This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.

Identification

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Name
Curcumin sulfate
Accession Number
DB14635  (DBSALT002044)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description
Not Available
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Curcumin monosulfate
  • Curcumin sulphate
Categories
Not Available
UNII
160DHE331M
CAS number
339286-19-0
Weight
Average: 448.44
Monoisotopic: 448.082803398
Chemical Formula
C21H20O9S
InChI Key
NEJVQQBBTRFOHB-FCXRPNKRSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H20O9S/c1-28-20-11-14(5-9-18(20)24)3-7-16(22)13-17(23)8-4-15-6-10-19(21(12-15)29-2)30-31(25,26)27/h3-12,24H,13H2,1-2H3,(H,25,26,27)/b7-3+,8-4+
IUPAC Name
{4-[(1E,6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dioxohepta-1,6-dien-1-yl]-2-methoxyphenyl}oxidanesulfonic acid
SMILES
COC1=CC(\C=C\C(=O)CC(=O)\C=C\C2=CC=C(OS(O)(=O)=O)C(OC)=C2)=CC=C1O

Pharmacology

Indication

No approved therapeutic indications.

Pharmacodynamics

Intravenous application of 25 mg/kg bw curcumin to rats resulted in an increase in bile flow by 80 and 120% [F114]. In the rat model of inflammation, curcumin was shown to inhibit edema formation. In nude mouse that had been injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer cells, administration of curcumin caused a marked decrease in the extent of cell proliferation, a significant increase of apoptosis and micro-vessel density [F114]. Curcumin may exert choleretic effects by increasing biliary excretion of bile salts, cholesterol, and bilirubin, as well as increasing bile solubility [F114]. Curcumin inhibited arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation in vitro [F114].

Mechanism of action

Curcumin acts as a scavenger of oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and singlet oxygen and inhibit lipid peroxidation as well as peroxide-induced DNA damage [F114]. Curcumin mediates potent anti-inflammatory agent and anti-carcinogenic actions via modulating various signalling molecules. It suppresses a number of key elements in cellular signal transduction pathways pertinent to growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation; it was demonstrated in vitro that curcumin inhibits protein kinases, c-Jun/AP-1 activation, prostaglandin biosynthesis, and the activity and expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 [F114].

TargetActionsOrganism
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaNot AvailableHumans
UVitamin D3 receptorNot AvailableHumans
UMultidrug resistance-associated protein 5Not AvailableHumans
UCarbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1Not AvailableHumans
UGlutathione S-transferase PNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Curcumin displays poor absorption into the gastrointestinal tract. In a rat study, oral administration of a single dose of 2 g of curcumin resulted in a plasma concentration of less than 5 μg/mL, indicating poor absorption from the gut [F114].

Volume of distribution

Following oral administration of radio-labelled curcumin to rats, radioactivity was detected in the liver and kidneys [F114].

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Metabolism

Initially, curcumin undergoes rapid intestinal metabolism to form curcumin glucuronide and curcumin sulfate via O-conjugation. Other metabolites formed include tetrahydrocurcumin, hexahydrocurcumin, and hexahydrocurcuminol via reduction [F114]. Curcumin may also undergo intensive second metabolism in the liver where the major metabolites were glucuronides of tetrahydrocurcumin and hexahydrocurcumin, with dihydroferulic acid and traces of ferulic acid as further metabolites [F114]. Hepatic metabolites are expected to be excreted in the bile [F114]. Certain curcumin metabolites, such as tetrahydrocurcumin, retain anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [F114].

Route of elimination

Following oral administration of curcumin to rats at a dose of 1 g/kg bw, about 75% of dose was excreted in the faeces and only traces of the compound was detected in the urine [F114]. When a single 400 mg dose of curcumin was administered orally to rats, about 60% was absorbed and 40% was excreted unchanged in the faeces over an period of 5 days [F114]. Intraperitoneal administration resulted in fecal excretion of 73% and biliary excretion of 11% [F114].

Half life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Toxicity

In an acute oral toxicity study in mouse, LD50 was >2000 mg/kg MSDS. Single oral doses of curcumin at 1-5 g/kg bw induced no toxic effects in rats [F114]. There has been no cases of overdose reported [F114].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Gupta SC, Patchva S, Aggarwal BB: Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials. AAPS J. 2013 Jan;15(1):195-218. doi: 10.1208/s12248-012-9432-8. Epub 2012 Nov 10. [PubMed:23143785]
External Links
ChemSpider
34988878

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00831 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.72ALOGPS
logP3.65ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-2.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area136.43 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity113.8 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability43.54 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as curcuminoids. These are aromatic compounds containing a curcumin moiety, which is composed of two aryl buten-2-one (feruloyl) chromophores joined by a methylene group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Class
Diarylheptanoids
Sub Class
Linear diarylheptanoids
Direct Parent
Curcuminoids
Alternative Parents
Hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives / Phenylsulfates / Methoxyphenols / Anisoles / Styrenes / Phenoxy compounds / Methoxybenzenes / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Alkyl aryl ethers / Beta-diketones
show 6 more
Substituents
Curcumin / Cinnamic acid or derivatives / Hydroxycinnamic acid or derivatives / Phenylsulfate / Arylsulfate / Methoxyphenol / Phenoxy compound / Anisole / Methoxybenzene / Phenol ether
show 23 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Nishiyama T, Mae T, Kishida H, Tsukagawa M, Mimaki Y, Kuroda M, Sashida Y, Takahashi K, Kawada T, Nakagawa K, Kitahara M: Curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) suppress an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):959-63. [PubMed:15713005]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B...
Gene Name
VDR
Uniprot ID
P11473
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D3 receptor
Molecular Weight
48288.64 Da
References
  1. Bartik L, Whitfield GK, Kaczmarska M, Lowmiller CL, Moffet EW, Furmick JK, Hernandez Z, Haussler CA, Haussler MR, Jurutka PW: Curcumin: a novel nutritionally derived ligand of the vitamin D receptor with implications for colon cancer chemoprevention. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1153-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.09.012. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153625]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs.
Gene Name
ABCC5
Uniprot ID
O15440
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5
Molecular Weight
160658.8 Da
References
  1. Prehm P: Curcumin analogue identified as hyaluronan export inhibitor by virtual docking to the ABC transporter MRP5. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Dec;62:76-81. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.028. Epub 2013 Aug 24. [PubMed:23978416]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
Non-competitive inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-e2 9-reductase activity
Specific Function
NADPH-dependent reductase with broad substrate specificity. Catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl compounds including quinones, prostaglandins, menadione, plus various xenobiotics. ...
Gene Name
CBR1
Uniprot ID
P16152
Uniprot Name
Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1
Molecular Weight
30374.73 Da
References
  1. Hintzpeter J, Hornung J, Ebert B, Martin HJ, Maser E: Curcumin is a tight-binding inhibitor of the most efficient human daunorubicin reductase--Carbonyl reductase 1. Chem Biol Interact. 2015 Jun 5;234:162-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2014.12.019. Epub 2014 Dec 22. [PubMed:25541467]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
Irreversibly inhibits the enzyme via covalent modification at high concentrations. At low concentrations enzyme activity may be modified but not entirely inhibited by covalent binding.
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. van Iersel ML, Ploemen JP, Lo Bello M, Federici G, van Bladeren PJ: Interactions of alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones with human glutathione S-transferase P1-1. Chem Biol Interact. 1997 Dec 12;108(1-2):67-78. [PubMed:9463521]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Curator comments
Curcumin is expected to be a moderate to strong inhibitor of CYP 2C9.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Volak LP, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Court MH: Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase enzymes, whereas piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Aug;36(8):1594-605. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.020552. Epub 2008 May 14. [PubMed:18480186]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Volak LP, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Court MH: Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase enzymes, whereas piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Aug;36(8):1594-605. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.020552. Epub 2008 May 14. [PubMed:18480186]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA1
Uniprot ID
P08263
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A1
Molecular Weight
25630.785 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTM1
Uniprot ID
P09488
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1
Molecular Weight
25711.555 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da

Drug created on September 01, 2018 12:24 / Updated on May 01, 2019 12:02