|DB00668||Epinephrine||Epinephrine, also known as _adrenaline_, is a hormone and neurotransmitter and produced by the adrenal glands that can also be used as a drug due to its various important functions. Though it has long been used in the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, epinephrine in the auto-injector form (EpiPen) has been available since 1987 in the USA. Many new products/biosimilars and dosage routes have been approved under various names over the last several decades [L4355], [L4356], [L4358]. On August 16, 2018, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained approval to market its generic epinephrine auto-injector in 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg strengths [L4353]. Dosage delivery routes for epinephrine include intravenous, inhalation, nebulization, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection.
In general, the most common uses of parenteral epinephrine are to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid) reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens, and to prolong the action of infiltration anesthetics [F2136]. In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest [A37697], [A37699]. It can be used in severe cases of croup [L4824].|
|DB11587||Etafedrine||Etafedrine (INN) or ethylephedrine is a long-acting bronchodilator and has been an ingredient combined with other drugs in the brand names Nethaprin [A32757] and Dalmacol [L2568]. It was previously available as both the free base and as the hydrochloride salt manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis (now Sanofi) has been discontinued [L2563].
Ethylephedrine is be formed by alkylating ephedrine with ethyl iodide. The hydrochloride is be prepared by passing hydrogen chloride through a solution of ethylephedrine in diethyl ether [F6].
This belongs to the family of medications called _decongestants_. It acts by narrowing blood vessels in the nasal passages, helping to relieve nasal congestion [F6].|
|DB00332||Ipratropium||Ipratropium is a quaternary ammonium derivative of [atropine][A176957] that acts as an anticholinergic agent.[A176939] It is commonly administered through inhalation which allows producing a local effect without presenting a significant systemic absorption.[A176957]
Ipratropium as a therapeutic agent was developed by Boehringer Ingelheim and its first monotherapy product was FDA approved in 1986.[L5891] On the other hand, the combination product of ipratropium and [albuterol] was approved in 1996.[L5894]|
|DB01064||Isoprenaline||Isopropyl analog of epinephrine; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.|
|DB13139||Levosalbutamol||Levosalbutamol, or levalbuterol, is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
[Salbutamol] has been marketed as a racemic mixture, although beta2-agonist activity resides almost exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer. The enantioselective disposition of salbutamol and the possibility that (S)-salbutamol has adverse effects have led to the development of an enantiomerically pure (R)-salbutamol formulation known as levosalbutamol (levalbuterol).|
|DB00816||Orciprenaline||A beta-adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of asthma and bronchospasms. [PubChem]|
|DB01001||Salbutamol||Salbutamol is a short-acting, selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. It is 29 times more selective for beta2 receptors than beta1 receptors giving it higher specificity for pulmonary beta receptors versus beta1-adrenergic receptors located in the heart. Salbutamol is formulated as a racemic mixture of the R- and S-isomers. The R-isomer has 150 times greater affinity for the beta2-receptor than the S-isomer and the S-isomer has been associated with toxicity. This lead to the development of levalbuterol, the single R-isomer of salbutamol. However, the high cost of levalbuterol compared to salbutamol has deterred wide-spread use of this enantiomerically pure version of the drug. Salbutamol is generally used for acute episodes of bronchospasm caused by bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). It is also used prophylactically for exercise-induced asthma. [FDA Label], [A174379, A174400]|
|DB00871||Terbutaline||A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic. [PubChem]|