Shock, Septic

Also known as: Septic shock / [D]Septic shock / Shock septic

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00668EpinephrineEpinephrine, also known as _adrenaline_, is a hormone and neurotransmitter and produced by the adrenal glands that can also be used as a drug due to its various important functions. Though it has long been used in the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, epinephrine in the auto-injector form (EpiPen) has been available since 1987 in the USA. Many new products/biosimilars and dosage routes have been approved under various names over the last several decades [L4355], [L4356], [L4358]. On August 16, 2018, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained approval to market its generic epinephrine auto-injector in 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg strengths [L4353]. Dosage delivery routes for epinephrine include intravenous, inhalation, nebulization, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection. In general, the most common uses of parenteral epinephrine are to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid) reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens, and to prolong the action of infiltration anesthetics [F2136]. In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest [A37697], [A37699]. It can be used in severe cases of croup [L4824].
DB01064IsoprenalineIsopropyl analog of epinephrine; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
DB01183NaloxoneNaloxone is an opioid antagonist medication used to block or reverse the effects of opioid drugs, particularly within the setting of drug overdoses which are rapidly becoming a leading cause of death worldwide. More specifically, naloxone has a high affinity for μ-opioid receptors, where it acts as an inverse agonist, causing the rapid removal of any other drugs bound to these receptors. When taken in large quantities, opioid medications such as morphine, hydromorphone, methadone, heroin, or fentanyl are capable of causing life-threatening symptoms such as respiratory depression, reduced heart rate, slurred speech, drowsiness, and constricted pupils. If untreated, this can progress to vomiting, absent pulse and breathing, loss of consciousness, and even death. Naloxone is indicated for the rapid reversal of these symptoms of central nervous system depression in opioid overdose. It's important to note that naloxone only works on opioid receptors within the body, and is therefore not capable of reversing the effects of non-opioid medications such as stimulants like methamphetamine or cocaine, or benzodiazepines like lorazepam or diazepam. Also known as the brand name product Narcan, naloxone is currently available by intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SubQ) injection, nasal spray, or intravenous (IV) infusion. Naloxone IM injections are commonly available in the form of "kits", which is ideal for making overdose treatment accessible and readily available for administration by minimally trained individuals within the community. Kits commonly include the supplies necessary to treat an overdose in a non-medical setting such as alcohol swabs, syringes, a rescue breathing mask, and instructions for use. Frequently also carried by medical and emergency personnel and at events known to be associated with heavy drug use like music festivals, naloxone kits are considered a key component of harm reduction strategies. When injected intramuscularly (IM), naloxone acts within 3-5 minutes and can last from 30-60 minutes before its effects wear off. Administration of naloxone is associated with very few side effects. Notably, if injected into a person not currently using opioid medications, there would be no noticeable effects at all. However, for individuals using opioid medications or experiencing an overdose, IM injection of naloxone rapidly reverses opioid effects and can cause the injected individual to immediately experience withdrawal symptoms. Common symptoms of opioid withdrawal include nausea, vomiting, sweating, runny nose, aches, and diarrhea. Although certainly physically uncomfortable, opioid withdrawal symptoms are not life-threatening like they are for alcohol withdrawals. Administration of naloxone is therefore appropriate for any person appearing to have any symptoms of an opioid overdose. Due to its short duration of action, person's injected with naloxone should be monitored for responsiveness and potentially injected a second time or taken to the hospital. Naloxone is also available within the combination product Suboxone with the opioid medication buprenorphine. Suboxone is used for the maintentance treatment of opioid dependence and addiction. When taken orally, naloxone has no pharmacological effect and does not reduce the effectiveness of the opioid effect of buprenorphine. The primary purpose of including naloxone within Suboxone is to act as a deterrent to injection, as injected naloxone would rapidly reverse the effects of buprenorphine.
DB00368NorepinephrinePrecursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineTumor necrosis factortarget
DB00668EpinephrineCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00668EpinephrineMonoamine oxidaseenzyme
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alphatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineMitogen-activated protein kinase 1target
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit betatarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gammatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01064IsoprenalineCAMP phosphodiesterasetarget
DB01064IsoprenalineSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]target
DB01183NaloxoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB01183NaloxoneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB01183NaloxoneCyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1target
DB01183NaloxoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB01183NaloxoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01183NaloxoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01183NaloxoneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB01183NaloxoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01183NaloxoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01183NaloxoneSerum albumincarrier
DB01183NaloxoneToll-like receptor 4target
DB01183NaloxoneLiver carboxylesterase 1target
DB01183NaloxoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00368NorepinephrinePhenylalanine-4-hydroxylasetarget
DB00368NorepinephrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00368NorepinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00368NorepinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00368NorepinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00368NorepinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00368NorepinephrinePOU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1transporter
DB00368NorepinephrineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertransporter
DB00368NorepinephrineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB00368NorepinephrineChromaffin granule amine transportertarget
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB11842Angiotensin II1Completed1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified form1Recruiting1
DB00583Levocarnitine1Terminated1
DB09153Sodium chloride1Active Not Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium chloride1Terminated1
DB00152Thiamine1Recruiting1
DB08842Acetylcarnitine1 / 2Completed1
DB11785Anisodamine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00126Ascorbic acid1 / 2Completed1
DB04519Caprylic acid1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01276Exenatide1 / 2Withdrawn1
DB00683Midazolam1 / 2Completed1
DB09567Olive oil1 / 2Recruiting1
DB11133Omega-3 fatty acids1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01132Pioglitazone1 / 2Completed1
DB00818Propofol1 / 2Completed1
DB09422Soybean oil1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00152Thiamine1 / 2Completed1
DB11842Angiotensin II2Recruiting1
DB11842Angiotensin II2Unknown Status1
DB00126Ascorbic acid2Recruiting4
DB11121Chloroxylenol2Recruiting2
DB06779Dalteparin2Completed1
DB00841Dobutamine2Completed1
DB12313Dopexamine2Completed1
DB00055Drotrecogin alfa2Completed1
DB00668Epinephrine2Completed1
DB00063Eptifibatide2Unknown Status1
DB04933Eritoran2Completed1
DB00187Esmolol2Completed2
DB00187Esmolol2Recruiting4
DB00687Fludrocortisone2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01109Heparin2Completed1
DB01109Heparin2Recruiting1
DB00741Hydrocortisone2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00741Hydrocortisone2Recruiting2
DB00200Hydroxocobalamin2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01088Iloprost2Unknown Status1
DB00125L-Arginine2Unknown Status1
DB00922Levosimendan2Completed1
DB00994Neomycin2Recruiting1
DB00368Norepinephrine2Completed3
DB00388Phenylephrine2Completed2
DB13968Plasma protein fraction (human)2Recruiting1
DB01236Sevoflurane2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB14482Sodium ascorbate2Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium chloride2Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride2Recruiting2
DB09153Sodium chloride2Unknown Status1
DB02638Terlipressin2Completed1
DB02638Terlipressin2Unknown Status1
DB00152Thiamine2Recruiting4
DB00302Tranexamic acid2Terminated1
DB00067Vasopressin2Completed1
DB09302Alirocumab2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00126Ascorbic acid2 / 3Recruiting2
DB00575Clonidine2 / 3Terminated1
DB00841Dobutamine2 / 3Completed1
DB00841Dobutamine2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00187Esmolol2 / 3Recruiting1
DB04398Lactic Acid2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00922Levosimendan2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00264Metoprolol2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00368Norepinephrine2 / 3Completed1
DB12495Selepressin2 / 3Terminated1
DB00641Simvastatin2 / 3Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB02638Terlipressin2 / 3Completed1
DB00152Thiamine2 / 3Recruiting2
DB00067Vasopressin2 / 3Completed2
DB00316Acetaminophen3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06151Acetylcysteine3Recruiting1
DB01118Amiodarone3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11842Angiotensin II3Suspended1
DB00126Ascorbic acid3Not Yet Recruiting2
DB01413Cefepime3Recruiting1
DB11121Chloroxylenol3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01211Clarithromycin3Completed1
DB00803Colistin3Recruiting1
DB01914D-glucose3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine3Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine3Recruiting1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified form3Completed1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified form3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00988Dopamine3Completed1
DB00736Esomeprazole3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00687Fludrocortisone3Completed2
DB00687Fludrocortisone3Withdrawn1
DB00996Gabapentin3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00741Hydrocortisone3Completed4
DB09106Hydroxyethyl Starch3Completed2
DB01050Ibuprofen3Completed1
DB00030Insulin Human3Completed1
DB01221Ketamine3Not Yet Recruiting2
DB01221Ketamine3Recruiting1
DB12465Ketanserin3Completed1
DB00281Lidocaine3Not Yet Recruiting2
DB01065Melatonin3Recruiting1
DB01065Melatonin3Unknown Status1
DB00760Meropenem3Completed1
DB00760Meropenem3Recruiting1
DB09241Methylene blue3Recruiting2
DB00683Midazolam3Not Yet Recruiting2
DB00211Midodrine3Recruiting1
DB00211Midodrine3Terminated1
DB00218Moxifloxacin3Completed1
DB00994Neomycin3Recruiting1
DB00368Norepinephrine3Completed2
DB00368Norepinephrine3Suspended1
DB00368Norepinephrine3Terminated1
DB00646Nystatin3Recruiting1
DB09496Octinoxate3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11062Octisalate3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00781Polymyxin B3Recruiting1
DB09345Pramocaine3Recruiting1
DB00020Sargramostim3Completed1
DB14482Sodium ascorbate3Not Yet Recruiting2
DB02638Terlipressin3Recruiting1
DB02638Terlipressin3Terminated1
DB00152Thiamine3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00599Thiopental3Recruiting1
DB00684Tobramycin3Recruiting1
DB00193Tramadol3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB08604Triclosan3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00067Vasopressin3Completed1
DB01118Amiodarone4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00126Ascorbic acid4Terminated1
DB01212Ceftriaxone4Unknown Status1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Terminated1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Completed1
DB00055Drotrecogin alfa4Completed2
DB00813Fentanyl4Completed1
DB00813Fentanyl4Recruiting1
DB00741Hydrocortisone4Completed1
DB00741Hydrocortisone4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00741Hydrocortisone4Terminated2
DB14545Hydrocortisone succinate4Completed1
DB09106Hydroxyethyl Starch4Completed1
DB01221Ketamine4Recruiting1
DB00922Levosimendan4Recruiting1
DB09241Methylene blue4Completed1
DB00683Midazolam4Completed1
DB00683Midazolam4Recruiting1
DB00211Midodrine4Withdrawn1
DB00235Milrinone4Recruiting1
DB00368Norepinephrine4Completed2
DB00368Norepinephrine4Terminated1
DB00368Norepinephrine4Withdrawn1
DB00388Phenylephrine4Completed1
DB00388Phenylephrine4Terminated1
DB00319Piperacillin4Terminated1
DB00818Propofol4Completed1
DB00728Rocuronium4Completed1
DB00641Simvastatin4Unknown Status1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Terminated1
DB01606Tazobactam4Terminated1
DB02638Terlipressin4Recruiting1
DB00152Thiamine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00152Thiamine4Terminated1
DB12038Ulinastatin4Recruiting1
DB00067Vasopressin4Withdrawn1
DB01076AtorvastatinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00112BevacizumabNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB01164Calcium ChlorideNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00520CaspofunginNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB01212CeftriaxoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11121ChloroxylenolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01285CorticotropinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00080DaptomycinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified formNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00841DobutamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00841DobutamineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00988DopamineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00668EpinephrineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00187EsmololNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01109HeparinNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00741HydrocortisoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00741HydrocortisoneNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB09106Hydroxyethyl StarchNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01598ImipenemNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB04398Lactic AcidNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00922LevosimendanNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09407Magnesium chlorideNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00653Magnesium sulfateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00760MeropenemNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB05914Mesenchymal Stem CellsNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB04899NesiritideNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00368NorepinephrineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00368NorepinephrineNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00368NorepinephrineNot AvailableUnknown Status2
DB09140OxygenNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00981PhysostigmineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00761Potassium chlorideNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00899RemifentanilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09154Sodium CitrateNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09395Sodium acetateNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09153Sodium chlorideNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium chlorideNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB02638TerlipressinNot AvailableUnknown Status2
DB00067VasopressinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00067VasopressinNot AvailableTerminated1