Tea tree oil

Identification

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Name
Tea tree oil
Accession Number
DB11218
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Tea tree oil is an essential oil derived mainly from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia via steam distillation of the of the leaves and terminal branches 2. It may be referred to as Melaleuca alternifolia oil. It has been a popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products due to its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant properties 1. The dermatological use of tea tree oil has been investigated by various studies, where several studies have suggested the uses of this oil for the treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis, and chronic gingivitis 1. Terpene hydrocarbons and related alcohols constitute tea tree oil, with Terpinen-4-ol being the major antimicrobial component 2.

Synonyms
  • melaleuca oil
  • ti tree oil
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alkmene Anti Spot padLiquid48 g/100gTopicalMann & Schroeder GmbH2017-01-16Not applicableUs
Burnaid Burn GelGel10 mg/1gTopicalClear Healthcare Llc2013-11-04Not applicableUs
Mela-gel 23%Gel23 %TopicalMelaleuca, Inc.1994-12-312001-09-24Canada
Suyan JeongdanSoap0.5 g/100gTopicalCellinbio Co Ltd2011-12-12Not applicableUs
T36-C7 - Liq 100%Liquid100 %TopicalMelaleuca, Inc.1995-12-312001-04-02Canada
T40-C5 - Liq 100%Liquid100 %TopicalMelaleuca, Inc.1995-12-312001-09-01Canada
Tea Tree AntisepticOintment50 mg/1gTopicalIntegria Healthcare Us Inc.2013-08-27Not applicableUs
Tea Tree AntisepticOintment2.5 g/50gTopicalIntegria Healthcare Us Inc.2011-02-01Not applicableUs
Tea Tree AntisepticOil15 mL/15mLTopicalIntegria Healthcare Us Inc.2011-02-01Not applicableUs
Tea Tree Antiseptic CreamCream5 g/100gTopicalIntegria Healthcare (Australia) Pty. Ltd.2016-06-18Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Eczema TherapyTea tree oil (0.2 g/100g) + Aloe Vera Leaf (0.12 g/100g) + Chamomile (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalGolden B America, Llc.2018-03-13Not applicableUs
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUs
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2013-07-01Not applicableUs
Golf Pain Away GPATea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Muscle and Joint Heat CreamTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1g) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1g) + Methyl salicylate (50 mg/1g)CreamTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUs
Out Back Pain ReliefTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUs
Out Back Pain ReliefTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2012-10-01Not applicableUs
Skin CareTea tree oil (0.7 g/100g) + Aloe Vera Leaf (0.7 g/100g) + Chamomile (0.9 g/100g) + Jojoba oil (0.9 g/100g)SoapTopicalGolden B America, Llc.2018-03-13Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alkmene Anti Spot padTea tree oil (48 g/100g)LiquidTopicalMann & Schroeder GmbH2017-01-16Not applicableUs
Burnaid Burn GelTea tree oil (10 mg/1g)GelTopicalClear Healthcare Llc2013-11-04Not applicableUs
Eczema TherapyTea tree oil (0.2 g/100g) + Aloe Vera Leaf (0.12 g/100g) + Chamomile (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalGolden B America, Llc.2018-03-13Not applicableUs
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2013-07-01Not applicableUs
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUs
Golf Pain Away GPATea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Muscle and Joint Heat CreamTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1g) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1g) + Methyl salicylate (50 mg/1g)CreamTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUs
Original Pain Relief CreamTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1g) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1g)CreamTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUs
Out Back Pain ReliefTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUs
Out Back Pain ReliefTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2012-10-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
VIF565UC2G
CAS number
Not Available
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for topical use to help protect against infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns. No FDA-approved therapeutic indications.

Pharmacodynamics

Tea tree oil exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal activities 2. It mostly mediates bactericidal actions at concentrations of 1.0% or less in most bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and causes bacteriostatic effects at lower concentrations 2. Organisms such as commensal skin staphylococci and micrococci, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosaemphasized text were susceptible to tea tree oil concentrations of 2% 2. It is proposed that water-soluble components of tea tree oil are capable in inducing anti-inflammatory actions; terpinen-4-ol attenuates the vasodilation and plasma extravasation associated with histamine-induced inflammation in humans 1.

Mechanism of action

The components of tea tree oil, particularly terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, mediate antimicrobial actions by disrupting the structural and functional integrity of bacterial membrane. Hydrocarbons are capable of partitioning into the cell and cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms and disrupt their vital functions, which may result in leakage of ions such as potassium, and the inhibition of respiration 2. Eventually, cell lysis may occur due to weakening of the cell wall, and loss of turgor pressure and subsequent rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane 3. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material may be indicative of a damaged cytoplasmic membrane and loss of nucleic acids 3. In E. coli, perturbed potassium homeostasis, glucose-dependent respiration, cell morphology, and ability to exclude propidium iodide was observed.

Tea tree oil also mediates its antifungal actions in a similar way, where it alters the permeability of Candida albicans and inhibits its respiration in a dose-dependent manner 2. Plasma and mitochondrial membranes of fungal species are also thought to be negatively affected by inhibition of glucose-induced medium acidification by tea tree oil, which involves inhibition of membrane ATPase responsible for the expulsion of protons 2. Tea tree oil also inhibits the formation of germ tubes, or mycelial conversion, in C. albicans, thereby disrupting cell morphogenesis 2. Water-soluble fraction of TTO, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, can inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 by human peripheral monocytes by approximately 50% and that of prostaglandin E2 by about 30% after 40 h 2. These components of tea tree oil may also suppress superoxide production by agonist-stimulated monocytes and decrease the production of reactive oxygen species by both stimulated neutrophils and monocytes 2.

Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

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Absorption

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Metabolism

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Route of elimination

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Half life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Toxicity

The 50% lethal dose for TTO in a rat model is 1.9 to 2.6 mL/kg, and doses ≤1.5 g/kg was associated with ataxia and lethargy. Dermal patches containing 10% of tea tree oil was not associated with any irritant reactions. Topically-applied tea tree oil rarely causes systemic toxicity 2. Dermal application of approximately 120 ml of undiluted tea tree oil to three cats with shaved but intact skin resulted in symptoms of hypothermia, uncoordination, dehydration, and trembling and in the death of one of the cats 2.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Pazyar N, Yaghoobi R, Bagherani N, Kazerouni A: A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology. Int J Dermatol. 2013 Jul;52(7):784-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05654.x. Epub 2012 Sep 24. [PubMed:22998411]
  2. Carson CF, Hammer KA, Riley TV: Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan;19(1):50-62. doi: 10.1128/CMR.19.1.50-62.2006. [PubMed:16418522]
  3. Carson CF, Mee BJ, Riley TV: Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Jun;46(6):1914-20. [PubMed:12019108]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911156
Wikipedia
Tea_tree_oil
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSkin Care1
2CompletedTreatmentBacterial blepharitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SwabTopical25 %
LiquidTopical48 g/100g
GelTopical10 mg/1g
GelTopical23 %
CreamTopical
OilTopical
SoapTopical
SoapTopical0.5 g/100g
LiquidTopical100 %
OilTopical15 mL/15mL
OintmentTopical2.5 g/50g
OintmentTopical50 mg/1g
LiquidTopical4 %
CreamTopical5 g/100g
OilTopical25 mL/25mL
OilTopical50 mL/50mL
OintmentTopical3 g/50g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitySparingly solubleCarson CF, Mee BJ, Riley TV. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2002;46(6):1914-1920. doi:10.1128/AAC.46.6.1914-1920.2002.
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on July 16, 2019 06:23