Strontium chloride

Identification

Name
Strontium chloride
Accession Number
DB13987
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Strontium chloride (SrCl2) is a salt of strontium and chloride. SrCl2 is useful in reducing tooth sensitivity by forming a barrier over microscopic tubules in the dentin containing nerve endings that have become exposed by gum recession [1, 2]. This kind of barrier protection for tooth hypersensitivity has, however, been superseded by other toothpaste formulations and ingredients designed to be nerve calming agents instead [1, 2]. Such strontium chloride toothpaste formulations may subsequently not be available for sale anymore in certain parts of the world [1, 2].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • strontium dichloride
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Strontium chloride hexahydrateO09USB7Z4410025-70-4AMGRXJSJSONEEG-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Lorvic DesensitizerStrontium chloride (3.96 %) + Sodium fluoride (0.42 %)GelDentalLorvic Corp1969-12-312001-08-06Canada
Categories
UNII
EKE8PS9J6Z
CAS number
10476-85-4
Weight
Average: 158.52
Monoisotopic: 157.843318
Chemical Formula
Cl2Sr
InChI Key
AHBGXTDRMVNFER-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/2ClH.Sr/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2
IUPAC Name
strontium(2+) dichloride
SMILES
[Cl-].[Cl-].[Sr++]

Pharmacology

Indication

When employed as an ingredient in toothpaste formulations, strontium chloride is predominantly indicated for treating teeth hypersensitivity [1, 2, 3, 7].

Pharmacodynamics

As an active ingredient in a toothpaste formulation, strontium chloride and the rest of the toothpaste product that it is incorporated into is designed to come into contact with and topically coat the teeth [1, 2, 3] that are being brushed and is not supposed to be swallowed. The regular use of the toothpaste maintains protection that strontium chloride provides against tooth sensitivity despite the normal everyday wear, tear, and cleaning of teeth.

Mechanism of action

For dental hypersensitivity, strontium ions in strontium chloride toothpaste formulations appear to relieve pain and sensitivity by blocking fluid flow in dentinal tubules, which are essentially microscopic canals in the dentin [1, 2, 3]. Regular use of such toothpastes maintains the strontium chloride barricading of the tubules despite normal everyday wear, tear, and washing of teeth.

Absorption

About 30 percent of ingested strontium is absorbed into the blood through the gut [5]. The amount of strontium absorbed tends to decrease with age and is higher (about 60 percent) in children in their first year of life [5]. Once it is absorbed into the blood, most of it ends up in bone; with the remainder going to soft tissues or being excreted in urine, feces, and sweat [5]. About 8 percent of ingested strontium remains in the body after 30 days, and this decreases to about 4 percent after 1 year [5].

Volume of distribution

The distribution of absorbed strontium in the human body is similar to that of calcium, with about 99% of total amount in the body being distributed in the skeleton [7].

Protein binding

A protein binding of 30-40% has been documented for strontium chloride [6].

Metabolism

Strontium can bind to proteins and, based on its similarity to calcium, probably forms complexes with various inorganic anions, such as carbonate and phosphate, and carboxylic acids, such as citrate and lactate [7]. Strontium can also interact with ligands that normally bind calcium, like hypoxyapatite, the main component of mineralized bone, and a variety of calcium-binding and calcium transport proteins that are important in the physiological disposition of calcium in cells, including Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatases, Na+Ca+ antiport], and Ca2+ channels [7].

Route of elimination

Once strontium is absorbed into the blood, most of it ends up in bone; with the remainder going to soft tissues or being excreted in urine, feces, and sweat [5].

Half life

Readily accessible information about the half-life of strontium calcium used in toothpastes is not available.

Clearance

Despite being the major route of excretion of absorbed strontium, urinary excretion of absorbed strontium is observed to be slow [7].

Toxicity

Overdosage with strontium chloride toothpaste formulations has not been reported.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Karim BF, Gillam DG: The efficacy of strontium and potassium toothpastes in treating dentine hypersensitivity: a systematic review. Int J Dent. 2013;2013:573258. doi: 10.1155/2013/573258. Epub 2013 Apr 8. [PubMed:23653647]
  2. Bartold PM: Dentinal hypersensitivity: a review. Aust Dent J. 2006 Sep;51(3):212-8; quiz 276. [PubMed:17037886]
  3. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: Strontium Monograph [Link]
  4. Colgate: How Long Should You Brush Your Teeth For? [Link]
  5. Pennsylvania Department of Health: Strontium [Link]
  6. PubChem: Strontium Chloride [Link]
  7. INCHEM Strontium and strontium compounds Profile [File]
External Links
Not Available
MSDS
Download (42.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceOocyte Fertilization1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
GelDental
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility51.8 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.84ALOGPS
logP-0.3ChemAxon
logS-0.49ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Drug created on February 10, 2018 15:01 / Updated on November 02, 2018 09:14