This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.

Identification

Name
Phosphocreatine
Accession Number
DB13191
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Nutraceutical
Description

Phosphocreatine - or creatine phosphate - is the phosphorylated form of creatine. It is primarily found endogenously in the skeletal muscles of vertebrates where it serves a critical role as a rapidly acting energy buffer for muscle cell actions like contractions via its ability to regenerate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Creatine phosphate
  • Creatine phosphic acid
  • Creatine-P
  • Fosfocreatine
  • N-(N-phosphonoamido)sarcosine
  • N-(Phosphonoamidino)sarcosine
  • N-phosphocreatine
  • N-Phosphorylcreatine
  • phosphorylcreatine
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Phosphocreatine sodium79577SJY6E922-32-7RNTXMYSPASRLFT-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Categories
UNII
020IUV4N33
CAS number
67-07-2
Weight
Average: 211.1131
Monoisotopic: 211.035806957
Chemical Formula
C4H10N3O5P
InChI Key
DRBBFCLWYRJSJZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H10N3O5P/c1-7(2-3(8)9)4(5)6-13(10,11)12/h2H2,1H3,(H,8,9)(H4,5,6,10,11,12)
IUPAC Name
2-(3-methyl-1-phosphonocarbamimidamido)acetic acid
SMILES
CN(CC(O)=O)C(=N)NP(O)(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Phosphocreatine is a naturally occuring substance that is found predominantly in the skeletal muscles of vertebrates. Its primary utility within the body is to serve in the maintanence and recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscular activity like contractions.

Given this utility of phosphocreatine to recycle ATP, the most plausible therapeutic potentials for its use involve conditions caused by energy shortage or by increased energy requirements - such as in ischemic stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. It is important to note however that relatively little clinical research has been done to significantly further the evidence for any such indications, although it is administered intravenously for cardiovascular conditions in some countries.

Additionally, because phosphocreatine is not regulated as a controlled substance it is taken as a supplement by some professional athletes as a means to perhaps increase short bursts of muscle strength or energy for professional athletics.

Pharmacodynamics

Creatine is a naturally occurring chemical within the body and is primarily stored in skeletal muscle in both free and phosphorylated forms. Phosphocreatine is the name given to the phosphorylated form of creatine. Additionally, phosphocreatine can also be found in other areas of the body like the kidneys, liver, and brain. In fact, most in vivo synthesis of creatine occurs in the liver where amidine groups from arginine are transfered to glycine with the help of the glycine transaminidase enzyme to form guanidinoacetic acid. This acid is then methylated with the methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine via guanidinoacetate methyltransferase to generate creatine. The synthesized creatine is transported to storage sites in skeletal muscle via the bloodstream.

The phosphorylation of creatine is reversible in both a forwards and backwards reaction. That is, while phosphocreatine is capable of anaerobically donating a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to regenerate ATP, at the same time excess ATP can be dephosphorylated during periods of low muscle activity to convert creatine to phosphocreatine. This dual activity in synthesizing phosphocreatine from excess levels of ATP during rest and use of phosphocreatine to regenerate ATP during high activity demonstrates the crucial utility of phosphocreatine in acting as an energy buffer in body mucle cells.

Phosphocreatine's fast regeneration of ATP is considered a coupled reaction - in essence, the energy released from transferring a donating a phosphate group from phosphocreatine is used to regenerate ATP. Phosphocreatine consequently plays an essential role in body tissues that have high, fluctuating energy requirments like muscle and brain tissues.

Mechanism of action

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the primary source of chemical energy that body muscles use to perform contractions. During such contraction processes, ATP molecules are depleted as they undergo hydrolysis reactions and become adenosine diphosphate (ADP). To maintain homeostasis in muscle activity, the ATP supply of muscles must be regenerated regularly.

Phosphocreatine occurs naturally within the body and is capable of regenerating ATP by transferring a high-energy phosphate from itself to ADP, resulting in the formation of ATP and creatine. This kind of regeneration of ATP with phosphocreatine typically occurs within seconds of intense muscular or neuronal effort, acting as a quickly accessible reserve of high-energy phosphates for the recycling of ATP in body muscle tissues. ATP recycling from phosphocreatine is in fact known as the quickest form of ATP regeneration.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGuanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase
product of
Human
ASodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
ACreatine kinase M-type
ligand
Human
ACreatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial
ligand
Human
ACreatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial
ligand
Human
ACreatine kinase B-type
ligand
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Phosphocreatine is eliminated renally.

The end result of creatine degredation is the product creatinine, which enters the bloodstream from its storage sites in body muscle. When creatinine enters the renal parenchyma it is filtered in the renal glomerulus to be excreted in the urine.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir DipivoxilAdefovir Dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
AlmotriptanAlmotriptan may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
AlprazolamAlprazolam may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
AmantadineAmantadine may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
AmilorideAmiloride may increase the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AmitriptylinePhosphocreatine may decrease the excretion rate of Amitriptyline which could result in a higher serum level.
AmlodipineAmlodipine may decrease the excretion rate of Phosphocreatine which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Balestrino M, Sarocchi M, Adriano E, Spallarossa P: Potential of creatine or phosphocreatine supplementation in cerebrovascular disease and in ischemic heart disease. Amino Acids. 2016 Aug;48(8):1955-67. doi: 10.1007/s00726-016-2173-8. Epub 2016 Jan 21. [PubMed:26795537]
  2. Strumia E, Pelliccia F, D'Ambrosio G: Creatine phosphate: pharmacological and clinical perspectives. Adv Ther. 2012 Feb;29(2):99-123. doi: 10.1007/s12325-011-0091-4. [PubMed:22297802]
  3. Guimaraes-Ferreira L: Role of the phosphocreatine system on energetic homeostasis in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2014 Jan-Mar;12(1):126-31. [PubMed:24728259]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001511
KEGG Compound
C02305
PubChem Compound
9548602
PubChem Substance
347829286
ChemSpider
567
ChEBI
17287
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1204644
Wikipedia
Phosphocreatine
ATC Codes
C01EB06 — Fosfocreatine

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)194-195 °Cwww,chemspider.com
boiling point (°C)449.1±47.0 °C at 760 mmHgwww.chemspider.com
water solubility3.52 mg/mLALOGPS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.52 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2ALOGPS
logP-2.3ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area133.95 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity53.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3690000000-d78c9794110f04d1d633
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-da3c0dcb3f5eaa623db1
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-0b9440fbeacd93f8e2c6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0910000000-fcb05b7d59cf907f4d6b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-1900000000-1901e001fedfc2ec7b4b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000b-2900000000-12f13784032f6e791b0b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02a9-6900000000-946c0f3e6d7108360bdf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00lr-9300000000-722ca5d041fac0c0f953
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-0900000000-6b9000773d9aa9ba1496
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-02aa21f28669c4667876
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9200000000-1372c766f644a9c6d8fd
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0910000000-fcb05b7d59cf907f4d6b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-1900000000-1e02029e1cea569106e3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000b-2900000000-b5cede82b0440338b1ea
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02a9-6900000000-946c0f3e6d7108360bdf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00lr-9300000000-d6c9bf7b75ad1b890b8e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-0900000000-90e746baee0981214042
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-6930000000-d778a54d1b16d7bf961a
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-6940000000-fce4c19798ec230e0704
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Organic phosphoric acids and derivatives / Guanidines / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Organic phosphoric acid derivative / Guanidine / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phosphagen, phosphoamino acid (CHEBI:17287)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Product of
General Function
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GAMT
Uniprot ID
Q14353
Uniprot Name
Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
26317.925 Da
References
  1. Guimaraes-Ferreira L: Role of the phosphocreatine system on energetic homeostasis in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2014 Jan-Mar;12(1):126-31. [PubMed:24728259]
  2. Almeida LS, Vilarinho L, Darmin PS, Rosenberg EH, Martinez-Munoz C, Jakobs C, Salomons GS: A prevalent pathogenic GAMT mutation (c.59G>C) in Portugal. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 May;91(1):1-6. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [PubMed:17336114]
  3. Kan HE, Meeuwissen E, van Asten JJ, Veltien A, Isbrandt D, Heerschap A: Creatine uptake in brain and skeletal muscle of mice lacking guanidinoacetate methyltransferase assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Jun;102(6):2121-7. Epub 2007 Mar 8. [PubMed:17347380]
  4. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Required for the uptake of creatine in muscles and brain.
Gene Name
SLC6A8
Uniprot ID
P48029
Uniprot Name
Sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1
Molecular Weight
70522.17 Da
References
  1. Rosenberg EH, Munoz CM, Degrauw TJ, Jakobs Cn, Salomons GS: Overexpression of wild-type creatine transporter (SLC6A8) restores creatine uptake in primary SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Apr-Jun;29(2-3):345-6. [PubMed:16763899]
  2. Lunardi G, Parodi A, Perasso L, Pohvozcheva AV, Scarrone S, Adriano E, Florio T, Gandolfo C, Cupello A, Burov SV, Balestrino M: The creatine transporter mediates the uptake of creatine by brain tissue, but not the uptake of two creatine-derived compounds. Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 3;142(4):991-7. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:16949212]
  3. Derave W, Straumann N, Olek RA, Hespel P: Electrolysis stimulates creatine transport and transporter cell surface expression in incubated mouse skeletal muscle: potential role of ROS. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;291(6):E1250-7. Epub 2006 Jul 18. [PubMed:16849631]
  4. Campistol J, Arias-Dimas A, Poo P, Pineda M, Hoffman M, Vilaseca MA, Artuch R, Ribes A: [Cerebral creatine transporter deficiency: an infradiagnosed neurometabolic disease]. Rev Neurol. 2007 Mar 16-31;44(6):343-7. [PubMed:17385170]
  5. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKM
Uniprot ID
P06732
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase M-type
Molecular Weight
43100.91 Da
References
  1. Zeng L, Hu Q, Wang X, Mansoor A, Lee J, Feygin J, Zhang G, Suntharalingam P, Boozer S, Mhashilkar A, Panetta CJ, Swingen C, Deans R, From AH, Bache RJ, Verfaillie CM, Zhang J: Bioenergetic and functional consequences of bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cell transplantation in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Circulation. 2007 Apr 10;115(14):1866-75. Epub 2007 Mar 26. [PubMed:17389266]
  2. Zhou DQ, Hu Y, Liu G, Gong L, Xi Y, Wen L: Muscle-specific creatine kinase gene polymorphism and running economy responses to an 18-week 5000-m training programme. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Dec;40(12):988-91. Epub 2006 Sep 25. [PubMed:17000714]
  3. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKMT1A
Uniprot ID
P12532
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
47036.3 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Slenzka K, Appel R, Kappel Th, Rahmann H: Influence of altered gravity on brain cellular energy and plasma membrane metabolism of developing lower aquatic vertebrates. Adv Space Res. 1996;17(6-7):125-8. [PubMed:11538605]
  4. Wyss M, Schlegel J, James P, Eppenberger HM, Wallimann T: Mitochondrial creatine kinase from chicken brain. Purification, biophysical characterization, and generation of heterodimeric and heterooctameric molecules with subunits of other creatine kinase isoenzymes. J Biol Chem. 1990 Sep 15;265(26):15900-8. [PubMed:2394753]
  5. Muhlebach SM, Wirz T, Brandle U, Perriard JC: Evolution of the creative kinases. The chicken acidic type mitochondrial creatine kinase gene as the first nonmammalian gene. J Biol Chem. 1996 May 17;271(20):11920-9. [PubMed:8662608]
  6. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKMT2
Uniprot ID
P17540
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
47504.08 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Koufen P, Ruck A, Brdiczka D, Wendt S, Wallimann T, Stark G: Free radical-induced inactivation of creatine kinase: influence on the octameric and dimeric states of the mitochondrial enzyme (Mib-CK). Biochem J. 1999 Dec 1;344 Pt 2:413-7. [PubMed:10567223]
  4. Wyss M, James P, Schlegel J, Wallimann T: Limited proteolysis of creatine kinase. Implications for three-dimensional structure and for conformational substrates. Biochemistry. 1993 Oct 12;32(40):10727-35. [PubMed:8399219]
  5. Stachowiak O, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Richter C: Mitochondrial creatine kinase is a prime target of peroxynitrite-induced modification and inactivation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16694-9. [PubMed:9642223]
  6. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKB
Uniprot ID
P12277
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase B-type
Molecular Weight
42643.95 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Koufen P, Ruck A, Brdiczka D, Wendt S, Wallimann T, Stark G: Free radical-induced inactivation of creatine kinase: influence on the octameric and dimeric states of the mitochondrial enzyme (Mib-CK). Biochem J. 1999 Dec 1;344 Pt 2:413-7. [PubMed:10567223]
  4. Wyss M, James P, Schlegel J, Wallimann T: Limited proteolysis of creatine kinase. Implications for three-dimensional structure and for conformational substrates. Biochemistry. 1993 Oct 12;32(40):10727-35. [PubMed:8399219]
  5. Stachowiak O, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Richter C: Mitochondrial creatine kinase is a prime target of peroxynitrite-induced modification and inactivation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16694-9. [PubMed:9642223]
  6. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]

Drug created on June 22, 2017 09:18 / Updated on October 01, 2018 16:53