrogen ions
neutralizer
Absorption

Potassium bicarbonate intake is done mainly in the small intestine in which approximately 90% of the potassium will be absorbed by passive diffusion.[2]

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Approximately 90% of the exogenous potassium consumed is lost in the urine while the other 10% is excreted in feces and a very small amount can be found in the sweat. The excreted potassium is freely filtered by the glomerulus of the kidney.[2]

Half life

Some reports have shown that after absorption, most body potassium exchanges rapidly with a half-life of less than 7 hours.[2]

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Potassium bicarbonate does not contain any toxic chemicals and it is not listed as a carcinogenic or a potential carcinogen.[8] Potassium bicarbonate is also considered safe in pregnancy as the current data do not suggest a teratogenic potential or any developmental toxicity.[4]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Potassium bicarbonate.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumAclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineAcrivastine may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. De Ruigh A, Roman S, Chen J, Pandolfino JE, Kahrilas PJ: Gaviscon Double Action Liquid (antacid & alginate) is more effective than antacid in controlling post-prandial oesophageal acid exposure in GERD patients: a double-blind crossover study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Sep;40(5):531-7. doi: 10.1111/apt.12857. Epub 2014 Jul 10. [PubMed:25041141]
  2. Stone MS, Martyn L, Weaver CM: Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22;8(7). pii: nu8070444. doi: 10.3390/nu8070444. [PubMed:27455317]
  3. The American Heritage Science Dictionary (2018). Stedman's Medical Dictionary . Houghton Mifflin Company.
  4. Rost M. (2007). Drugs during prgnancy and lactation (2nd ed.). Academic press.
  5. Smith M. and Morton D. (2010). The digestive system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
  6. German A., Maddison J. and Guilford G. (2008). Small animal clinical pharmacology (2nd ed.). Elsevier.
  7. FDA Code of Federal Regulations [Link]
  8. Potassium Bicarbonate Handbook [Link]
  9. Efferk monograph [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C18606
PubChem Compound
516893
PubChem Substance
347827895
ChemSpider
55053
ChEBI
81862
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2106975
Wikipedia
Potassium_bicarbonate
ATC Codes
A12BA04 — Potassium hydrogencarbonate
MSDS
Download (108 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDistal Renal Tubular Acidosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Tablet, effervescentOral391 mg/1
Tablet, effervescentOral782 mg/1
Tablet, effervescentOral977.5 mg/1
Granule, effervescentOral
PowderOral
Tablet, effervescentOral978 mg/1
Tablet, effervescentOral
LiquidOral
Tablet, effervescentOral25 meq/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)Decomposes before melting'MSDS'
water solubilitySolubleStedman's Medical Dictionary. (2002)
pKa6.37'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility681.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.08ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.83ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity20.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organic carbonic acids. These are compounds comprising the carbonic acid functional group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Organic carbonic acids
Direct Parent
Organic carbonic acids
Alternative Parents
Carbonate salts / Organic potassium salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Carbonate salt / Carbonic acid / Organic alkali metal salt / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic potassium salt / Organic salt / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
potassium salt, organic salt (CHEBI:81862)

Targets

1. Pepsin
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
References
  1. Smith M. and Morton D. (2010). The digestive system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
2. Hydrogen ions
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Not Available
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Neutralizer
References
  1. German A., Maddison J. and Guilford G. (2008). Small animal clinical pharmacology (2nd ed.). Elsevier.

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A2
Uniprot ID
P55011
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 2
Molecular Weight
131445.825 Da
References
  1. Haas M: The Na-K-Cl cotransporters. Am J Physiol. 1994 Oct;267(4 Pt 1):C869-85. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.1994.267.4.C869. [PubMed:7943281]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID
Q13621
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 1
Molecular Weight
121449.13 Da
References
  1. Haas M: The Na-K-Cl cotransporters. Am J Physiol. 1994 Oct;267(4 Pt 1):C869-85. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.1994.267.4.C869. [PubMed:7943281]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on November 02, 2018 07:06