Osteoporosis

Also known as: Involutional osteoporosis without current pathological fracture / Osteoporosis, unspecified / Osteoporosis NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00630Alendronic acidAlendronic acid is a bisphosphonate that is used for the treatment of some forms of osteoperosis and Paget's disease[FDA Label][A959]. It functions by preventing resorption of bone[FDA Label][A959].
DB00286Conjugated estrogensThe conjugated estrogens are noncrystalline mixtures of purified female sex hormones obtained either by its isolation from the urine of pregnant mares or by synthetic generation from vegetal material. Both of these products are later conjugated to natrium sulfate by ester bonds in order to make them more water soluble.[L5605, T475] The conjugated estrogen product contains a mix of estrogen from which about 50% is represented by estrone sulfate followed by 25% of equilin sulfate, 15% of 17-alpha-dehydroequilenin sulfate, 3% of equilenin sulfate, 5% of 17-alpha and 17-beta-dihydroequilenin sulfate, 2% of 17-alpha-estradiolsulfate and 3% of 17-beta-estradiolsulfate. It also presents a large number of unidentified molecules with weak estrogenic activity as well as non-human molecules when it is obtained from pregnant mares urine.[T475] The conjugated estrogen mixture was approved for marketing in US in 1942 based on the efficacy against certain conditions. However, until 1986 official clinical trials were performed and this product was determined to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis.[T484] The currently approved product of conjugated estrogens was developed by Wyeth Ayerst and FDA approved in 2003.[L5608]
DB00710IbandronateIbandronate is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate in the same class as alendronate and risedronate. Ibandronate inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. All of the bisphosphonates prevent the breakdown of bone by bone cells called osteoclasts. In persons who are at high risk for osteoporosis, bisphosphonates not only result in increased amounts of bone and bone strength, they also reduce the risk of hip fractures and other bone fractures.
DB00481RaloxifeneRaloxifene is a second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that mediates anti-estrogenic effects on breast and uterine tissues, and estrogenic effects on bone, lipid metabolism, and blood coagulation.[A4979,T28] Exhibiting tissue-specific effects distinct from [estradiol], raloxifene is the first of the benzothiophene group of antiestrogens to be labelled a SERM.[A4977] Available in many countries worldwide, raloxifene was initially approved by the FDA in December, 1997 under the market name Evista® for the management and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and reduction in risk for invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or those who are at high risk for invasive breast cancer. However, it has a negligible effect on altering the development and progression of breast cancer itself.[label] The most common causes of osteoporosis include postmenopausal deficiency of estrogen and age-related deterioration in bone homeostasis. Due to the risk of bone fractures that may lead to morbidities and reduced quality of life, the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with the use of therapeutic agents in addition to concurrent therapies is critical. Due to the decline in estrogen levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), such as estradiol, has been used to ameliorate the condition. However, due to the off-target actions by HRT, newer non-hormonal agents such as raloxifene and [tamoxifen] have been developed to reduce adverse events through selective pharmacological actions on tissue-specific therapeutic targets.[T28] The main effects of raloxifene are to preserve the bone mineral density and decrease the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Compared to estrogen and tamoxifen, raloxifene was not associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer and it does not cause endometrial proliferation.[A716] Although rare, there was an increased risk of venous thromboembolism during clinical trials of postmenopausal women receiving raloxifene. In addition, a clinical study consisting of postmenopausal women with documented coronary heart disease or at increased risk for coronary events showed an increased risk for fatal stroke with raloxifene therapy compared to placebo.[label] It is strongly advised that the risk-benefit ratio is considered before starting raloxifene therapy in women at risk of thromboembolic disease or strokes, such as the prior history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, or cigarette smoking.[label]
DB00884Risedronic acidAlendronic acid is a bisphosphonate that is used for the treatment of some forms of osteoperosis and Paget's disease[FDA Label][A959]. It functions by preventing resorption of bone[FDA Label][A959].
DB11866RomosozumabRomosozumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of osteoperosis in postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture and patients who have failed in other treatments or are intolerant to other osteoperosis therapies[FDA Label]. Romosozumab prevents bone resorption and induces the formation of bone though it is associated with an increased risk of cardiac death, heart attack, and stroke in one study[L5921,L5924]. In a comparison study of post menopausal women with osteoporosis and a past fracture, romosozumab for 12 months followed by alendronic acid for 12 months was superior to alendronic acid alone for 24 months[A177071]. Romosozumab also demonstrates a faster and larger increase in bone density than teriparatide[A177050]. Romosozumab is marketed in the United States by Amgen under the brand name Evinity[L5921]. Romosozumab was granted FDA approval on April 9,2019[L5921].
DB00017Salmon CalcitoninSynthetic peptide, 32 residues long formulated as a nasal spray.
DB06285TeriparatideTeriparatide (recombinant human parathyroid hormone) is a potent anabolic agent used in the treatment of osteoporosis. It is manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company.
DB00399Zoledronic acidZoledronate (zoledronic acid, marketed by Novartis under the trade names Zometa and Reclast) is a bisphosphonate. Zometa is used to prevent skeletal fractures in patients with cancers such as multiple myeloma and prostate cancer. It can also be used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy and can be helpful for treating pain from bone metastases. An annual dose of Zoledronate may also prevent recurring fractures in patients with a previous hip fracture. Zoledronate is a single 5 mg infusion for the treatment of Paget's disease of bone. In 2007, the FDA also approved Reclast for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00630Alendronic acidFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00630Alendronic acidTyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 4target
DB00630Alendronic acidReceptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase Starget
DB00630Alendronic acidReceptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase epsilontarget
DB00630Alendronic acidV-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit Atarget
DB00630Alendronic acidHydroxylapatitetarget
DB00286Conjugated estrogensEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 10transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensOrganic solute transporter subunit alphatransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensOrganic solute transporter subunit betatransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSerum albumincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB00710IbandronateFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00710IbandronateHydroxylapatitetarget
DB00481RaloxifeneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00481RaloxifeneEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB00481RaloxifeneAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00481RaloxifeneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00481RaloxifeneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00481RaloxifeneCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB00481RaloxifeneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00481RaloxifeneSerpin B9target
DB00481RaloxifeneTrefoil factor 1target
DB00481RaloxifeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00481RaloxifeneSerum albumincarrier
DB00481RaloxifeneAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00481RaloxifeneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00481RaloxifeneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00481RaloxifeneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00481RaloxifeneATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00481RaloxifeneCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00481RaloxifeneCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00481RaloxifeneMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00481RaloxifeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00481RaloxifeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00884Risedronic acidFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00884Risedronic acidHydroxylapatitetarget
DB00884Risedronic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB11866RomosozumabSclerostintarget
DB00017Salmon CalcitoninCalcitonin receptortarget
DB06285TeriparatideParathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptortarget
DB00399Zoledronic acidFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00399Zoledronic acidGeranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00399Zoledronic acidHydroxylapatitetarget
DB00399Zoledronic acidMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB01373Calcium0Recruiting1
DB00798Gentamicin0Completed1
DB00760Meropenem0Completed1
DB05829Parathyroid hormone0Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride0Recruiting1
DB00512Vancomycin0Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen1Completed1
DB00630Alendronic acid1Completed3
DB01076Atorvastatin1Completed1
DB06401Bazedoxifene1Completed2
DB00169Cholecalciferol1Completed2
DB06643Denosumab1Completed2
DB06643Denosumab1Terminated1
DB05295Eldecalcitol1Recruiting1
DB00153Ergocalciferol1Completed1
DB00005Etanercept1Terminated1
DB01050Ibuprofen1Completed1
DB01378Magnesium cation1Completed1
DB06548Minodronic acid1Completed2
DB06670Odanacatib1Completed5
DB06670Odanacatib1Terminated1
DB05829Parathyroid hormone1Completed1
DB05829Parathyroid hormone1Withdrawn1
DB00481Raloxifene1Recruiting1
DB06367Relacatib1Completed1
DB00884Risedronic acid1Completed2
DB11866Romosozumab1Completed2
DB05255Ronacaleret1Completed1
DB05995Sotatercept1Completed1
DB06285Teriparatide1Completed1
DB06285Teriparatide1Unknown Status1
DB11094Vitamin D1Completed1
DB12276Apomine1 / 2Terminated1
DB06643Denosumab1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00282Pamidronic acid1 / 2Terminated1
DB05084Abaloparatide2Completed1
DB00630Alendronic acid2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00630Alendronic acid2Completed8
DB00630Alendronic acid2Recruiting2
DB00630Alendronic acid2Suspended1
DB00630Alendronic acid2Terminated1
DB00513Aminocaproic Acid2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01217Anastrozole2Completed1
DB06249Arzoxifene2Completed1
DB12239Balicatib2Completed2
DB12560Blosozumab2Completed1
DB01373Calcium2Completed2
DB01373Calcium2Recruiting2
DB06724Calcium Carbonate2Completed2
DB11348Calcium Phosphate2Completed1
DB00169Cholecalciferol2Completed1
DB00169Cholecalciferol2Recruiting1
DB06643Denosumab2Active Not Recruiting1
DB06643Denosumab2Completed2
DB06643Denosumab2Recruiting1
DB00153Ergocalciferol2Completed1
DB00153Ergocalciferol2Recruiting3
DB00783Estradiol2Completed1
DB00783Estradiol2Terminated1
DB01645Genistein2Completed1
DB10344Ginger2Recruiting1
DB00710Ibandronate2Recruiting1
DB00125L-Arginine2Completed1
DB00149L-Leucine2Active Not Recruiting1
DB06202Lasofoxifene2Completed1
DB01006Letrozole2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00367Levonorgestrel2Completed1
DB11620Neridronic Acid2Completed1
DB06670Odanacatib2Completed2
DB00282Pamidronic acid2Recruiting1
DB05829Parathyroid hormone2Completed7
DB00339Pyrazinamide2Active Not Recruiting1
DB05255Ronacaleret2Terminated1
DB01098Rosuvastatin2Recruiting1
DB00017Salmon Calcitonin2Completed1
DB00641Simvastatin2Recruiting1
DB00052Somatotropin2Completed1
DB05732Strontium malonate2Completed1
DB06285Teriparatide2Active Not Recruiting2
DB06285Teriparatide2Completed11
DB06285Teriparatide2Terminated1
DB06285Teriparatide2Unknown Status1
DB06285Teriparatide2Withdrawn1
DB00624Testosterone2Completed1
DB00624Testosterone2Suspended1
DB00624Testosterone2Unknown Status1
DB11094Vitamin D2Completed1
DB11094Vitamin D2Recruiting3
DB00399Zoledronic acid2Active Not Recruiting3
DB00399Zoledronic acid2Completed3
DB00399Zoledronic acid2Recruiting1
DB00399Zoledronic acid2Unknown Status1
DB00399Zoledronic acid2Withdrawn1
DB00630Alendronic acid2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00710Ibandronate2 / 3Completed1
DB06548Minodronic acid2 / 3Completed1
DB05829Parathyroid hormone2 / 3Completed1
DB05581Teriparatide2 / 3Completed1
DB06285Teriparatide2 / 3Completed1
DB00399Zoledronic acid2 / 3Terminated1
DB05084Abaloparatide3Completed1
DB05084Abaloparatide3Recruiting2
DB00630Alendronic acid3Completed12
DB00630Alendronic acid3Terminated4
DB00630Alendronic acid3Unknown Status2
DB00630Alendronic acid3Withdrawn1
DB01436Alfacalcidol3Completed1
DB06401Bazedoxifene3Completed3
DB00136Calcitriol3Completed1
DB01373Calcium3Completed6
DB06724Calcium Carbonate3Completed1
DB11093Calcium Citrate3Completed1
DB11126Calcium gluconate3Active Not Recruiting1
DB11126Calcium gluconate3Completed1
DB00169Cholecalciferol3Completed3
DB00286Conjugated estrogens3Completed3
DB06643Denosumab3Completed11
DB06643Denosumab3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06643Denosumab3Recruiting2
DB05295Eldecalcitol3Completed1
DB00153Ergocalciferol3Completed3
DB00783Estradiol3Recruiting1
DB00783Estradiol3Terminated1
DB00014Goserelin3Recruiting1
DB00710Ibandronate3Completed1
DB06202Lasofoxifene3Completed2
DB01006Letrozole3Completed3
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate3Completed3
DB14049Nitrate3Completed1
DB00727Nitroglycerin3Completed1
DB06670Odanacatib3Completed2
DB06670Odanacatib3Terminated1
DB06670Odanacatib3Withdrawn1
DB05829Parathyroid hormone3Completed6
DB00082Pegvisomant3Unknown Status1
DB01022Phylloquinone3Completed1
DB09528Phylloquinone3Completed1
DB00396Progesterone3Completed1
DB00481Raloxifene3Completed2
DB00884Risedronic acid3Completed10
DB00884Risedronic acid3Withdrawn1
DB00017Salmon Calcitonin3Completed1
DB06285Teriparatide3Completed13
DB09070Tibolone3Completed1
DB00539Toremifene3Completed1
DB11094Vitamin D3Completed3
DB00399Zoledronic acid3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00399Zoledronic acid3Completed17
DB00399Zoledronic acid3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00399Zoledronic acid3Terminated1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Completed1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid4Recruiting1
DB00630Alendronic acid4Completed13
DB00630Alendronic acid4Recruiting2
DB01436Alfacalcidol4Unknown Status1
DB00381Amlodipine4Recruiting1
DB01076Atorvastatin4Completed1
DB01222Budesonide4Withdrawn1
DB00136Calcitriol4Unknown Status1
DB01373Calcium4Completed1
DB00564Carbamazepine4Completed1
DB00169Cholecalciferol4Completed1
DB00169Cholecalciferol4Unknown Status1
DB01012Cinacalcet4Completed1
DB00618Demeclocycline4Completed1
DB06643Denosumab4Completed2
DB06643Denosumab4Recruiting7
DB00879Emtricitabine4Recruiting1
DB00153Ergocalciferol4Completed4
DB00736Esomeprazole4Completed1
DB00783Estradiol4Completed2
DB01077Etidronic acid4Completed1
DB12625Evogliptin4Recruiting1
DB01095Fluvastatin4Completed1
DB01120Gliclazide4Completed1
DB00999Hydrochlorothiazide4Recruiting1
DB00710Ibandronate4Completed4
DB00710Ibandronate4Terminated1
DB00125L-Arginine4Completed1
DB00451Levothyroxine4Completed1
DB08882Linagliptin4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06655Liraglutide4Completed1
DB12148Menatetrenone4Completed1
DB00264Metoprolol4Recruiting1
DB00788Naproxen4Recruiting1
DB00275Olmesartan4Recruiting1
DB00338Omeprazole4Completed1
DB00282Pamidronic acid4Completed1
DB05829Parathyroid hormone4Completed2
DB01132Pioglitazone4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00481Raloxifene4Completed4
DB00481Raloxifene4Recruiting1
DB06817Raltegravir4Completed1
DB00863Ranitidine4Recruiting1
DB00884Risedronic acid4Completed8
DB00884Risedronic acid4Terminated2
DB00884Risedronic acid4Unknown Status1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Completed1
DB09267Strontium ranelate4Completed2
DB09299Tenofovir alafenamide4Recruiting1
DB00300Tenofovir disoproxil4Recruiting1
DB06285Teriparatide4Completed12
DB06285Teriparatide4Terminated1
DB00624Testosterone4Completed1
DB00759Tetracycline4Completed1
DB09070Tibolone4Completed1
DB00273Topiramate4Completed1
DB00313Valproic Acid4Completed1
DB00177Valsartan4Completed1
DB04876Vildagliptin4Completed1
DB11094Vitamin D4Completed4
DB00399Zoledronic acid4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00399Zoledronic acid4Completed4
DB00399Zoledronic acid4Recruiting1
DB00630Alendronic acidNot AvailableCompleted4
DB00630Alendronic acidNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB00630Alendronic acidNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00630Alendronic acidNot AvailableTerminated2
DB01436AlfacalcidolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01076AtorvastatinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06401BazedoxifeneNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01128BicalutamideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06724Calcium CarbonateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06724Calcium CarbonateNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00169CholecalciferolNot AvailableCompleted3
DB00720Clodronic acidNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00286Conjugated estrogensNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB01262DecitabineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB08826DeferiproneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00746DeferoxamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06643DenosumabNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB06643DenosumabNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06643DenosumabNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB05295EldecalcitolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00153ErgocalciferolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00783EstradiolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01077Etidronic acidNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB00014GoserelinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00710IbandronateNot AvailableCompleted3
DB00710IbandronateNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00125L-ArginineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB04465LactoseNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01006LetrozoleNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01277MecaserminNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01065MelatoninNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00282Pamidronic acidNot AvailableCompleted1
DB05829Parathyroid hormoneNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00082PegvisomantNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01022PhylloquinoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09528PhylloquinoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00635PrednisoneNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00481RaloxifeneNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00884Risedronic acidNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00884Risedronic acidNot AvailableCompleted3
DB00884Risedronic acidNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB00203SildenafilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06285TeriparatideNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting2
DB06285TeriparatideNot AvailableCompleted5
DB06285TeriparatideNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB06285TeriparatideNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB06285TeriparatideNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11094Vitamin DNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00399Zoledronic acidNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00399Zoledronic acidNot AvailableCompleted5
DB00399Zoledronic acidNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB00399Zoledronic acidNot AvailableUnknown Status1