Identification

Name
Potassium gluconate
Accession Number
DB13620
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Potassium gluconate is a salt of Potassium cation and is classified as a food additive by the FDA [7]. It is also used as a potassium supplement [10].

Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function [1].

In dietary supplements, potassium is often present as potassium chloride, but many other forms—including potassium citrate, phosphate, aspartate, bicarbonate, and gluconate—are also used [5]. Potassium gluconate is believed to be more palatable and non-acidifying than potassium chloride (KCl) [11].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • potassium D-gluconate
External IDs
E-577 / INS NO.577 / INS-577
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
KaonElixir4.68 gOralPfizer1995-12-312006-08-02Canada
Potassium Tab 8.3mgTablet50 mgOralBio Vita1987-12-311996-09-09Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Flexadyn TabPotassium gluconate (50 mg) + Copper gluconate (.1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Magnesium carbonate (100 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg) + Vitamin A (1000 unit)TabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1976-12-311996-09-09Canada
Potassium Plus Vit B ComplexPotassium gluconate (450 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (2 mg) + Potassium Iodide (100 mcg) + Riboflavin (1.2 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (1 mg)TabletOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada
Potassium W Folic Acid TabPotassium gluconate (650 mg) + Folic Acid (400 mcg)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1978-12-312008-07-07Canada
International/Other Brands
Gluconsan-K
Categories
UNII
12H3K5QKN9
CAS number
299-27-4
Weight
Average: 234.245
Monoisotopic: 234.01418418
Chemical Formula
C6H11KO7
InChI Key
HLCFGWHYROZGBI-JJKGCWMISA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H12O7.K/c7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13;/h2-5,7-11H,1H2,(H,12,13);/q;+1/p-1/t2-,3-,4+,5-;/m1./s1
IUPAC Name
potassium (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate
SMILES
[K+].[H][C@@](O)(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(O)C([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Because of potassium’s wide-ranging roles in the body, low intakes can increase the risk of illness [8].

Potassium supplements are indicated to prevent hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop (e.g., digitalis treated patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias). Potassium deficiency occurs when the rate of loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract is higher than the rate of potassium intake. In addition to serving as a preventative supplement, potassium gluconate also serves as a treatment for decreased potassium levels [8], [4], [10].

Pharmacodynamics

Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid, where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function, especially in excitable cells such as skeletal muscles, the heart, and nerves [3]. Increases in interstitial potassium play an important role in eliciting rapid vasodilation, allowing for blood flow to increase in exercising muscle [13].

Mechanism of action

Potassium is the most abundant cation (approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter) within human cells. Intracellular sodium content is relatively low. In the extracellular fluid, sodium predominates and the potassium content is low (3.5 to 5 mEq per liter). A membrane-bound enzyme, sodium-potassium–activated adenosinetriphosphatase (Na +K +ATPase), actively transports or pumps sodium out and potassium into cells to maintain the concentration gradients. The intracellular to extracellular potassium gradients are necessary for nerve impulse signaling in such specialized tissues as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle, and for the maintenance of physiologic renal function and maintenance of acid-base balance. High intracellular potassium concentrations are necessary for numerous cellular metabolic processes [8].

Intracellular K+ serves as a reservoir to limit the fall in extracellular potassium concentrations occurring under pathologic conditions with loss of potassium from the body [13].

Absorption

Potassium is rapidly and well absorbed. A 2016 dose-response trial found that humans absorb about 94% of potassium gluconate in supplements, and this absorption rate is similar to that of potassium from potatoes [2].

Volume of distribution

Distribution is largely intracellular, but it is the intravascular concentration that is primarily responsible for toxicity [6].

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

90% of potassium is eliminated via the kidneys. A small amount is eliminated in feces and sweat [6].

Half life
Not Available
Clearance

Potassium is freely filtered by the glomerulus in the kidney. The majority of filtered potassium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and loop of Henle. Less than 10% of the filtered load reaches the distal nephron. In the proximal tubule of the nephron, potassium absorption is mainly passive and proportional to Na+ and water. K+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle occurs through both transcellular and paracellular pathways. The transcellular component is regulated by potassium transport on the apical membrane Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter. The secretion of potassium begins in the early distal convoluted tubule of the nephron and progressively increases along the distal nephron into the cortical collecting duct. Most urinary K+ can be accounted for by electrogenic K+ secretion mediated by principal cells in the initial collecting duct and the cortical collecting duct. An electroneutral K+ and Cl− cotransport mechanism is also present on the apical surface of the distal nephron. Under conditions of potassium deficiency, reabsorption of the cation occurs in the collecting duct. This process is regulated by the upregulation in the apically located H+-K+-ATPase on α-intercalated cells [13].

Toxicity

Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 9100 mg/kg in the mouse [MSDS]

Toxicity from overdose is rare but may result from intentional ingestion of potassium. Iatrogenic overdoses may occur [6].

Local irritation after ingestion causes GI upset. Severe hyperkalemia after large IV or oral overdoses causes muscular dysfunction including weakness, paralysis, cardiac dysrhythmias, and rarely death [6].

Mild to moderate toxicity

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, paresthesias, and muscle cramps are common. Rarely, gastrointestinal bleed may occur.

Severe toxicity

In severe toxicity, muscular weakness progressing to paralysis may occur. Cardiac arrhythmia often occur at concentrations greater than 8 mEq/L and death from cardiac arrest at concentrations of 9 to 12 mEq/L or higher. Characteristic ECG findings occur in the following order: peaked T waves, QRS complex blends into the T wave, PR interval prolongation, P wave is lost and ST segments depress, merging S and T waves, and finally, sine waves. The presence of the sine wave is a near terminal event, signaling that hemodynamic collapse and cardiac arrest are near. As serum hyperkalemia is corrected towards normal concentrations, the ECG changes resolve in reverse order [6].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AcebutololPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acemetacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AgmatinePotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Agmatine.
AlclofenacPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alclofenac.
AliskirenPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aliskiren.
AlminoprofenPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alminoprofen.
AlprenololPotassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alprenolol.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Potassium gluconate is combined with Amiloride.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Stone MS, Martyn L, Weaver CM: Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22;8(7). pii: nu8070444. doi: 10.3390/nu8070444. [PubMed:27455317]
  2. Macdonald-Clarke CJ, Martin BR, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Lachcik PJ, Wastney M, Weaver CM: Bioavailability of potassium from potatoes and potassium gluconate: a randomized dose response trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug;104(2):346-53. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.127225. Epub 2016 Jul 13. [PubMed:27413123]
  3. Potassium Gluconate, PubChem [Link]
  4. POTASSIPOWDER- potassium gluconate powder [Link]
  5. NIH Potassium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Link]
  6. NIH Toxnet, Potassium [Link]
  7. Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS) Print Share E-mail [Link]
  8. Potassium Supplements (Systemic) [Link]
  9. POTASSIUM GLUCONATE [Link]
  10. DRUG: Potassium gluconate [Link]
  11. Overview: Potassium Gluconate [Link]
  12. Potassium Supplement, Oral Route, Mayo Clinic [Link]
  13. Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis [Link]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D01298
PubChem Compound
16760467
PubChem Substance
347829307
ChemSpider
8931
ChEBI
32032
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2106978
Wikipedia
Potassium_gluconate
ATC Codes
A12BA05 — Potassium gluconate
MSDS
Download (47.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
ElixirOral4.68 g
TabletOral50 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)180MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility833.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS0.55ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area141.28 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity49.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
Sugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Medium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives / Medium-chain fatty acids / Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Hydroxy fatty acids / Monosaccharides / Secondary alcohols / Carboxylic acid salts / Polyols / Carboxylic acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives
show 6 more
Substituents
Gluconic_acid / Medium-chain hydroxy acid / Medium-chain fatty acid / Beta-hydroxy acid / Hydroxy fatty acid / Hydroxy acid / Fatty acyl / Fatty acid / Monosaccharide / Carboxylic acid salt
show 15 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name
FXYD2
Uniprot ID
P54710
Uniprot Name
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma
Molecular Weight
7283.265 Da
References
  1. Welling PA: Rare mutations in renal sodium and potassium transporter genes exhibit impaired transport function. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2014 Jan;23(1):1-8. doi: 10.1097/01.mnh.0000437204.84826.99. [PubMed:24253496]
  2. Potassium Supplements (Systemic) [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates th...
Gene Name
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID
P05023
Uniprot Name
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Welling PA: Rare mutations in renal sodium and potassium transporter genes exhibit impaired transport function. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2014 Jan;23(1):1-8. doi: 10.1097/01.mnh.0000437204.84826.99. [PubMed:24253496]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID
Q13621
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 1
Molecular Weight
121449.13 Da
References
  1. Welling PA: Rare mutations in renal sodium and potassium transporter genes exhibit impaired transport function. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2014 Jan;23(1):1-8. doi: 10.1097/01.mnh.0000437204.84826.99. [PubMed:24253496]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. Responsible for acid production in the stomach.

Components:
References
  1. Gumz ML, Lynch IJ, Greenlee MM, Cain BD, Wingo CS: The renal H+-K+-ATPases: physiology, regulation, and structure. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010 Jan;298(1):F12-21. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.90723.2008. Epub 2009 Jul 29. [PubMed:19640897]

Drug created on June 23, 2017 14:45 / Updated on November 02, 2018 07:43