Hepatic Encephalopathy

Also known as: Encephalopathy, Hepatic / Encephalopathy hepatic / Hepatic coma / Hepatic failure, not elsewhere classified

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00581LactuloseLactulose is a synthetic disaccharide derivative of lactose that is most commonly used as a laxative agent despite also being formally indicated to serve as an adjunct therapy in treating portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE).[FDA Label,L6199,L6202] Despite being first synthesized in 1929[A178081], investigations regarding its possible use as a laxative for the treatment of chronic constipation did not occur until the 1960s and its first clinical use for treating PSE was not until 1966.[L6202] Nevertheless, although lactulose received formal FDA approval in 1977 and has since become a readily available generic and brand-name non-prescription medication listed on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines as one of the most effective and safe medicines employed in a health system[L6205], data regarding its optimal place in therapy is often ambiguous.[L6202] Especially considering the use of lactulose as a laxative is typically only considered after lifestyle and dietary modifications fail and the fact that lactulose therapy cannot be ethically withheld from patients diagnosed with PSE in a placebo study, the substance may just be one of many options available for treating constipation and its efficacy in managing PSE may never be formally confirmed or refuted via clinical investigation.[L6202]
DB00994NeomycinA component of neomycin that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). Neomycin is a bactericidal aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the 30S ribosome of susceptible organisms. Binding interferes with mRNA binding and acceptor tRNA sites and results in the production of non-functional or toxic peptides.
DB01220RifaximinRifaximin is a semisynthetic, rifamycin-based non-systemic antibiotic, meaning that the drug will not pass the gastrointestinal wall into the circulation as is common for other types of orally administered antibiotics. It has multiple indications and is used in treatment of traveller's diarrhea caused by E. coli; reduction in risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy recurrence; as well as diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) in adult women and men. It is marketed under the brand name Xifaxan by Salix Pharmaceuticals.
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB08909Glycerol phenylbutyrate1Completed1
DB01205Flumazenil1 / 2Withdrawn1
DB00203Sildenafil1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB05269Activated charcoal2Completed1
DB09278Activated charcoal2Completed1
DB03793Benzoic acid2Terminated1
DB06170Glycerol phenylbutyrate2Completed1
DB00581Lactulose2Unknown Status1
DB00916Metronidazole2Unknown Status1
DB00507Nitazoxanide2Unknown Status1
DB09269Phenylacetic acid2Terminated1
DB01220Rifaximin2Unknown Status2
DB00736Esomeprazole2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00581Lactulose2 / 3Completed1
DB00581Lactulose2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00507Nitazoxanide2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00128Aspartic acid3Completed1
DB00581Lactulose3Unknown Status2
DB01220Rifaximin3Unknown Status1
DB00128Aspartic acid4Completed2
DB00062Human Serum Albumin4Completed1
DB00062Human Serum Albumin4Recruiting1
DB00581Lactulose4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00581Lactulose4Unknown Status3
DB00683Midazolam4Unknown Status1
DB00129Ornithine4Unknown Status1
DB09287Polyethylene glycol4Recruiting2
DB00761Potassium chloride4Recruiting1
DB00818Propofol4Unknown Status1
DB01220Rifaximin4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01390Sodium bicarbonate4Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Recruiting1
DB09393Amino acidsNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00128Aspartic acidNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00199ErythromycinNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00581LactuloseNot AvailableCompleted5
DB00581LactuloseNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB13758MeclofenoxateNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00994NeomycinNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00129OrnithineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09287Polyethylene glycolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09287Polyethylene glycolNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00761Potassium chlorideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00761Potassium chlorideNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB01220RifaximinNot AvailableCompleted4
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB09153Sodium chlorideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09153Sodium chlorideNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB09472Sodium sulfateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09472Sodium sulfateNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB09270UbidecarenoneNot AvailableRecruiting1