Cancer treatment

Also known as: Chemotherapy / Chemotherapies / Chemotherapy NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00437AllopurinolGout is a disease that occurs by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) in body tissues, especially around joints [A175942]. This disease has been well-documented in historical medical records and appears in the biographies of several prominent, historically recognized individuals [A175942]. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitor that is considered to be one of the most effective drugs used to decrease urate levels and is frequently used in the treatment of chronic gout [A36705]. It was initially approved by the FDA in 1966 [L5674] and is now formulated by several manufacturers [L5677].
DB00470DronabinolDronabinol (marketed as Marinol) is a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis (marijuana). THC demonstrates its effects through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors, which results in the well-known effects of smoking cannabis such as increased appetite, reduced pain, and changes in emotional and cognitive processes. Due to its evidence as an appetite stimulant and an anti-nauseant, Dronabinol is approved for use in anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS and for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional antiemetic treatments [FDA Label]. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two most abundant cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant, both of which are pharmacologically active due to their interaction with cannabinoid receptors that are found throughout the body [A32830]. While both CBD and THC are used for medicinal purposes, they have different receptor activity, function, and physiological effects. If not provided in their activated form (such as through synthetic forms like Dronabinol or [DB00486]), THC and CBD are obtained through conversion from their precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), through decarboxylation reactions. This can be achieved through heating, smoking, vaporization, or baking of dried unfertilized female cannabis flowers. From a pharmacological perspective, Cannabis' diverse receptor profile explains its potential application for such a wide variety of medical conditions. Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, of which 61 are considered cannabinoids, a class of compounds that act upon endogenous cannabinoid receptors of the body [A32584]. The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system (via the Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2) and plays a role in many physiological processes such as inflammation, cardiovascular function, learning, pain, memory, stress and emotional regulation, and the sleep/wake cycle among many others [A32824]. CB1 receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous system, and are most abundant in the hippocampus and amygdala, which are the areas of the brain responsible for short-term memory storage and emotional regulation. CB2 receptors are mainly located in the peripheral nervous system and can be found on lymphoid tissue where they are involved in regulation of immune function [A32676].
DB00016ErythropoietinErythropoietin (EPO) is a growth factor produced in the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells. It works by promoting the division and differentiation of committed erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow [FDA Label]. Epoetin alfa (Epoge) was developed by Amgen Inc. in 1983 as the first rhEPO commercialized in the United States, followed by other alfa and beta formulations. Epoetin alfa is a 165-amino acid erythropoiesis-stimulating glycoprotein produced in cell culture using recombinant DNA technology and is used for the treatment of patients with anemia associated with various clinical conditions, such as chronic renal failure, antiviral drug therapy, chemotherapy, or a high risk for perioperative blood loss from surgical procedures [FDA Label]. It has a molecular weight of approximately 30,400 daltons and is produced by mammalian cells into which the human erythropoietin gene has been introduced. The product contains the identical amino acid sequence of isolated natural erythropoietin and has the same biological activity as the endogenous erythropoietin. Epoetin alfa biosimilar, such as Retacrit (epoetin alfa-epbx or epoetin zeta), has been formulated to allow more access to treatment options for patients in the market [L2784]. The biosimilar is approved by the FDA and EMA as a safe, effective and affordable biological product and displays equivalent clinical efficacy, potency, and purity to the reference product [A7504]. Epoetin alfa formulations can be administered intravenously or subcutaneously.
DB00070Hyaluronidase (ovine)Highly purified sheep hyaluronidase for administration by injection into the vitreous of the eye.
DB09517Sodium ferric gluconate complexSodium ferric gluconate complex is an iron replacement product for treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The stable macromolecular complex is negatively charged at alkaline pH with an apparent molecular weight of 289,000 – 440,000 daltons on gel chromatography. It is composed of iron (III) oxide hydrate directly bonded to sucrose with a chelating gluconate function in a molar ratio of two iron molecules to one gluconate. It is used in adult and in pediatric patients over the age of 6 years with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving hemodialysis and receiving supplemental epoetin therapy.
DB00364SucralfateSucralfate is a medication that is widely used to prevent and treat a number of diseases in the gastrointestinal tract such as duodenal ulcers [FDA label], gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, stress ulcer, in addition to dyspepsia [A177655]. It is considered a _cytoprotective agent_, protecting cells in the gastrointestinal tract from damage caused by agents such as gastric acid, bile salts, alcohol, and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), among other substances [A177655, F4519]. Sucralfate has been shown to be a well-tolerated and safe drug. It is sold under many brands and is available in both tablet and suspension forms. It was approved by the FDA 1982 in tablet form, and in 1994 for the suspension form [L6073, L6076].
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateTestosterone undecanoate is the ester prodrug of testosterone and has a midchain fatty acid at the 17Beta position. [A176753] It is available as an intramuscular injection and as an oral capsule, and is indicated for treatment of testosterone deficiency. [F4247][FDA Label] It should be noted that testosterone undecanoate is only indicated for treatment of hypogonadal conditions with structural or genetic etiologies and should not be used to manage "age-related hypogonadism". [FDA Label]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00437AllopurinolXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidasetarget
DB00437AllopurinolSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00437AllopurinolSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00437AllopurinolAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00437AllopurinolXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
DB00437AllopurinolATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00437AllopurinolSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00470DronabinolCannabinoid receptor 1target
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCannabinoid receptor 2target
DB00470DronabinolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00470DronabinolATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00470DronabinolProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00016ErythropoietinErythropoietin receptortarget
DB00070Hyaluronidase (ovine)Transforming growth factor beta-1target
DB00070Hyaluronidase (ovine)Serum albumincarrier
DB00070Hyaluronidase (ovine)Hyaluronantarget
DB09517Sodium ferric gluconate complexFerritin light chaintarget
DB09517Sodium ferric gluconate complexHemoglobin subunit alphatarget
DB09517Sodium ferric gluconate complexHemoglobin subunit betatarget
DB00364SucralfatePro-epidermal growth factortarget
DB00364SucralfateFibroblast growth factor 2target
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateAndrogen receptortarget
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Aenzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrialenzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSerum albumincarrier
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 2A13enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 3A43enzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB13946Testosterone undecanoate3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenaseenzyme
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateMultidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateCytochrome P450 4B1enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB01101Capecitabine1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB06772Cabazitaxel2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01248Docetaxel2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB03147Flavin adenine dinucleotide2Unknown Status1
DB01073Fludarabine2Unknown Status1
DB00282Pamidronic acid2Terminated1
DB00531Cyclophosphamide2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01248Docetaxel2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00445Epirubicin2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00014Goserelin2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01006Letrozole2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00675Tamoxifen2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11242Gelatin3Unknown Status1
DB00159Icosapent3Unknown Status1
DB00012Darbepoetin alfa4Completed1
DB00650LeucovorinNot AvailableCompleted1