Identification

Name
Castor oil
Accession Number
DB11113
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Description

Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) mainly cultivated in India, South America, Africa, and China. Castor oil is a rich source of Ricinoleic Acid, which represents up to 90% of the total castor oil content. It also consists up to 4% linoleic, 3% oleic, 1% stearic, and less than 1% linolenic fatty acids [1]. Ricinoleic Acid has a hydroxyl group that provides a functional group location for various chemical reactions, making it a favourable substance in industrial applications [1]. Castor oil does not contain ricin, which is a natural poison found in the castor oil plant; the toxic lectin remains in the bean pulp following oil isolation [5]. Due to its renewability and high versatility in addition to being the only commercial source of a hydroxylated fatty acid [1], castor oil has been used as a vital raw material for the chemical industry [3]. Castor oil was mainly used in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings [1]. It is an FDA-approved food additive directly added to food products for human consumption. It can also be found in hard candies as a release agent and anti-sticking agent, or supplementary vitamins and mineral oral tablets as an ingredient for protective coatings. Castor oil is found in over-the-counter oral liquids as a stimulant laxative, and is also added in commercial cosmetic, hair, and skincare products.

Synonyms
  • Agaliya oil
  • Bimayou
  • Castorbean oil
  • Cataputia major oil
  • Cataputia minor oil
  • Croton spinosus oil
  • Lama palagi oil
  • Maskerekur oil
  • Oleum ricini
  • Ricinus africanus oil
  • Ricinus angulatus oil
  • Ricinus armatus oil
  • Ricinus atropurpureus oil
  • Ricinus badius oil
  • Ricinus borboniensis oil
  • Ricinus cambodgensis oil
  • Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil
  • Ricinus communis castor seed oil
  • Ricinus communis fibre oil
  • Ricinus communis oil
  • Ricinus communis seed oil
  • Ricinus compactus oil
  • Ricinus digitatus oil
  • Ricinus europaeus oil
  • Ricinus gibsonii oil
  • Ricinus giganteus oil
  • Ricinus glaucus oil
  • Ricinus hybridus oil
  • Ricinus inermis oil
  • Ricinus japonicus oil
  • Ricinus krappa oil
  • Ricinus laevis oil
  • Ricinus lividus oil
  • Ricinus macrocarpus oil
  • Ricinus macrophyllus oil
  • Ricinus medicus oil
  • Ricinus medius oil
  • Ricinus messeniacus oil
  • Ricinus metallicus oil
  • Ricinus microcarpus oil
  • Ricinus minor oil
  • Ricinus nanus oil
  • Ricinus obermannii oil
  • Ricinus oil
  • Ricinus peltatus oil
  • Ricinus perennis oil
  • Ricinus persicus oil
  • Ricinus purpurascens oil
  • Ricinus ruber oil
  • Ricinus rugosus oil
  • Ricinus rutilans oil
  • Ricinus sanguineus oil
  • Ricinus scaber oil
  • Ricinus speciosus oil
  • Ricinus spectabilis oil
  • Ricinus tunisensis oil
  • Ricinus undulatus oil
  • Ricinus urens oil
  • Ricinus viridis oil
  • Ricinus vulgaris oil
  • Ricinus zanzibarensis oil
  • Ricinus zanzibarinus
  • Toto ni vavalagi oil
  • Uluchula skoki oil
External IDs
E-1503 / Fema no. 2263 / Ins no.1503 / INS-1503
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralDolgencorp2017-10-23Not applicableUs
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralTopco Associates1991-09-15Not applicableUs
Castor OilLiquid100 %OralR.W. Packaging Ltd.1995-12-312001-07-16Canada
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralVi-Jon, Inc.2008-12-09Not applicableUs
Castor OilLiquid1 mg/1mLOralCVS Health2009-05-20Not applicableUs
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralKroger2001-04-19Not applicableUs
Castor OilLiquidOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1972-12-312000-07-27Canada
Castor OilOil100 mL/100mLOralPaddock Laboratories, Inc.1978-10-012015-07-31Us
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralSupervalu2004-12-16Not applicableUs
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralFoodhold U.S.A.2010-08-11Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Balsamic LinimentCastor oil (35.6 g/40g) + Betula pendula tar oil (1.2 g/40g)LinimentTopicalBorisovskiy Zavod Medicinskikh Preparatov Jsc2000-12-22Not applicableUs
Zinc and Castor Oil Cream BPCastor oil (500 mg) + Zinc oxide (75 mg)CreamTopicalLawton's Drug Stores Ltd.1987-12-311997-04-02Canada
Zinc and Castor Oil CrmCastor oil (500 mg) + Zinc oxide (75 mg)CreamTopicalDawson Traders Ltd.1978-12-312006-03-22Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUs
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUs
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUs
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUs
GranulexCastor oil (788 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Trypsin (0.12 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional1967-03-012018-05-31Us
HydroGold 9Castor oil (0.4 mg/100mg) + 1,3-Butanediol (2 mg/100mg) + Acetyl hexapeptide-8 (0.01 mg/100mg) + Adenosine (0.04 mg/100mg) + Allantoin (0.2 mg/100mg) + Sodium benzoate (0.5 mg/100mg) + Dimethicone (0.01 mg/100mg) + Glycerin (20 mg/100mg) + Gold (0.0001 mg/100mg) + Nicotinamide (2 mg/100mg) + Phenoxyethanol (0.5 mg/100mg) + Potassium Chloride (0.01 mg/100mg) + Titanium dioxide (0.43 mg/100mg) + Xanthan gum (0.5 mg/100mg)PatchTopicalBhmbg Global Branding Inc.2018-03-092019-12-31Us
OptaseCastor oil (78.77 g/100g) + Balsam of Peru (8.69 g/100g) + Trypsin (0.012 g/100g)GelTopicalOnset Dermatologics, LLC2006-04-012011-12-31Us
ProdermCastor oil (788 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional2012-09-262018-04-30Us
Trypsin ComplexCastor oil (788.0 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87.0 mg/1g) + Trypsin (0.0036 mg/1g)OintmentTopicalBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-10-212011-06-30Us
VasolexCastor oil (788 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Trypsin (90 [USP'U]/1g)OintmentTopicalStratus Pharmacuticals2007-02-072015-04-09Us
Categories
UNII
D5340Y2I9G
CAS number
8001-79-4
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for over-the-counter use as a laxative for oral use and as a soothing agent for topical use on skin and hair.

Pharmacodynamics

Castor oil is a potent laxative that was shown to be effective for short-term constipation. In a prospective study, the group receiving oral castor oil was associated with a higher likelihood of initiation of labour compared to the placebo group [4]. Castor oil is known to induce diarrhea, and has been used in studies to assess anti-diarrheal effect of some compounds [5].

Mechanism of action

Castor oil is a mix of triglycerides consisting of mainly ricinolein, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, dihydroxystearic acid, and traces of other fatty acids [5]. The main pharmacodynamic effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases [2]. It was believed that ricinoleic acid acts as an anionic surfactant that reduces net absorption of fluid and electrolytes, and stimulates intestinal peristalsis [5]. However, a recent study suggests that ricinoleic acid interacts with EP3 prostanoid receptors expressed on intestinal and uterine smooth muscles. Via activating EP3 prostanoid receptors on intestinal and uterine smooth muscle cells, ricinoleic acid promotes laxation and uterus contraction, respectively [2]. EP3 receptor act as the major prostanoid receptor in the intestine mediating propulsive effects on gut motility, and activation of EP3 receptors has been demonstrated to evoke contraction of uterine smooth muscle [2].

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtype
agonist
activator
Human
UProstaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype
agonist
Human
Absorption

After oral ingestion of castor oil, ricinoleic acid is released by lipases in the intestinal lumen and absorbed in the intestine [2]. Findings from the rat study suggest that the absorption of castor oil is inversely related to the administered dose, but the absorption is virtually complete at small doses (4g) [5].

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Metabolism

Castor oil is hydrolyzed to glycerol and ricinoleic acid via pancreatic or intestinal lipase activity [5]. Ricinoleic acid is metabolized systemically and the metabolites are excreted [5]. Fatty acids are expected to be degraded by pancreatic and intestinal lipase.

Route of elimination

Fecal recovery of radio-labelled castor oil ranged from 11.4% (for 10 g dose of castor oil) to 86.0% (for 44.4 g dose of castor oil) [5].

Half life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Toxicity

Castor oil is considered minimally toxic when administered orally to humans; the estimated lethal oral dose is 1-2 pints of undiluted oil [7]. Findings from a repeat-dose study in mouse report an oral LD50 value of >5000 mg/kg and NOAEL is approximately >2500 mg/kg/day in rat [6]. Digestive tract irritation following oral ingestion, skin contact sensitization, and contact dermatitis have been reported for castor oil [5, 7].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AgmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Agmatine.
Aluminum hydroxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Castor oil.
AmiodaroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Amiodarone.
AmlodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Amlodipine.
AranidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Aranidipine.
AtropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.
AzelnidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Azelnidipine.
BarnidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Barnidipine.
BencyclaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Bencyclane.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Patel VR, Dumancas GG, Kasi Viswanath LC, Maples R, Subong BJ: Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production. Lipid Insights. 2016 Sep 7;9:1-12. doi: 10.4137/LPI.S40233. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27656091]
  2. Tunaru S, Althoff TF, Nusing RM, Diener M, Offermanns S: Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):9179-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109. Epub 2012 May 21. [PubMed:22615395]
  3. Ogunniyi DS: Castor oil: a vital industrial raw material. Bioresour Technol. 2006 Jun;97(9):1086-91. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.028. [PubMed:15919203]
  4. Garry D, Figueroa R, Guillaume J, Cucco V: Use of castor oil in pregnancies at term. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Jan;6(1):77-9. [PubMed:10631825]
  5. Assessment report on Ricinus communis L., oleum - European Medical Agency [File]
  6. European Commission: Review of Annex IV of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH) [File]
  7. NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM: NTP Technical Report on the Toxicity Studies of Castor Oil in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dose Feed Studies) [File]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911121
Wikipedia
Castor_oil
ATC Codes
A06AB05 — Castor oil
MSDS
Download (39.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedNot AvailablePreterm Delivery1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPreterm Delivery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypergonadotropic Azospermia / Hypergonadotropic Cryptozoospermia / Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism / Klinefelter's Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentAqueous Deficient Dry Eye Disease / Evaporative Dry Eye Disease / Primary Sjogren's Syndrome / Secondary Sjogren's Syndrome1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LinimentTopical
LiquidOral
LiquidOral1 g/1mL
LiquidOral
LiquidOral100 %
LiquidOral98.25 ml
LiquidOral99.4 %
SoapTopical
OilOral1 g/1mL
SprayTopical
PatchTopical
OilOral100 mL/100mL
EmulsionOral36.4 %
GelTopical
LiquidOral1 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical
LiquidOral94.8 %
OilOral1 mL/1mL
CreamTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-10MSDS
boiling point (°C)300MSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
Activator
General Function
Rna polymerase ii transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2); the EP3 receptor may be involved in inhibition of gastric acid secretion, modulation of neurotransmitter release in central and peripheral neurons, inhibition ...
Gene Name
PTGER3
Uniprot ID
P43115
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtype
Molecular Weight
43309.335 Da
References
  1. Tunaru S, Althoff TF, Nusing RM, Diener M, Offermanns S: Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):9179-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109. Epub 2012 May 21. [PubMed:22615395]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. Has a relaxing effect on smooth muscle. May play an important role...
Gene Name
PTGER4
Uniprot ID
P35408
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype
Molecular Weight
53118.845 Da
References
  1. Tunaru S, Althoff TF, Nusing RM, Diener M, Offermanns S: Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):9179-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109. Epub 2012 May 21. [PubMed:22615395]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on August 02, 2018 06:21