Turpentine

Identification

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Name
Turpentine
Accession Number
DB11120
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Description

Turpentine, also known as spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, and wood turpentine, is a liquid extracted from live trees, mainly pine, through distillation of resin. It is used as a solvent and base material in organic synthesis reactions. Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.

Synonyms
  • Gum turpentine
  • Spirits of gum turpentine
  • Turpentine (gum)
  • Turpentine gum
External IDs
Fema no. 3088
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Turpentine oilC5H0QJ6V7F8006-64-2Not applicable
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Die Da Wan Hua Pain RelievingOil6 g/100mLTopicalGuangzhou Baiyunshan Jingxiutang Pharmaceutical Company2003-05-08Not applicableUs
Humco Turpentine Oil RectifiedLiquid1000 mg/1mLTopicalHumco Holding Group. Inc.1998-03-25Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ArtrexTurpentine (6 g/60g) + Camphor (3 g/60g) + Levomenthol (1.8 g/60g)CreamTopicalBIO-VED Pharmaceuticals2004-04-012014-10-02Us
ArtrexTurpentine (6 g/60g) + Camphor (3 g/60g) + Levomenthol (1.8 g/60g)CreamTopicalBioved Pharmaceuticals2004-04-01Not applicableUs
Canadian External AnalgesicTurpentine oil (45 g/100mL) + Camphor (4 g/100mL)LinimentTopicalNew GPC, Inc.2012-06-132014-10-20Us
CerumolTurpentine oil (10 %) + Chlorobutanol (5 %) + Dichlorobenzene (2 %) + Peanut oil (57 %)Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)Thornton & Ross Ltd1971-12-31Not applicableCanada
Chan Yat Hing She Kun Wool Lok Medicated OilTurpentine oil (18 g/100mL) + Levomenthol (39 g/100mL) + Methyl salicylate (5 g/100mL) + Synthetic camphor (9 g/100mL)OilTopicalChan Yat Hing Medicine Factory2011-12-01Not applicableUs
Double Prawn RumagonTurpentine (6.72 mL/28mL) + Methyl salicylate (16.8 mL/28mL)LinimentTopicalTai Tong Ah Co., Pte. Ltd.2001-08-05Not applicableUs
Liniment SokerTurpentine (10.08 ml) + Ammonia (.81 ml) + Camphor (56.875 mg)LiquidTopicalProduits Francais Labs Inc.1930-12-311997-05-30Canada
Red Flower OilTurpentine (30 g/100mL) + Methyl salicylate (28 g/100mL)OilTopicalMega Good Industrial Limited2018-04-15Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
XJ6RUH0O4G
CAS number
9005-90-7

Pharmacology

Indication

Turpentine has been used experimentally in a bath for the treatment of disseminated sclerosis and sexual dysfunction. It also has been studied for its antibacterial activity and inhibition of osteoclast activity. Turpentine is utilized in experimental models of inflammation to induce a systemic inflammatory immune response in animals.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Turpentine oil, when inhaled, may help reduce congestion. When used on the skin, turpentine oil may cause warmth and redness that can help relieve pain in the tissue underneath.

Mechanism of action

Binding of turpentine oil or inflammatory cytokines e.g. interleukin-1 (IL-1) activate signalling through the IL-1 Type 1 receptor (IL-1 R1). Initiation occurs by binding of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor adaptor protein (TIRAP) and Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (mD88) which then dissociates and interacts with IRAK (Interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase) and the tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This activates the MAPK pathway leading to transcription of the nuclear factor κB transcription factor and production of inflammatory mediators.

TargetActionsOrganism
UMitogen-activated protein kinase 1Not AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

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Absorption

Turpentine is readily absorbed from GI tract, skin, and respiratory tract.

Volume of distribution

Turpentine, as a lipophilic substance, accumulates in fatty tissues. The highest concentrations of turpentine following inhalation by rats were found in the spleen, kidneys, brain, and peripheral and perinephric fat.

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Elimination of absorbed turpentine in the urine is manifested by an odor resembling that of violets.

Half life

Eight male volunteers were exposed to 450 mg/cu m turpentine by inhalation (2 hr, 50 W) in an exposure chamber. The mean half lives of the last phase of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene (components of turpentine) averaged 32, 25, and 42 hours, respectively.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Human : TCLo ( Inhalation) 175ppm, Effects : lung, Thorax or Respiration Human: TCLo ( inhalation ) 6gm/m3/3h , Effects : Behavioral: Headache Infant: LDLo ( Oral ) 1748 mg/kg, Effect : GI, Nausea or vomiting Man: LDLo (Oral ) 3mg/kg Mouse LC50 ( inhalation ) 29mg/m3/2h Mouse: LD50 ( intravenous ) 1180ug/kg Rabbit: LDLo ( Skin) 5010mg/kg, Effect: general depressed activity

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Wikipedia [Link]
  2. Toxnet [Link]
  3. ChemIDplus [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911126
Wikipedia
Turpentine

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
OilTopical
OilTopical6 g/100mL
LinimentTopical
LiquidTopical1000 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Rna polymerase ii carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity
Specific Function
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK ca...
Gene Name
MAPK1
Uniprot ID
P28482
Uniprot Name
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Molecular Weight
41389.265 Da
References
  1. UniProt [Link]
  2. ChEMBL [Link]
  3. KEGG [Link]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on July 13, 2019 00:55