Sodium hydroxide

Identification

Name
Sodium hydroxide
Accession Number
DB11151
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Sodium hydroxide is also known as lye or soda , or caustic soda [6].

At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. It is a synthetically manufactured substance. When dissolved in water or neutralized with acid it releases substantial amounts of heat, which may prove sufficient to ignite combustible materials. Sodium hydroxide is highly corrosive [2].

Sodium hydroxide is generally used as a solid or a diluted in a 50% solution. This chemical is used to manufacture soaps, rayon, paper, explosives, dyestuffs, and petroleum products [2].

It is also used in processing cotton fabric, laundering and bleaching, metal cleaning and processing, oxide coating, electroplating, and electrolytic extracting. It is commonly found in commercial drain/ oven cleaners [2]. According to the the FDA, sodium hydroxide is considered a direct food recognized as safe, where it serves as a pH control agent and follows good manufacturing guidelines [3].

Interestingly, sodium hydroxide has been studied for its use in the treatment of prion disease (as occurs in mad cow disease and kuru). The use of this compound has been shown to effectively reduce prion levels in an in vitro inactivation assay [1].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • caustic soda
  • lye
  • soda lye
  • sodio hidróxido
  • sodium hydrate
  • white caustic
External IDs
E-524 / INS-524 / NSC-135799
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium cationionicLYR4M0NH3717341-25-2FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Vamin NSodium hydroxide (200 mg) + Calcium Chloride (36.8 mg) + Glutamic Acid (900 mg) + Glycine (210 mg) + Histidine (240 mg) + L-Alanine (300 mg) + L-Arginine (330 mg) + L-Aspartic Acid (410 mg) + L-Cysteine (140 mg) + L-Isoleucine (390 mg) + L-Leucine (530 mg) + L-Lysine (390 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (550 mg) + L-Proline (810 mg) + L-Threonine (300 mg) + L-Tryptophan (100 mg) + L-Tyrosine (50 mg) + L-Valine (425 mg) + Magnesium sulfate (37 mg) + Methionine (190 mg) + Potassium Chloride (37.5 mg) + Potassium hydroxide (97 mg) + Serine (750 mg)SolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi Ab1995-12-312006-07-17Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sodium HydroxideSodium hydroxide (.01 g/1g)LiquidTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-07-16Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
55X04QC32I
CAS number
1310-73-2
Weight
Average: 39.9971
Monoisotopic: 39.992509329
Chemical Formula
HNaO
InChI Key
HEMHJVSKTPXQMS-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/Na.H2O/h;1H2/q+1;/p-1
IUPAC Name
sodium hydroxide
SMILES
[OH-].[Na+]

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to destroy or kill the nail matrix (matrixectomies) [4].

Pharmacodynamics

Sodium Hydroxide 10% forms a strongly alkaline and caustic solution. As a caustic agent, it is used to destroy organic tissue by chemical action [4].

Mechanism of action

Because of its high-level alkalinity, sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution directly causes bond breakage in proteins (especially disulfide bridges). Hair and fingernails are found to be dissolved after 20 hours of direct contact with sodium hydroxide at pH values higher than 9.2 [8].

Sodium hydroxide has depilatory effects which have been described after accidental contact with solutions in the workplace. The breakage of bonds in proteins may lead to severe necrosis to the application site. The level of corrosion depends on the period of contact with the tissue, and on the concentration of sodium hydroxide [8].

Absorption

There are no quantitative data for the absorption of sodium hydroxide through the skin. Solutions which contain 50 % sodium hydroxide have been shown to be corrosive and lethal when applied dermally to mice [9].

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Human poisoning cases indicate that a dose of 10 grams orally is fatal [5]. Sodium hydroxide is toxic by oral ingestion [2].

Sodium hydroxide is corrosive to all tissues. Concentrated vapors lead to serious damage to the eyes and respiratory system. Oral ingestion of sodium hydroxide, which occurs frequently in children, causes severe tissue necrosis, with stricture formation of the esophagus, often resulting in death. Contact with the skin may result in contact dermatitis, hair loss, as well as necrosis due to severe irritation [7].

Increased incidence of esophageal carcinoma after severe intoxication with sodium hydroxide has been reported in man. In animal studies, long-term dermal contact with substances leading to pH changes in the skin causes the development of tumors, as a result of severe tissue irritation and reparative cell growth [9].

Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. May cause damage to the following organs: mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes [MSDS]. Tumors are not to be expected if the effects of irritation are prevented [9].

To date, there are no relevant studies of the prenatal toxic effects of sodium hydroxide [9].

Affected organisms
  • Humans
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Bauman PA, Lawrence LA, Biesert L, Dichtelmuller H, Fabbrizzi F, Gajardo R, Groner A, Jorquera JI, Kempf C, Kreil TR, von Hoegen I, Pifat DY, Petteway SR Jr, Cai K: Critical factors influencing prion inactivation by sodium hydroxide. Vox Sang. 2006 Jul;91(1):34-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1423-0410.2006.00790.x. [PubMed:16756599]
  2. Sodium Hydroxide, PubChem [Link]
  3. FDA document, Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  4. Sodium Hydroxide Solution [Link]
  5. EPA, Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  6. Chemical Safety Facts, Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  7. SODIUM HYDROXIDE [Link]
  8. Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  9. Chlorine and sodium hydroxide [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C12569
PubChem Compound
14798
PubChem Substance
347827921
ChemSpider
14114
ChEBI
32145
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2105794
Wikipedia
Sodium_hydroxide
MSDS
Download (50.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentPsoriasis / Sleep Apnea, Obstructive1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical.01 g/1g
SolutionIntravenous
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)323MSDS
boiling point (°C)1388MSDS
water solubilityeasily soluble in cold water, hot waterMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkali metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Alkali metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Alkali metal hydroxides
Direct Parent
Alkali metal hydroxides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic sodium salts / Inorganic oxides / Inorganic hydrides
Substituents
Alkali metal hydroxide / Inorganic sodium salt / Inorganic hydride / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
alkali metal hydroxide (CHEBI:32145)

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on November 03, 2018 15:39