Bronchospasm

Also known as: Bronchospasms / Spasm bronchial / Bronchial Spasm / Bronchospasm NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00668EpinephrineEpinephrine, also known as _adrenaline_, is a hormone and neurotransmitter and produced by the adrenal glands that can also be used as a drug due to its various important functions. Though it has long been used in the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, epinephrine in the auto-injector form (EpiPen) has been available since 1987 in the USA. Many new products/biosimilars and dosage routes have been approved under various names over the last several decades [L4355], [L4356], [L4358]. On August 16, 2018, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained approval to market its generic epinephrine auto-injector in 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg strengths [L4353]. Dosage delivery routes for epinephrine include intravenous, inhalation, nebulization, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection. In general, the most common uses of parenteral epinephrine are to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid) reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens, and to prolong the action of infiltration anesthetics [F2136]. In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest [A37697], [A37699]. It can be used in severe cases of croup [L4824].
DB11587EtafedrineEtafedrine (INN) or ethylephedrine is a long-acting bronchodilator and has been an ingredient combined with other drugs in the brand names Nethaprin [A32757] and Dalmacol [L2568]. It was previously commercially available as both the free base and as the hydrochloride salt from Sanofi-Aventis (now Sanofi) but is now no longer marketed [L2563]. Ethylephedrine is be formed by alkylating ephedrine with ethyl iodide. The hydrochloride is be prepared by passing hydrogen chloride through a solution of ethylephedrine in diethyl ether [F6]. This belongs to the family of medications called _decongestants_. It acts by narrowing blood vessels in the nasal passages, helping to relieve nasal congestion [F6].
DB01064IsoprenalineIsopropyl analog of epinephrine; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
DB13139LevosalbutamolLevosalbutamol, also known as levalbuterol, is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). [Salbutamol] has been marketed as a racemic mixture, although beta2-agonist activity resides almost exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer. The enantioselective disposition of salbutamol and the possibility that (S)-salbutamol has adverse effects have led to the development of an enantiomerically pure (R)-salbutamol formulation known as levosalbutamol (levalbuterol).
DB00816OrciprenalineA beta-adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of asthma and bronchospasms. [PubChem]
DB01001SalbutamolSalbutamol is a short-acting, selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. It is 29 times more selective for beta2 receptors than beta1 receptors giving it higher specificity for pulmonary beta receptors versus beta1-adrenergic receptors located in the heart. Salbutamol is formulated as a racemic mixture of the R- and S-isomers. The R-isomer has 150 times greater affinity for the beta2-receptor than the S-isomer and the S-isomer has been associated with toxicity. This lead to the development of levalbuterol, the single R-isomer of salbutamol. However, the high cost of levalbuterol compared to salbutamol has deterred wide-spread use of this enantiomerically pure version of the drug. Salbutamol is generally used for acute episodes of bronchospasm caused by bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). It is also used prophylactically for exercise-induced asthma.
DB00871TerbutalineA selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic. [PubChem]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineTumor necrosis factortarget
DB00668EpinephrineCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00668EpinephrineMonoamine oxidaseenzyme
DB11587EtafedrineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alphatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineMitogen-activated protein kinase 1target
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit betatarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gammatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01064IsoprenalineCAMP phosphodiesterasetarget
DB01064IsoprenalineSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]target
DB13139LevosalbutamolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB13139LevosalbutamolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB13139LevosalbutamolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB13139LevosalbutamolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB13139LevosalbutamolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00816OrciprenalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01001SalbutamolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01001SalbutamolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01001SalbutamolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01001SalbutamolBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00871TerbutalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00871TerbutalineCholinesteraseenzyme
DB00871TerbutalineBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00871TerbutalineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00668Epinephrine1 / 2Completed1
DB00734Risperidone1 / 2Completed1
DB00668Epinephrine2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00043Omalizumab2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01001Salbutamol2Completed1
DB00813Fentanyl2 / 3Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine2 / 3Recruiting1
DB01001Salbutamol3Terminated1
DB00802AlfentanilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01238AripiprazoleNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00438CeftazidimeNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00369CidofovirNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00537CiprofloxacinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00363ClozapineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00829DiazepamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01320FosphenytoinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00502HaloperidolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01109HeparinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00327HydromorphoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01202LevetiracetamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB08815LurasidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00760MeropenemNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00959MethylprednisoloneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01618MolindoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00622NicardipineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00334OlanzapineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00198OseltamivirNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00312PentobarbitalNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00818PropofolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01224QuetiapineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00734RisperidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00373TimololNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00684TobramycinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00273TopiramateNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00313Valproic AcidNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00682WarfarinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00246ZiprasidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1