Partial onset seizure Epilepsy

Also known as: Partial Onset Seizures / Partial-onset Seizure / Partial seizures / Partial-onset Seizures / Partial onset seizure / Focal fits / Convulsions local / Seizures, Focal / Local seizure / Focal seizures / Partial seizures NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB05541BrivaracetamBrivaracetam is a racetam derivative of levetiracetam used in the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Brivaracetam binds SV2A with 20 times higher affinity than levetiracetam [A19184]. It is available under the brand name Briviact made by UCB. Briviact received FDA approval on February 19, 2016 [L760].
DB00564CarbamazepineCarbamazepine, also known as Tegretol, is an anticonvulsant drug and analgesic drug used to control seizures and to treat pain resulting from trigeminal neuralgia. It was initially approved by the FDA in 1965.[A180301] Aside from the above uses, this drug is also given to control the symptoms of bipolar 1.[L1335] Interestingly, carbamazepine was the first anticonvulsant used to treat individuals with bipolar disorder.[A180319]
DB00628Clorazepic acidA water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.
DB09119Eslicarbazepine acetateEslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is an anticonvulsant medication approved for use in Europe, the United States and Canada as an adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures that are not adequately controlled with conventional therapy. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a prodrug that is rapidly converted to eslicarbazepine, the primary active metabolite in the body. Eslicarbazepine's mechanism of action is not well understood, but it is known that it does exert anticonvulsant activity by inhibiting repeated neuronal firing and stabilizing the inactivated state of voltage-gated sodium channels, thus preventing their return to the activated state during which seizure activity can occur. Eslicarbazepine acetate is marketed as Aptiom in North America and Zebinix or Exalief in Europe. It is available in 200, 400, 600, or 800mg tablets that are taken once daily, with or without food. Eslicarbazepine acetate is associated with numerous side effects including dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, aphasia, lack of concentration, psychomotor retardation, speech disturbances, ataxia, depression and hyponatremia. It is recommended that patients taking eslicarbazepine acetate be monitored for suicidality.
DB00996GabapentinGabapentin (brand name Neurontin) is a medication originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy. Presently, gabapentin is widely used to relieve pain, especially neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is well tolerated in most patients, has a relatively mild side-effect profile, and passes through the body unmetabolized.
DB06218LacosamideLacosamide is a functionalized amino acid that has activity in the maximal electroshock seizure test, and is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures and diabetic neuropathic pain. Recent studies indicate that Lacosamide only affects those neurons which are depolarized or active for long periods of time, typical of neurons at the focus of an epileptic seizure, as opposed to other antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine or lamotrigine which slow the recovery from inactivation and reduce the ability of neurons to fire action potentials.
DB00555LamotrigineLamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug belonging in the phenyltriazine class used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. For epilepsy it is used to treat partial seizures, primary and secondary tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Lamotrigine also acts as a mood stabilizer. It is the first medication since lithium granted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the maintenance treatment of bipolar type I. In the US, lamotrigine is available as oral tablets under the market name Lamictal. Chemically unrelated to other anticonvulsants, lamotrigine has relatively few side-effects and does not require blood monitoring. While lamotrigine is primarily indicated for epilepsy and bipolar disorders, there is evidence that it could have some clinical efficacy in some neuropathic pain states. Lamotrigine is also used as an off-label drug in treating other neurologic and psychiatric pathologies like borderline personality disorder [A31737]. The exact mechanism of action of lamotrigine is not fully elucidated, as it may have multiple cellular actions that contribute to its broad clinical efficacy.
DB01202LevetiracetamLevetiracetam is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy. Levetiracetam may selectively prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing and propagation of seizure activity. Levetiracetam binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, which is thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle exocytosis. Although the molecular significance of levetiracetam binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is not understood, levetiracetam and related analogs showed a rank order of affinity for SV2A which correlated with the potency of their antiseizure activity in audiogenic seizure-prone mice.
DB09543Methyl salicylateMethyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen or wintergreen oil) is an organic ester naturally produced by many species of plants, particularly wintergreens. The compound was first extracted and isolated from plant species Gaultheria procumbens in 1843. It can be manufactured synthetically and it used as a fragrance, in foods, beverages, and liniments. It forms a colorless to yellow or reddish liquid and exhibits a characteristic odor and taste of wintergreen. For acute joint and muscular pain, methyl salicylate is used as a rubefacient and analgesic in deep heating liniments. It is used as a flavoring agent in chewing gums and mints in small concentrations and added as antiseptic in mouthwash solutions.
DB00776OxcarbazepineOxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant agent generally used in the treatment of partial seizures in children and adults with epilepsy. It is a structural derivative of [carbamazepine], with an extra oxygen atom to the benzylcarboxamide group. The presence of an extra oxygen atom in the structure reduces the susceptibility of the drug to hepatic metabolism, leading to prolonged pharmacological action or half life of the drug. In addition, the structural modification reduces the drug's potential to cause serious anemias often seen with carbamazepine. The mechanism of action of oxcarbazepine is similar to that of carbamazepine, which involves the inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels.
DB08883PerampanelPerampanel is a noncompetitive AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist. It is marketed under the name Fycompa™ and is indicated as an adjunct in patients over 12 years old for the treatment of partial-onset seizures that may or may not occur with generalized seizures. The FDA label includes an important black-boxed warning of serious or life-threatening behavioral and psychiatric reactions in patients taking Fycompa™.
DB01174PhenobarbitalA barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
DB00230PregabalinPregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain, epilepsy and generalized anxiety disorder.[A31161] Although as per the FDA Label the mechanism of action has not been definitively defined, there is evidence that pregabalin achieves antihyperalgesic activity by binding to the α2δ subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channels [A31162]. Pregabalin is marketed by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica and Lyrica Cr (extended release).[L1006][FDA Label] It may have dependence liability if misused but the risk appears to be highest in patients with current or past substance use disorders [A31161].
DB00906TiagabineTiagabine is an anti-convulsive medication. It is also used in the treatment for panic disorder as are a few other anticonvulsants. Though the exact mechanism by which tiagabine exerts its effect on the human body is unknown, it does appear to operate as a selective GABA reuptake inhibitor.
DB00273TopiramateTopiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide with some activity against carbonic anhydrase.[A175225] It was conceived as part of the efforts to generate analogs of fructose-1,6-diphosphate to block gluconeogenesis in which topiramate was a synthetic intermediate. Analyzing its similarity to acetazolamide, researchers decided to study its capability as an anticonvulsant agent where was shown to be highly active against maximal electroshock seizure and to present a long duration of action.[A175249] Structurally, topiramate does not resemble a normal therapeutic agent as it presents a very high concentration of oxygen. The oxygen atoms in the topiramate molecule are expected to function as acceptors for hydrogen-bond formation while its amide group serves as an important hydrogen donor.[A175249] Topiramate has been approved in Europe since 2003, in the UK in 1995[A175243] and in the US since 2004. This drug has been approved for a number of conditions and in 2014 it was approved for the prevention of migraine in children.[A175231]
DB01080VigabatrinAn analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid, vigabatrin is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed). Off-label uses include treatment of cocaine dependence.
DB00909ZonisamideZonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. Zonisamide may be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor although this is not one of the primary mechanisms of action. Zonisamide may act by blocking repetitive firing of voltage-gated sodium channels leading to a reduction of T-type calcium channel currents, or by binding allosterically to GABA receptors. This latter action may inhibit the uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA while enhancing the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB05541BrivaracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB05541BrivaracetamSodium channel proteintarget
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineVoltage gated sodium channeltarget
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineRalA-binding protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00564CarbamazepineNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme
DB00628Clorazepic acidTranslocator proteintarget
DB00628Clorazepic acidCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00628Clorazepic acidGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB09119Eslicarbazepine acetateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB09119Eslicarbazepine acetateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09119Eslicarbazepine acetateP2X purinoceptor 4target
DB09119Eslicarbazepine acetateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00996GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB00996GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
DB00996GabapentinNMDA receptortarget
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2target
DB00996GabapentinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineDihydrofolate reductaseenzyme
DB00555Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00555LamotrigineVoltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Etarget
DB00555LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00555LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A2atarget
DB00555LamotrigineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00555LamotrigineGABA-A receptor (benzodiazepine site)target
DB00555LamotrigineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB00555Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB01202LevetiracetamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB01202LevetiracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineSerum albumincarrier
DB00776OxcarbazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB08883PerampanelGlutamate receptor 1target
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalBile salt export pumptransporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01174PhenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB01174PhenobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB01174PhenobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 4A11enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 4B1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalNMDA receptortarget
DB01174PhenobarbitalNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB01174PhenobarbitalUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00230PregabalinExcitatory amino acid transporter 3transporter
DB00230PregabalinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00230PregabalinLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1transporter
DB00906TiagabineSodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1target
DB00906TiagabineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00906TiagabineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00273TopiramateSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01080Vigabatrin4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB01080VigabatrinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB01080VigabatrinProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1transporter
DB01080VigabatrinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00909ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB00909ZonisamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00909ZonisamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrialtarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrialtarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 6target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 7target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related proteintarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 9target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 10target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 11target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 12target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 13target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 14target
DB00909ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
DB00909ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 11 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-2target
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-3target
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-4target
DB00909ZonisamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Atarget
DB00909ZonisamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00776Oxcarbazepine2 / 3Active Not Recruiting1
DB06218Lacosamide3Active Not Recruiting1
DB08883Perampanel3Active Not Recruiting2
DB00313Valproic Acid3Completed1
DB09119Eslicarbazepine acetateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB08883PerampanelNot AvailableAvailable1
DB08883PerampanelNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00909ZonisamideNot AvailableCompleted1