This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.

Identification

Name
Dexamethasone acetate
Accession Number
DB14649
Description

Commonly known as decadron, dexamethasone acetate is a glucocorticosteroid previously marketed in the USA for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory, allergic, autoimmune, and other conditions.2,4,5 Developed in 1957, dexamethasone is structurally similar to other corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone and prednisolone.1 Dexamethasone acetate has largely been replaced by dexamethasone phosphate and continues to be administered for a large variety of inflammatory conditions.6

Recently, dexamethasone has been a drug of interest in the treatment of COVID-19. In a June 16 2020 press release highlighting early results of a clinical trial, Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY), it was reported that dexamethasone reduced COVID-19 deaths by approximately one-fifth and one-third in patients on oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation, respectively. Dexamethasone was therefore recommended as a life-saving treatment for COVID-19 patients experiencing severe respiratory symptoms.3

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 434.4977
Monoisotopic: 434.210466929
Chemical Formula
C24H31FO6
Synonyms
  • 16alpha-Methyl-9alpha-fluoroprednisolone 21-acetate
  • 9alpha-Fluoro-16alpha-methylprednisolone acetate
  • Dexamethasone 21-acetate
  • Dexamethasone acetate anhydrous
  • Dexamethasone acetate, anhydrous
  • Dexamethasoni acetas

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
AGlucocorticoid receptor
agonist
Humans
UAnnexin A1
agonist
Humans
UNitric oxide synthase, inducible
negative modulator
Humans
UNuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1
stimulator
Humans
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
agonist
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

International/Other Brands
Decadron-LA

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives. These are steroids with a structure based on a hydroxylated prostane moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Pregnane steroids
Direct Parent
Gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
20-oxosteroids / 11-beta-hydroxysteroids / 17-hydroxysteroids / Halogenated steroids / 3-oxo delta-1,4-steroids / Delta-1,4-steroids / Alpha-acyloxy ketones / Tertiary alcohols / Alpha-hydroxy ketones / Secondary alcohols
show 9 more
Substituents
11-beta-hydroxysteroid / 11-hydroxysteroid / 17-hydroxysteroid / 20-oxosteroid / 3-oxo-delta-1,4-steroid / 3-oxosteroid / 9-halo-steroid / Alcohol / Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound / Alkyl fluoride
show 25 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
corticosteroid hormone (CHEBI:4463)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
K7V8P532WP
CAS number
1177-87-3
InChI Key
AKUJBENLRBOFTD-RPRRAYFGSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H31FO6/c1-13-9-18-17-6-5-15-10-16(27)7-8-21(15,3)23(17,25)19(28)11-22(18,4)24(13,30)20(29)12-31-14(2)26/h7-8,10,13,17-19,28,30H,5-6,9,11-12H2,1-4H3/t13-,17+,18+,19+,21+,22+,23+,24+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
2-[(1R,2R,3aS,3bS,9aS,9bR,10S,11aS)-9b-fluoro-1,10-dihydroxy-2,9a,11a-trimethyl-7-oxo-1H,2H,3H,3aH,3bH,4H,5H,7H,9aH,9bH,10H,11H,11aH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl acetate
SMILES
[H][C@@]12C[C@@H](C)[C@](O)(C(=O)COC(C)=O)[C@@]1(C)C[C@H](O)[C@@]1(F)[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)C=C[C@]12C

References

General References
  1. BUNIM JJ, BLACK RL, LUTWAK L, PETERSON RE, WHEDON GD: Studies on dexamethasone, a new synthetic steroid, in rheurheumatoid arthritis: a preliminary report; adrenal cortical, metabolic and early clinical effects. Arthritis Rheum. 1958 Aug;1(4):313-31. doi: 10.1002/art.1780010404. [PubMed:13560344]
  2. Susan J. Dreyer MD, William Jeremy Beckworth MD (2011). Pain procedures in clinical practice: Commonly Used Medications in Procedures (3rd ed.). Elsevier.
  3. RECOVERY trial news release: dexamethasone [Link]
  4. FDA Approved Drug Products: Decadron Dexamethasone Oral Tablet (Discontinued) [Link]
  5. Chemocare: dexamethasone acetate [Link]
  6. FDA Approved Drug Products: Dexamethasone Injection [Link]
KEGG Drug
D07796
KEGG Compound
C08174
PubChem Compound
236702
ChemSpider
206624
BindingDB
50103620
ChEBI
4463
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1530428
ZINC
ZINC000003882068
Wikipedia
Dexamethasone_acetate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDexamethasone / Interscalene Block / Low Volume Regional Anesthesia / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias1
3CompletedSupportive CareBone Metastases1
3CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
3RecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastomas / Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome / Opsoclonus-myoclonus Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentTinea infections1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm1
0CompletedTreatmentImpacted Third Molar Tooth1
0TerminatedTreatmentRecurrent Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma / Refractory T-Cell Lymphoma / T-cell type lymphoma1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPost-operative Swallowing Disorders / Thyroidectomy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0164 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.6ALOGPS
logP2.12ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.9 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity111.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability45.02 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ds-3971000000-8fd86e4681958f0f751d

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modula...
Gene Name
NR3C1
Uniprot ID
P04150
Uniprot Name
Glucocorticoid receptor
Molecular Weight
85658.57 Da
References
  1. Warne JP, John CD, Christian HC, Morris JF, Flower RJ, Sugden D, Solito E, Gillies GE, Buckingham JC: Gene deletion reveals roles for annexin A1 in the regulation of lipolysis and IL-6 release in epididymal adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;291(6):E1264-73. Epub 2006 Jul 11. [PubMed:16835395]
  2. Grossman R, Yehuda R, Golier J, McEwen B, Harvey P, Maria NS: Cognitive effects of intravenous hydrocortisone in subjects with PTSD and healthy control subjects. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jul;1071:410-21. [PubMed:16891588]
  3. Funato H, Kobayashi A, Watanabe Y: Differential effects of antidepressants on dexamethasone-induced nuclear translocation and expression of glucocorticoid receptor. Brain Res. 2006 Oct 30;1117(1):125-34. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16956592]
  4. Vaitkuviene A, Ulinskaite A, Meskys R, Duburs G, Klusa V, Liutkevicius E: Study of the interaction of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives with glucocorticoid hormone receptors from the rat liver. Pharmacol Rep. 2006 Jul-Aug;58(4):551-8. [PubMed:16963802]
  5. Wang D, Zhang H, Lang F, Yun CC: Acute activation of NHE3 by dexamethasone correlates with activation of SGK1 and requires a functional glucocorticoid receptor. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Jan;292(1):C396-404. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16971495]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function
Plays important roles in the innate immune response as effector of glucocorticoid-mediated responses and regulator of the inflammatory process. Has anti-inflammatory activity (PubMed:8425544). Play...
Gene Name
ANXA1
Uniprot ID
P04083
Uniprot Name
Annexin A1
Molecular Weight
38713.855 Da
References
  1. Morand EF, Hall P, Hutchinson P, Yang YH: Regulation of annexin I in rheumatoid synovial cells by glucocorticoids and interleukin-1. Mediators Inflamm. 2006;2006(2):73835. [PubMed:16883066]
  2. John CD, Theogaraj E, Christian HC, Morris JF, Smith SF, Buckingham JC: Time-specific effects of perinatal glucocorticoid treatment on anterior pituitary morphology, annexin 1 expression and adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion in the adult female rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006 Dec;18(12):949-59. [PubMed:17076770]
  3. Davies E, Omer S, Buckingham JC, Morris JF, Christian HC: Expression and externalization of annexin 1 in the adrenal gland: structure and function of the adrenal gland in annexin 1-null mutant mice. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar;148(3):1030-8. Epub 2006 Dec 7. [PubMed:17158208]
  4. Wang C, Wang J, Guo HF, Liu RY: Involvement of annexin I in the dexamethasone-mediated upregulation of A549 cells phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils. Immunol Lett. 2007 Aug 15;111(2):103-10. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17644190]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity ...
Gene Name
NOS2
Uniprot ID
P35228
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible
Molecular Weight
131116.3 Da
References
  1. Soderberg M, Raffalli-Mathieu F, Lang MA: Regulation of the murine inducible nitric oxide synthase gene by dexamethasone involves a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein I (hnRNPI) dependent pathway. Mol Immunol. 2007 May;44(12):3204-10. Epub 2007 Mar 26. [PubMed:17379310]
  2. Huang H, Lavoie-Lamoureux A, Moran K, Lavoie JP: IL-4 stimulates the expression of CXCL-8, E-selectin, VEGF, and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA by equine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 May;292(5):L1147-54. [PubMed:17494951]
  3. Nandi J, Saud B, Zinkievich JM, Palma DT, Levine RA: 5-aminosalicylic acid improves indomethacin-induced enteropathy by inhibiting iNOS transcription in rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Jan;53(1):123-32. Epub 2007 May 15. [PubMed:17503181]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Stimulator
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Orphan nuclear receptor. Component of a cascade required for the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis. Acts as a coregulatory protein that inhibits the transcriptional act...
Gene Name
NR0B1
Uniprot ID
P51843
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1
Molecular Weight
51717.185 Da
References
  1. Gummow BM, Scheys JO, Cancelli VR, Hammer GD: Reciprocal regulation of a glucocorticoid receptor-steroidogenic factor-1 transcription complex on the Dax-1 promoter by glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the adrenal cortex. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Nov;20(11):2711-23. Epub 2006 Jul 20. [PubMed:16857744]
  2. Yu CC, Li PH: In vivo inhibition of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression by dexamethasone parallels induction of the negative transcription factor DAX-1. Endocrine. 2006 Dec;30(3):313-23. [PubMed:17526944]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Kretschmer XC, Baldwin WS: CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters? Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Aug 15;155(3):111-28. [PubMed:16054614]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933]
  2. Lampen A, Christians U, Guengerich FP, Watkins PB, Kolars JC, Bader A, Gonschior AK, Dralle H, Hackbarth I, Sewing KF: Metabolism of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus in the small intestine: cytochrome P450, drug interactions, and interindividual variability. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Dec;23(12):1315-24. [PubMed:8689938]
  3. Christians U, Schmidt G, Bader A, Lampen A, Schottmann R, Linck A, Sewing KF: Identification of drugs inhibiting the in vitro metabolism of tacrolimus by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1996 Mar;41(3):187-90. [PubMed:8866917]
  4. Miranda SR, Meyer SA: Cytotoxicity of chloroacetanilide herbicide alachlor in HepG2 cells independent of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 May;45(5):871-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.11.011. Epub 2006 Nov 26. [PubMed:17207564]
  5. Yamaguchi Y, Kirita S, Baba T, Aoyama J, Touchi A, Tukey RH, Guengerich FP, Matsubara T: Identification of rat and human cytochrome P450 forms involved in the metabolism of the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist (+)-S-145. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Jan;25(1):75-80. [PubMed:9010633]
  6. Gomez-Lechon MJ, Donato T, Jover R, Rodriguez C, Ponsoda X, Glaise D, Castell JV, Guguen-Guillouzo C: Expression and induction of a large set of drug-metabolizing enzymes by the highly differentiated human hepatoma cell line BC2. Eur J Biochem. 2001 Mar;268(5):1448-59. [PubMed:11231298]
  7. Berson A, Wolf C, Chachaty C, Fisch C, Fau D, Eugene D, Loeper J, Gauthier JC, Beaune P, Pompon D, et al.: Metabolic activation of the nitroaromatic antiandrogen flutamide by rat and human cytochromes P-450, including forms belonging to the 3A and 1A subfamilies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Apr;265(1):366-72. [PubMed:8386241]
  8. McCune JS, Hawke RL, LeCluyse EL, Gillenwater HH, Hamilton G, Ritchie J, Lindley C: In vivo and in vitro induction of human cytochrome P4503A4 by dexamethasone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Oct;68(4):356-66. doi: 10.1067/mcp.2000.110215. [PubMed:11061575]
  9. Dexamethasone monograph, Boehringer Ingelheim [Link]
  10. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Hemady Dexamethasone Oral Tablets [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Hukkanen J, Lassila A, Paivarinta K, Valanne S, Sarpo S, Hakkola J, Pelkonen O, Raunio H: Induction and regulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s in the human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000 Mar;22(3):360-6. [PubMed:10696073]
  2. Hukkanen J, Vaisanen T, Lassila A, Piipari R, Anttila S, Pelkonen O, Raunio H, Hakkola J: Regulation of CYP3A5 by glucocorticoids and cigarette smoke in human lung-derived cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):745-52. [PubMed:12538830]
  3. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Miranda SR, Meyer SA: Cytotoxicity of chloroacetanilide herbicide alachlor in HepG2 cells independent of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 May;45(5):871-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.11.011. Epub 2006 Nov 26. [PubMed:17207564]
  2. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation ...
Gene Name
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID
P05093
Uniprot Name
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
Molecular Weight
57369.995 Da
References
  1. Trzeciak WH, LeHoux JG, Waterman MR, Simpson ER: Dexamethasone inhibits corticotropin-induced accumulation of CYP11A and CYP17 messenger RNAs in bovine adrenocortical cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1993 Feb;7(2):206-13. doi: 10.1210/mend.7.2.8385739. [PubMed:8385739]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Baron JM, Holler D, Schiffer R, Frankenberg S, Neis M, Merk HF, Jugert FK: Expression of multiple cytochrome p450 enzymes and multidrug resistance-associated transport proteins in human skin keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Apr;116(4):541-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01298.x. [PubMed:11286621]
  2. Monostory K, Kohalmy K, Prough RA, Kobori L, Vereczkey L: The effect of synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone on CYP1A1 inducibility in adult rat and human hepatocytes. FEBS Lett. 2005 Jan 3;579(1):229-35. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2004.11.080. [PubMed:15620718]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Onica T, Nichols K, Larin M, Ng L, Maslen A, Dvorak Z, Pascussi JM, Vilarem MJ, Maurel P, Kirby GM: Dexamethasone-mediated up-regulation of human CYP2A6 involves the glucocorticoid receptor and increased binding of hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha to the proximal promoter. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Feb;73(2):451-60. Epub 2007 Oct 31. [PubMed:17978169]
  2. Meunier V, Bourrie M, Julian B, Marti E, Guillou F, Berger Y, Fabre G: Expression and induction of CYP1A1/1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes: a 10-year follow-up. Xenobiotica. 2000 Jun;30(6):589-607. doi: 10.1080/004982500406426 . [PubMed:10923861]
  3. Waxman DJ, Chang TK: Spectrofluorometric analysis of CYP2A6-catalyzed coumarin 7-hydroxylation. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;320:91-6. doi: 10.1385/1-59259-998-2:91. [PubMed:16719377]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Baron JM, Holler D, Schiffer R, Frankenberg S, Neis M, Merk HF, Jugert FK: Expression of multiple cytochrome p450 enzymes and multidrug resistance-associated transport proteins in human skin keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Apr;116(4):541-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01298.x. [PubMed:11286621]
  2. Wang H, Tompkins LM: CYP2B6: new insights into a historically overlooked cytochrome P450 isozyme. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Sep;9(7):598-610. [PubMed:18781911]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Raucy JL, Mueller L, Duan K, Allen SW, Strom S, Lasker JM: Expression and induction of CYP2C P450 enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):475-82. doi: 10.1124/jpet.102.033837. [PubMed:12130704]
  2. Scott SA, Sangkuhl K, Shuldiner AR, Hulot JS, Thorn CF, Altman RB, Klein TE: PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Feb;22(2):159-65. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e32834d4962. [PubMed:22027650]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Backman JT, Filppula AM, Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ: Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 Jan;68(1):168-241. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.011411. [PubMed:26721703]
  2. Pascussi JM, Gerbal-Chaloin S, Fabre JM, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ: Dexamethasone enhances constitutive androstane receptor expression in human hepatocytes: consequences on cytochrome P450 gene regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1441-50. doi: 10.1124/mol.58.6.1441. [PubMed:11093784]
  3. Gerbal-Chaloin S, Pascussi JM, Pichard-Garcia L, Daujat M, Waechter F, Fabre JM, Carrere N, Maurel P: Induction of CYP2C genes in human hepatocytes in primary culture. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Mar;29(3):242-51. [PubMed:11181490]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Baron JM, Holler D, Schiffer R, Frankenberg S, Neis M, Merk HF, Jugert FK: Expression of multiple cytochrome p450 enzymes and multidrug resistance-associated transport proteins in human skin keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Apr;116(4):541-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01298.x. [PubMed:11286621]
  2. Sampol E, Mirrione A, Villard PH, Piccerelle P, Scoma H, Berbis P, Barra Y, Durand A, Lacarelle B: Evidence for a tissue-specific induction of cutaneous CYP2E1 by dexamethasone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Jun 27;235(3):557-61. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1997.6829. [PubMed:9207195]
  3. Monostory K, Vereczkey L: Combined action of phenobarbital and dexamethasone on the activity of rat liver P450 system. Acta Pharm Hung. 1993 Sep;63(5):296-300. [PubMed:8249615]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID
Q9HB55
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A43
Molecular Weight
57669.21 Da
References
  1. Krusekopf S, Roots I, Kleeberg U: Differential drug-induced mRNA expression of human CYP3A4 compared to CYP3A5, CYP3A7 and CYP3A43. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Apr 11;466(1-2):7-12. doi: 10.1016/s0014-2999(03)01481-x. [PubMed:12679136]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 2...
Gene Name
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID
Q02928
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4A11
Molecular Weight
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Cummings BS, Lasker JM, Lash LH: Expression of glutathione-dependent enzymes and cytochrome P450s in freshly isolated and primary cultures of proximal tubular cells from human kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 May;293(2):677-85. [PubMed:10773044]
  2. Savas U, Hsu MH, Johnson EF: Differential regulation of human CYP4A genes by peroxisome proliferators and dexamethasone. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Jan 1;409(1):212-20. doi: 10.1016/s0003-9861(02)00499-x. [PubMed:12464261]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochro...
Gene Name
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID
P15538
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57572.44 Da
References
  1. Fardella CE, Pinto M, Mosso L, Gomez-Sanchez C, Jalil J, Montero J: Genetic study of patients with dexamethasone-suppressible aldosteronism without the chimeric CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Oct;86(10):4805-7. doi: 10.1210/jcem.86.10.7920. [PubMed:11600544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation...
Gene Name
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID
P80365
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2
Molecular Weight
44126.06 Da
References
  1. Diederich S, Hanke B, Oelkers W, Bahr V: Metabolism of dexamethasone in the human kidney: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 11beta-reduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May;82(5):1598-602. [PubMed:9141556]
  2. Diederich S, Hanke B, Burkhardt P, Muller M, Schoneshofer M, Bahr V, Oelkers W: Metabolism of synthetic corticosteroids by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases in man. Steroids. 1998 May-Jun;63(5-6):271-7. doi: 10.1016/s0039-128x(98)00039-7. [PubMed:9618784]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [nad(p)] activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the rea...
Gene Name
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID
P28845
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1
Molecular Weight
32400.665 Da
References
  1. Diederich S, Hanke B, Oelkers W, Bahr V: Metabolism of dexamethasone in the human kidney: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 11beta-reduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May;82(5):1598-602. [PubMed:9141556]
  2. Diederich S, Hanke B, Burkhardt P, Muller M, Schoneshofer M, Bahr V, Oelkers W: Metabolism of synthetic corticosteroids by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases in man. Steroids. 1998 May-Jun;63(5-6):271-7. doi: 10.1016/s0039-128x(98)00039-7. [PubMed:9618784]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Cummings DM, Larijani GE, Conner DP, Ferguson RK, Rocci ML Jr: Characterization of dexamethasone binding in normal and uremic human serum. DICP. 1990 Mar;24(3):229-31. doi: 10.1177/106002809002400301. [PubMed:2316228]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Fardel O, Payen L, Courtois A, Vernhet L, Lecureur V: Regulation of biliary drug efflux pump expression by hormones and xenobiotics. Toxicology. 2001 Oct 5;167(1):37-46. [PubMed:11557128]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Geick A, Eichelbaum M, Burk O: Nuclear receptor response elements mediate induction of intestinal MDR1 by rifampin. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):14581-7. Epub 2001 Jan 31. [PubMed:11297522]
  2. Romiti N, Tramonti G, Chieli E: Influence of different chemicals on MDR-1 P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the HK-2 proximal tubular cell line. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 1;183(2):83-91. [PubMed:12387747]
  3. Schuetz JD, Silverman JA, Thottassery JV, Furuya KN, Schuetz EG: Divergent regulation of the class II P-glycoprotein gene in primary cultures of hepatocytes versus H35 hepatoma by glucocorticoids. Cell Growth Differ. 1995 Oct;6(10):1321-32. [PubMed:8845310]
  4. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674]
  5. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389]
  6. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684]
  7. Yates CR, Chang C, Kearbey JD, Yasuda K, Schuetz EG, Miller DD, Dalton JT, Swaan PW: Structural determinants of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of glucocorticoids. Pharm Res. 2003 Nov;20(11):1794-803. [PubMed:14661924]
  8. Schinkel AH, Wagenaar E, van Deemter L, Mol CA, Borst P: Absence of the mdr1a P-Glycoprotein in mice affects tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone, digoxin, and cyclosporin A. J Clin Invest. 1995 Oct;96(4):1698-705. [PubMed:7560060]
  9. Matoulkova P, Pavek P, Maly J, Vlcek J: Cytochrome P450 enzyme regulation by glucocorticoids and consequences in terms of drug interaction. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2014 Mar;10(3):425-35. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2014.878703. Epub 2014 Jan 23. [PubMed:24451000]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Demeule M, Jodoin J, Beaulieu E, Brossard M, Beliveau R: Dexamethasone modulation of multidrug transporters in normal tissues. FEBS Lett. 1999 Jan 15;442(2-3):208-14. [PubMed:9929003]
  2. Schrenk D, Baus PR, Ermel N, Klein C, Vorderstemann B, Kauffmann HM: Up-regulation of transporters of the MRP family by drugs and toxins. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Mar 31;120(1-3):51-7. [PubMed:11323161]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Fisch T, Oswald M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, Beuers U, Paumgartner G: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS): identification of a carrier protein in human liver and brain. FEBS Lett. 1998 Mar 13;424(3):173-6. [PubMed:9539145]
  2. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Elahian F, Kalalinia F, Behravan J: Evaluation of indomethacin and dexamethasone effects on BCRP-mediated drug resistance in MCF-7 parental and resistant cell lines. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010 Apr;33(2):113-9. doi: 10.3109/01480540903390000. [PubMed:20307139]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. VanWert AL, Gionfriddo MR, Sweet DH: Organic anion transporters: discovery, pharmacology, regulation and roles in pathophysiology. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2010 Jan;31(1):1-71. doi: 10.1002/bdd.693. [PubMed:19953504]

Drug created on September 01, 2018 17:18 / Updated on June 19, 2020 21:02

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