Diabetic Nephropathies

Also known as: Diabetic nephropathy / Nephropathy, Diabetic / Diabetic nephropathy NOS / Diabetic renal disease / Diabetes with renal manifestations

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00542BenazeprilBenazepril, brand name Lotensin, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure[A838,A837]. Upon cleavage of its ester group by the liver, benazepril is converted into its active form benazeprilat, a non-sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor[A836].
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilCandesartan is an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) that may be used alone or with other agents to treat hypertension. It is administered orally as the prodrug, candesartan cilexetil, which is rapidly converted to its active metabolite, candesartan, during absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Candesartan lowers blood pressure by antagonizing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); it competes with angiotensin II for binding to the type-1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) subtype and prevents the blood pressure increasing effects of angiotensin II. Unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, ARBs do not have the adverse effect of dry cough. Candesartan may be used to treat hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and diabetic nephropathy. It may also be used as an alternative agent for the treatment of heart failure, systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease.
DB01197CaptoprilCaptopril is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Captopril may be used in the treatment of hypertension.
DB00584EnalaprilEnalapril is a prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is rapidly metabolized in the liver to enalaprilat following oral administration. Enalaprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Enalapril may be used to treat essential or renovascular hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure.
DB09477EnalaprilatEnalaprilat is the active metabolite of the orally available pro-drug, enalapril. Used in the treatment of hypertension, enalapril is an ACE inhibitor that prevents Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) from transforming angiotensin I into angiotensin II. As angiotensin II is responsible for vasoconstriction and sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney, down-regulation of this protein results in reduced blood pressure and blood fluid volume. Enalaprilat was originally created to overcome the limitations of the first ACE inhibitor, captopril, which had numerous side effects and left a metallic taste in the mouth. Removal of the problematic thiol group from captopril resulted in enalaprilat, which was then modified further with an ester to create the orally available pro-drug enalapril. Enalaprilat is poorly orally available and is therefore only available as an intravenous injection for the treatment of hypertension when oral therapy is not possible.
DB00876EprosartanEprosartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension. It performs 2 actions on the renin angiotensin system. By preventing the binding of angiotensin II to AT1, vascular smooth muscle relaxes and vasodilation occurs. By inhibiting norepinephrine production, blood pressure is further reduced.
DB00492FosinoprilFosinopril is a phosphinic acid-containing ester prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is rapidly hydrolyzed to fosinoprilat, its principle active metabolite. Fosinoprilat inhibits ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Fosinopril may be used to treat mild to moderate hypertension, as an adjunct in the treatment of congestive heart failure, and to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in hypertensive individuals with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.
DB01029IrbesartanIrbesartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. It competes with angiotensin II for binding at the AT1 receptor subtype. Unlike ACE inhibitors, ARBs do not have the adverse effect of dry cough. The use of ARBs is pending revision due to findings from several clinical trials suggesting that this class of drugs may be associated with a small increased risk of cancer.
DB00722LisinoprilLisinopril is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Lisinopril may be used to treat hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure, to improve survival in certain individuals following myocardial infarction, and to prevent progression of renal disease in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.
DB00678LosartanLosartan is an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) that may be used alone or with other agents to treat hypertension. Losartan and its longer acting metabolite, E-3174, lower blood pressure by antagonizing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); they compete with angiotensin II for binding to the type-1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) subtype and prevents the blood pressure increasing effects of angiotensin II. Unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, ARBs do not have the adverse effect of dry cough. Losartan may be used to treat hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and diabetic nephropathy. It may also be used as an alternative agent for the treatment of systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and heart failure.
DB00275OlmesartanOlmesartan is a nonpeptide antihypertensive with no chiral centers.[A175342] Orally available olmesartan is usually presented in the form of olmesartan medoxomil which is a prodrug rapidly converted _in vivo_ to the pharmacologically active olmesartan.[A175330] It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo Pharmaceuticals and approved in 2002.[A175345, L5560]
DB00790PerindoprilPerindopril is a nonsulfhydryl prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is rapidly metabolized in the liver to perindoprilat, its active metabolite, following oral administration. Perindoprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Perindopril may be used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease.
DB00881QuinaprilQuinapril is a prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to quinaprilat (quinapril diacid) following oral administration. Quinaprilat is a competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Quinapril may be used to treat essential hypertension and congestive heart failure.
DB00178RamiprilRamipril is a prodrug belonging to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to ramiprilat in the liver and, to a lesser extent, kidneys. Ramiprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Ramipril may be used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, nephropathy, and to reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events.
DB00966TelmisartanTelmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) used in the management of hypertension. Generally, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as telmisartan bind to the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors with high affinity, causing inhibition of the action of angiotensin II on vascular smooth muscle, ultimately leading to a reduction in arterial blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that telmisartan may also have PPAR-gamma agonistic properties that could potentially confer beneficial metabolic effects.
DB00519TrandolaprilTrandolapril is a non-sulhydryl prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to its biologically active diacid form, trandolaprilat, in the liver. Trandolaprilat inhibits ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Trandolapril may be used to treat mild to moderate hypertension, to improve survival following myocardial infarction in clinically stable patients with left ventricular dysfunction, as an adjunct treatment for congestive heart failure, and to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in hypertensive individuals with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.
DB00177ValsartanValsartan is an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) that may be used to manage hypertension and heart failure. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of valsartan in reducing blood pressure (BP) in many patient populations (including elderly, women, children, obese patients, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asians) and in improving the clinical outcome in cardiovascular (CV) disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) [A174124]. Valsartan was initially approved in 1996 in Europe for the treatment of hypertension in adults. Shortly after, in 1997, this drug was approved in the United States [A174124]. This drug is generally well-tolerated with a side-effect profile superior to that of other antihypertensive drugs [A174130], [A174133].
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00542BenazeprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00542BenazeprilMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductaseenzyme
DB00542BenazeprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00542BenazeprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01197CaptoprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB01197CaptoprilCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01197CaptoprilSerum albumincarrier
DB01197Captopril72 kDa type IV collagenasetarget
DB01197CaptoprilMatrix metalloproteinase-9target
DB01197CaptoprilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01197CaptoprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB01197CaptoprilSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01197CaptoprilLeukotriene A-4 hydrolasetarget
DB01197CaptoprilB1 bradykinin receptortarget
DB00584EnalaprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00584EnalaprilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00584EnalaprilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00584EnalaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00584EnalaprilSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00584EnalaprilSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00584EnalaprilSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00584EnalaprilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB09477EnalaprilatAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB09477EnalaprilatB1 bradykinin receptortarget
DB00876EprosartanType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB00876EprosartanCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00492FosinoprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00492FosinoprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00492FosinoprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB01029IrbesartanType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB01029IrbesartanTranscription factor AP-1target
DB01029IrbesartanCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01029IrbesartanCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01029IrbesartanUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01029IrbesartanProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01029IrbesartanCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00722LisinoprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00678LosartanType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB00678LosartanCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00678LosartanCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00678LosartanCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00678LosartanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00678LosartanSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00678LosartanUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00678LosartanUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00678LosartanUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00678LosartanUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00678LosartanUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17enzyme
DB00678LosartanCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00678LosartanSerum albumincarrier
DB00678LosartanSolute carrier family 22 member 12transporter
DB00678LosartanSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9transporter
DB00678LosartanBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00275OlmesartanType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB00275OlmesartanCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00275OlmesartanSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00275OlmesartanSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00275OlmesartanBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00275OlmesartanSerum albumincarrier
DB00790PerindoprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00790PerindoprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00790PerindoprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00790PerindoprilCholinesteraseenzyme
DB00790PerindoprilSecreted frizzled-related protein 4target
DB00881QuinaprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00881QuinaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00881QuinaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00881QuinaprilSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00178RamiprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00178RamiprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00178RamiprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00178RamiprilCholinesteraseenzyme
DB00178RamiprilB1 bradykinin receptortarget
DB00966TelmisartanType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB00966TelmisartanPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB00966TelmisartanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00966TelmisartanCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00966TelmisartanATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00966TelmisartanCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00966TelmisartanBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00966TelmisartanUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00519TrandolaprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00519TrandolaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00519TrandolaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00519TrandolaprilLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB00177ValsartanType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB00177ValsartanCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00177ValsartanSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00177ValsartanSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00177ValsartanCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00678Losartan0Completed1
DB02709Resveratrol0Completed1
DB01373Calcium1Completed1
DB06724Calcium Carbonate1Completed1
DB00700Eplerenone1Recruiting1
DB00658Sevelamer1Completed1
DB00345Aminohippuric acid1 / 2Recruiting2
DB01394Colchicine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01362Iohexol1 / 2Recruiting2
DB04951Pirfenidone1 / 2Completed1
DB06151Acetylcysteine2Completed1
DB12497Alagebrium2Terminated1
DB09026Aliskiren2Completed1
DB06199Atrasentan2Completed3
DB05983Bardoxolone methyl2Completed2
DB12739Bindarit2Completed1
DB06724Calcium Carbonate2Completed1
DB00169Cholecalciferol2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01394Colchicine2Unknown Status1
DB01285Corticotropin2Completed1
DB12116Epigallocatechin gallate2Completed1
DB00700Eplerenone2Completed1
DB00492Fosinopril2Completed1
DB14375Milk thistle2Completed1
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetil2Completed2
DB00275Olmesartan2Completed1
DB11736PF-004897912Completed1
DB00910Paricalcitol2Completed1
DB09208Pegloticase2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB12520Plozalizumab2Withdrawn1
DB01599Probucol2Completed1
DB00073Rituximab2Completed1
DB00658Sevelamer2Completed1
DB04991XL7842Completed1
DB06151Acetylcysteine2 / 3Completed1
DB01197Captopril2 / 3Completed1
DB00158Folic Acid2 / 3Completed1
DB01029Irbesartan2 / 3Completed1
DB00678Losartan2 / 3Terminated1
DB00806Pentoxifylline2 / 3Completed1
DB00421Spironolactone2 / 3Completed2
DB00437Allopurinol3Active Not Recruiting1
DB06199Atrasentan3Terminated1
DB00136Calcitriol3Recruiting1
DB08907Canagliflozin3Completed1
DB08907Canagliflozin3Recruiting1
DB00343Diltiazem3Withdrawn1
DB09038Empagliflozin3Recruiting1
DB01039Fenofibrate3Recruiting1
DB01039Fenofibrate3Unknown Status1
DB00722Lisinopril3Completed1
DB00678Losartan3Completed2
DB01115Nifedipine3Completed1
DB00275Olmesartan3Completed2
DB04951Pirfenidone3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00178Ramipril3Completed1
DB00641Simvastatin3Completed1
DB06271Sulodexide3Completed1
DB06271Sulodexide3Terminated1
DB00966Telmisartan3Completed1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid4Recruiting1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid4Unknown Status1
DB09026Aliskiren4Terminated1
DB00437Allopurinol4Completed1
DB00437Allopurinol4Terminated1
DB00770Alprostadil4Completed1
DB00381Amlodipine4Unknown Status1
DB00335Atenolol4Unknown Status1
DB11748Benfotiamine4Completed1
DB00136Calcitriol4Unknown Status1
DB00091Ciclosporin4Completed1
DB01166Cilostazol4Completed1
DB00575Clonidine4Unknown Status1
DB00758Clopidogrel4Unknown Status1
DB01285Corticotropin4Completed1
DB06292Dapagliflozin4Completed1
DB00590Doxazosin4Unknown Status1
DB00016Erythropoietin4Unknown Status1
DB01276Exenatide4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00695Furosemide4Unknown Status1
DB01120Gliclazide4Completed1
DB00999Hydrochlorothiazide4Unknown Status1
DB01309Insulin Glulisine4Completed1
DB00046Insulin Lispro4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01029Irbesartan4Unknown Status1
DB00722Lisinopril4Completed2
DB09265Lixisenatide4Completed1
DB00678Losartan4Completed2
DB09242Moxonidine4Unknown Status1
DB00401Nisoldipine4Completed1
DB00910Paricalcitol4Completed1
DB00806Pentoxifylline4Completed1
DB01132Pioglitazone4Completed1
DB01599Probucol4Completed1
DB00178Ramipril4Completed2
DB00178Ramipril4Unknown Status2
DB12163Sarpogrelate4Unknown Status1
DB00641Simvastatin4Unknown Status1
DB01390Sodium bicarbonate4Completed1
DB00421Spironolactone4Completed1
DB00421Spironolactone4Unknown Status1
DB06271Sulodexide4Terminated1
DB00864Tacrolimus4Completed1
DB00966Telmisartan4Completed3
DB00177Valsartan4Completed2
DB00177Valsartan4Terminated2
DB00437AllopurinolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00594AmilorideNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00482CelecoxibNot AvailableTerminated1
DB01394ColchicineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00584EnalaprilNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01276ExenatideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00158Folic AcidNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06655LiraglutideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00722LisinoprilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00678LosartanNot AvailableCompleted5
DB01017MinocyclineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB01132PioglitazoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00421SpironolactoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00384TriamtereneNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB14276TurmericNot AvailableCompleted1